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« This Sign in the Text appended to a Name indicates that 
farther information relating to the subject is to be found in the 
Index and Dibbctobt at the end of the Book. 














































. MOHR. 


. TRt^NER. 

. intfBNER. 
























. VIAL. 







. QUARR^. 





Spain cmd Portugal, 

















. ayne.— schburing.— m&ra. 
. lantuAjoul. 

. VIBR. — ^VELOPPi. 

















Bussia, Sweden, Denma/rk, cmd Norway, 





Malta, Ionian Itlandg. Constantmople, 


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The development of the tourist traffic in recent years has wrought 
such great changes in communications by land and water and, 
generally, in facilities for visiting every part of Norway, a 
country of unequalled attraction in Europe, that it has been 
found necessary to re- write and re-construct almost the entire 

The volume has been written with a view to the satisfaction 
of the general requirements of British and American travellers, 
although a leaning will be observed towards the special wants 
of sportsmen, the pioneers, in Norway, of the now ubiquitous 
tourist. Mountaineers, pedestrians, and cyclists^ will also, it 
is hoped, find in it sufficient indications for the realisation of 
their several projects, and must, for any more minute details 
they may require, be referred to the last (1891) edition of the 
" Keisehaandbog over Norge," by Dr. Yngvar Nielsen (Professor 
of Geography at the University of Christiania), from which much 
information has been derived for the purposes of this Guide. 

The compiler has also to acknowledge with gratitude, amongst 
many other kind and generous contributions, the materials 

* The portion oompHed especially for the convenience of Oydists, together 
with a Grammar, Vocabulary, tfeo., has been printed separately and inserted 
loose in a pocket at the end of the book. 

[6] Preface. 

supplied, in respect of " Angling," by Mr. A. Landmark (Inspector 

of Fresh-water Fisheries in Norway), and by Sir H. Pottinger, 

Bart., in regard to " Shooting." 

The geographical and other scientific sketches have, to some 

extent, been based on the accurate description of Norway given 

by Mr. Job. Dyring, in his " Kongeriget Norge," published in 



H.B.M. Consul-General for Norway. 
Chbibtiania : Jime 1892. 



Table ot Monet Values, Bbztisb and Nobweoian . first page of book 
Pbefaoe ••••••••••••[5] 

List ot Maps and Flans [8] 

List ot I^utes .••;•••.••• [9] 

L Histobioal Notice • • . [11] 

II. GOYEBNMBNT, (&0 [20] 

III. Geogbaphy, Geology, Minebaloqy, Olihate, Botany, Zoology [27] 

rv. Statistics • • • [45] 

y. Language, Litebatube, and Abt • [50] 

VI. Measubes, Weights, and CSoins, compabed with Bbitish . . [53] 

VII. Mails and Postages; Telbgbaph and Telephone . . . [55] 

VIII. Spobt: Angling and SnooTiNa • . [56] 

IX. Seasons tob Tbavel [82] 

X. Modes ot Tbayelling : Steaiiship and Bailway Fabes, Land 

AND Wateb Posting, Yachting, &o [84] 

Table ot Steamship and Railway Fabes • • • • [84*] 
Table ot Land and Wateb Posting [85*] 

XI. Hints to Tbatbllebs: Hotels, Inns,:Clothing, Requisites, &c. [93] 
Xn. Skeleton Routes and Access to Nobway . • • • [97] 

iOBWAY * • • • * ^ • 

% Gbamacab, Vocabulaby, and > 

NOES • «« • • '• * J 

Cycling Routes in Norway ....... ... 

I in pocket at 
NoBWEGiAN Alphabet, Gbamacab, Vocabulaby, and > /iL m/7 

Sbbyiceablb Sentences 


Seotiok I. 


Boate Page 

,1. To ChriBtiania, vid Chris- 

2. To pliriBtiaiiiafrom Copen- 

hagen or Gothenburg, vid 
' Frederikshaldj Frederik^ 
stad, and Sarpsborg, by 
rail 24 

3. Stockholm to ChriBtianift, 

vid Charlottenberg and 
' Ebng8vinger\ by rail .28 

4. Ohristiania- to Skien, vid 

Drammen, Hobnestrand, 
Tonsberg, Sandefjord, 
Laurvik, and Forsgrulid, ' 

• with branch to Eorteny 

by rail .... 29 

5. SkLen to Odde (Hardatfger) 
' and Bergen, vid Tele- 

marken . ..... 36 

6. Ohristiania to XongBberg, 

vid Drammen and Houg- 
simd, by rail ; and to the 
. Sjnkai^oB apd Hitterdal, 
by road and str. . • . 42 

7. ChriBtiania to SandBQord, 

• vid Hcmgsv/nd and HGne- 

fos, by rail ... 46 
.8. ChriBtiania to Bergen, vid 


Bandsfjord, Valders, the 
Billefjeld, and .LcBrdaX- 
s^eM- (Sogne fjord), by 
rail, str., and road . 
9. ChriBtiania to Bergen, vid 
Krdderen^ HalUngdal, and 
LsBrdalsoren, by rail, str., 
and road .... 

10. ChriBtiania to Bergen, vid 
' Lake Spirillen, Valders, 

and LflBrdalsdren, by rail, 
str., and road . . 

11. The Jotnnheim . 

12. ChriBtianiis to Kolde, vid 

IiakeMjdsen, Oudbrcmds- 
ddlt aadBomsdal, by rail, 
str., and road . 

13. Ohristiania to Trondhjem, 

through Gudbranc^al 
and over the Dovrefjeld, 
by rail, str., and road 

14. Ohristiania to Trondhjem, 

by rail .... 

15. ChriBtiania to Christian- 

sand, vid intermediate 
ports, by sir. . 

16. Arendal, or Tvedestrand, 
. to Telemarken, by road • 









Section n. 

Route Tuge 

17. Christiansand .to .Telev 

marken, through Ssaters- 
dalen, by road . . 92 

18. Christiansand to Eger- 

snnd and StaTanger, vid 
Mandal, Farsund, and 
Flekkef jord, by str. . • 97 

Route Page 

19. Egertnnd to Stayaager, 

by rail .... 99 

20. Stavanger to Bergen, vid 

Haiugestmd, by str. . . 102 

21. StaTanger to Odde (Har- 

danger) vid Sand (Suldal) 
andBdldal,bystr.androad 103 

List of Routes. 


Route Page 

22. Oreat Britain to Bergen, 

by sea . . . . 105 

23. The Hardanger Qord . 112 

24. Bergen to VosseTangen, 

by rail .... 122 

25. VoBSOTangen to OndTan- 

gen, vid Stalheim, by road 124 

26. Bergen to the Sogne ^ot6. 

and its branches, by str. 125 

27. Vadheim (Sogne Qord) to 

the SondQord and to 
Vaerlo (TTtvilt) in the 
Nordf jord, by road . . 132 

28. Paleide to HeUesylt^ by 

road .... 134 

29. Bergen to the SSndQord 

and KordQord, by str. . 136 

Boute Page 

30. Bergen to Kolde, viA 

Aalestmd, by str. . . 138 

31. Aalesond to the Inner 

Sdndmore Qords (Soholt, 
Sylte, Maraak (Merok), 
andHellesylt) . . 141 

32. Kolde to VeblnngsnsBS, by 

str., and up Somsdalen, 
byroad .... 144 

33. Kolde to Trondlgem, 

throngli Nordmore and 

the Orkedal, by road . 147 
34» Kolde to ChriBtianannd, 

by str 149 

35. Chnstiaasnnd to Trond- 

yem, by str. . . • 150 

Section III. 

Route Page 

36. OreatBritaintoTrondhJem, 

by s6a . ' . ' . . 165 

37. Trondl^' em to Stockholm, by 

rail . 160 

38. Trondl^'em to Kamsot, vid 

Levanger and Stenkjier, 

by str. and road . » 162 

39. Trondlgem to Kannos, by 

:str. . . . . . 165 

40. Kam808toVefiien(ilfo^'dien) 

by str 167 

Boute Page 

41. KogjSen (Veflien) to Bodi$, 

by str. .... 169 

42. The Lofoten Islandi, by 

str.. .... 173 

43. Bodo to Tromtd, by str. . 175 

44. TromsS to Hammerfest, by 

stf. ..... ITo 

45. Hammerfest to VardS and 

VadsS (Varanger Qovd), 

vid the jV. Cape . . 181 



^1. Boute Map of Southern Norway . . in pocket at the hegiwmng 

"^ 2. Plan of Ghristiania tofaeepageli 

V 3. Map of the Jotunheim „ „ 70 

' 4. Plan of Bergen „ „ 110 

^ 5. Map of Hardanger Fjord n ») 122 

V6. „ Sogne Fjord „ „ 132 

^ 7. Map of Norway, South of Trondhjem, No. 1 ^ 

^8. „ „ „ „ No. 2 J 

V 9. Plan of Trondhjem »* » 158 

Ao. Map of the Vefsen Estate „ „ 169 

^11. „ Norway, North of Trondhjem, No. 1 . . -| 

{No 2 V»» »» ^'^^ 
Lofoten Islands andVesteraalen Islands ' 

• 13. „ Northern Norway „ „ 188 





I. ffistorical Notice . . [11] 
II. Government, Ac. . . [20] 
in. Geography, Geology, 
Mineralogy, Climate, 
Botany, Zoology . [27] 

IV. Statistics . . . [45] 
V. Language, Literature, 

and Art . . . [60] 

VI. Measures, Weights, and 

Coins, compared with 
British . . . [63] 

VII. Mails & Postages; Tele- 

graph and Telephone . [66] 

Vni. Sport: Angling and 
Shooting . 
IX. Seasons for Travel 
X. Modes of Travelling: 
Steamship and Bail- 
way Fares, Land and 
Water Posting, Yacht- 
ing, &c. 

XI. Hints to Travellers: 

Hotels, Inns, Cloth- 
ing, Bequisites, &o, . 

XII. Skeleton Boutes and 

Access to Norway 





[A Sketch of the Norwegian Ora/nvmar and a Vocabula/ry a/re loosely 
attached at the end of this hook, for use when d/ri/vi/ng, dc, ; also a separate 
Qmdefor Cyclists.] 

I. Historical Notice. 

The early history of Norway is enveloped in darkness, and rests on 
traditions embodied in the Icelandic sagas and the £emious Chronicle 
of Snorro Sturleson, which date from the eleventh and twelfth cen- 
turies. The aborigines were probably a few Lapps scattered in fiEunilies 
all over the country till they were driven northwards, and confined to 
their present abodes by the influx of the forefathers of the modem 
Norwegians, Danes, and Swedes, descendants of a branch of the great 
Gothic stock, whose memory is preserved in numerous local names in 
Scandinavia. These three nations form the northern or Scandinavian 
division of the Germanic or Teutonic race ; whilst the Germans, the 
J)utch, and the Flemish form the southern or German division, to which 
also the Anglo-Saxons belonged. The exact date of the arrival in 
Scandinavia of the Gothic tribes is not known, but it probably was 
not long anterior to the Christian era. Traditions and the results of 
archseological research point to the conclujsion that the Gothic inhabi- 
tants of Scandinavia came from Asia, and, after wandering through 

[12] Historical Notice. 

the eastern and middle parts of Europe, where kindred tribes remaine d 
occupied Denmark first, and thence, crossing the Baltic, southern 
Sweden and Norway. It is from about the early part of the eighth 
century that the Scandinavians appear for the first time on the stage 
of universal history. Then began those feur-reaching Viking expedi- 
tions that made the name of ** Northmen " known and dreaded on the 
most distant coasts of Europe, and which, amongst other great results, 
laid the foundations of the present Bussian Empire, first at Novgorod, 
then at Kief. The settlers in Norway formed during a long period 
numerous small communities, which waged continual war upon each 
other until Harald Haarfager (the Fair-Haired) at the battle of 
Hafardsfjord, in 872, completed the conquest of the country, and suc- 
ceeded in fusing the numerous small earldoms into one realm. Having 
been told at the commencement of his career of the charms of Gyda, 
daughter of the King of Hordaland, Harald sent messengers to her 
with the offer, not of his hand, but of his heart. Her proud reply is 
stated to have been that, so hx from being the mistress, she would not 
even be the wife of a chief whose territories consisted of a few insigni- 
ficant provinces, and that she would never marry any one who did not 
hold absolute sway over the whole country. Admiring her ambition, 
he vowed to the gods that he would neither cut nor comb his hair 
until he had subdued all Norway, and that he would do so or perish in 
the attempt. After he had attained the object of that vow Gyda be- 
came his wife, although, according to the custom of the age, she shared 
that honour with eight others. 

Between the completion of Harald's conquest of the country (about 
885) and the middle of the thirteenth century, occurred the heroic period 
of Norwegian history, replete with tales of the grandest warlike exploits. 
But although great riches were brought home to Norway (as well as 
to Sweden and Denmark) by Vikinga^^ the elements of a healthy de- 
velopment of the country were wantmg, and the strength of the people 
was gradually exhausted by foreign expeditions and internal feuds. 

The union of Norway into one kingdom by Harald Haarfager in- 
duced many of the petty chieftains to emigrate, and the same causes 
produced contemporaneously a similar effect in Denmark and Sweden. 
The Scandinavian maritime expeditions above mentioned gradually 
assumed much larger proportions, and the object of the Vikings became 
principedly to find new homes on other shores* Whilst &e Danes 
settled on parts of the coast of England and in Normandy, the Norwe- 
gians established themselves principally in Scotland and Ireland. The 
multitude of local names, Scand&iavian in origin, in the British 
iHland^ bears witness to th6 numbers of the settlers. According to later 
traditions, Bollo (Bolf), the first Duke of Normandy, was an exiled Nor- 
wegian ehiefbain ; and some writers have fixed his home in Norway in 
Sondmdre. But contemporaneous chroniclers state that he and his fol- 
lowers tfrere Danes, and many of their descendants there are still sor- 
named ** le Danois." Danes and Norwegians aMke were oaJled North- 

> Literally, men of the Tiks (Wieks) or creeks, from which they SalHed iH 
boats on marauding expeditions or pounced upon passing seafaring traden. 
The suffix kmg is therefore misleading to an English ear. 

Historical Notice. [13] 

men. The whole seaboard of Europe was visited by Vikings, and many, 
notably Norwegians, reached Constantinople (in the ancient Scandina- 
vian tongue called Miklagaard, " The great Court "), where they formed 
the bodyguard of the emperors. The Scandinavians reached Constan- 
tinople also through Bussia, where the YiMngs were called Varcmgians, 
" Westmanna " is another name by which they were known. One of 
the most interesting exploits of the Norwegians was their occupation 
of Iceland in the tenth century, from whence the discovery of America 
is said to have taken place by the drifting away in a storm of a Scan- 
dinavian vessel between Iceland and Greenland. 

Harald HaarfBiger died in 988. His son, Haakon the Good, was 
brought up in England at the court of Athelstane, and was the first 
king who endeavoured to establish Christianity in Norway; but 
Paganism was not finally eradicated until the twelfth century. There 
is a curious story told in the saga which bears his name with refer- 
ence to the introduction of Christianity. The king was suspected of 
being a waverer from the old religion, and his nobles insisted on his 
attending a banquet held to Odin, and drinking the horse-broth in his 
honour : to which the king was obliged to consent, but with very bad 
grace. This seems to have been the test applied by the worshippers 
of Odin to all whom they suspected of Christianity. And certamly 
there was nothing which the monks and early missionaries to Scandi- 
navia denounced more wamdy than eating horse-fiesh, as savouring « 
of the ancient worship. The repugnance to eating horse-flesh, still felt 
by all nations of the Germanic family, as well as by Russians who are 
not Tartars, perhaps has its origin from this. 

The city of Trondhjem was founded a.d. 997, by King Olaf Trygg- 
vasson. Among all the sovereigns of Norway, the adventures of l^is 
king are the most romantic. Bom a prince, his mother saved his life 
from the usurper of his rights only by quitting the country ; they were 
taken by pirates, separated, and sold as slaves. At an early age he was 
discovered and redeemed by a relative, became a distinguished leader 
of piratical e^editions, married an Irish princess, embraced Christi- 
anity, and ultimately fought his wa^ to the throne of Norway in 995. 
He then became a most zealous missionary, propagating the faith by 
his sword : death or Christianity was the only alternative he allowed 
to his subjects. He destroyed the celebrated Temple of Thor and Odin, 
i^ear Trondhjem, with the idols of those gods, which were held in the 
highest veneration. He was killed a.d. 10n5o in a sea-fight on the coast 
of Pomerania. 

In 1016 Olaf (Olave) the Second, also a descendant of HaraJd 
Haarfager, ascended the throne of Norway. He is more usually known 
as Olaf the Hol^, or St. Olaf. After pledging himself to respect the 
rights of the native chiefs, he not only destroyed the heathen temples, 
but propagated the Christian fftith with fire and sword. It was, how- 
ever, chiefly his severity towards the under-kings and the turbulent 
aristocracy of the country that produced his downfall and compelled 
him to taJke refage at the Court of the Grand Duke Yaroslaf at Kief. 
Thereupon, Canute the Great, King of England and Denmark, landed 
in Norway and was elected king. Olaf subsequently invaded the 
country with a view of recovering the throne, and a desperate battle 

[14] * Historical Notice, 

was fought at StiMestad, N. of Trondhjem, in which he was slain, 
July 29, 1030, together with most of his followers. A few years after- 
wards, his remains having been found in an incorrupt state, a miracle 
was proclaimed and he was declared a saint, the body being removed 
to Trondhjem and buried there. A chapel, erected over it, was the 
origin of the present Cathedral. Pilgrimages were made to the shrine 
of St. Olaf up to the time of the Eeformation. He is the Lamb of 
the Calendar, and, besides three other churches in London dedicated 
to him, St. Olave's of Tooley Street, Southwark, still gives its name to 
a parish on the south side of London Bridge. Modern historians have 
rehabilitated the character of St. Olaf as that of a king who held a 
higher place than any other Norwegian ruler in the veneration and 
gratitude of the people. He estabUshed Christianity in Norway, and 
was the first to found a Norwegian State in the Middle Ages. The 
Norwegian Order of Knighthood, founded by King Oscar I., in 1847, 
bears his name. 

Svejn, the son of Canute, was deputed by the latter to govern 
Norway, with aTegal title ; but upon the death of Canute, in 1035, Svejn 
was driven from the throne, and Magnus "The Good," illegitimate son 
of St. Olaf, obtained possession of it. He died in 1047, and was suc- 
ceeded by his uncle, Harald III. (Sigurdsson Haardraade), one of the 
greatest warriors of his age, and the founder of Oslo, now the city of 
Christiania. This king was renowned for his expedition to " Mikla- 
gaard," where the Byzantine Emperor made him chief of his body- 
guard as a reward for his brave exploits. At the instigation of Tostig, 
brother of Harald II. of England, he invaded that country, but in the 
battle fought at Stamford in Lincolnshire, in 1066, both Harald of 
Norway and Tostig were slain. The son of Harald (Olaf III. — Kyrre — 
of Norway), with the whole of the Norwegian fleet, fell into the hands 
of Harald of England, who generously allowed Olaf to depart with 
twenty ships. Harald himself perished, within three weeks s^erwards, 
on the field of Hastings. 

Magnus II., sumamed Barfod (Bare-foot), was the successor to his 
father, Olaf IIL (Kyrre), and became one of the most warlike and heroic 
monarchs of Norway. In 1098 he conquered the Isle of Man, the Shet- 
lands, Orkneys, and Hebrides. He afterwards invaded Ireland, where 
he was surprised and slain, in 1103, after a gallant resistance. 

After the short reigns of Olaf and Oystejn (1103-1122), Sigurd L, a 
third son of Magnus, succeeded. He acquired the surname of " Jor- 
salafarer," i.e» l^aveUer to Jerusalem. He is celebrated in the annals 
of Norway for his pilgrimage to Jerusalem and his exploits during the 
voyage. Sailing in 1107, with a fleet of sixty ships, he was four years 
absent. His first winter was passed in England, where he was hospit- 
ably entertained by Henry I. Continuing his voyage, he fought 
several battles afterwards with the Moors in Portugal, and at sea. 
Landing in Sicily, he was magnificently entertained there by Boger, 
the Norman sovereign of that island. He then proceeded to Jerusalem, 
where the offer of his sword was very acceptable to Baldwin. His last 
exploit in the Holy Land was that of joining in the siege of Sidon, and 
when the city was taken half the booty became his. He returned 
home by way of Constantinople and Germany. 

Historical Notice. [15] 

Before leaving Constantinople, Sigurd placed the figurehead of his 
own ship, a gilt " dragon," 12 feet long, on the Church of St. Sophia ; 
but in 1204, after the capture of the city by the Crusaders, the new 
Emperor, Baldwin of Flanders, sent it as a present to the city of 
Bruges, whence it was carried away in 1382 to Ghent. 

Dissension and civil war followed upon the death of Sigurd (1130), 
which for a time were checked, in 1152, by the good offices of the Papal 
Legate, Nicholas Breakspear, an Englishman, who afterwards ascended 
the pontifical throne as Adrian lY. He succeeded in getting a metro- 
poHtan see established' at Trondhjem,with a jurisdiction not only over 
Norway, but also over Iceland, Greenland, the Faro Islands, Shetlands, 
Orkneys, Hebrides, and Man. These two last were called the 
" Syderoer," or Southern Islands, in contradistinction to Orkney and 
Shetland. This word is the origin of the name ** Sodor" 

The period between 1130 and 1240 (occupied by twelve reigns) is 
memorable as one of incessant internecine strife. Foremost among 
the contending insurrectionary bodies were the Bvrkehener (" hWch- 
legs '*), so called from their haying worn sandals of birch bark, like 
the Bussian peasants of the present day. They were powerful enough 
to establish Sverre Sigurdsson as king (1177-1202). Prosperity revived 
in Norway during his reign. The question of privileges previously 
granted to the Church was prominent in the dissensions of those 
times, which ceased only in 1240. 

Haakon lY. (Haakonsson), a grandson of Sverre, made war upon 
Scotland for the recognition of his claim to the Hebrides (disputed by 
Alexander III. of Scotland), and died during the expedition, in 1263. 
His supremacy had been acknowledged in Iceland ; and Greenland, 
occupied by Icelanders in the tenth century, was annexed by him in 
1261. From this time commenced again a decline of the national 
prosperity of Norway, owing to frequent foreign and civil wars, which 
thinned the population ; and also to the monopoly of trade established 
by the Hanse towns, which crushed the nationed industry, and shackled 
the trade of the country. 

Another great blow to the prosperity of Norway was the plague 
(called the Black Death), brought in 1349 by an English ship wUch 
had been driven into Bergen, the crew having previously perished. In 
Trondhjem the archbishop and the whole of the chapter died, with the 
exception of one canon. Solomon, Bishop of Oslo, was the only 
bishop who survived. Several densely populated valleys lost all their 
inhabitants ; the domestic animals also were smitten with the plague. 
The peasantry, for want of cattle and of strength to labour, could not 
cultivate the land, and the famine which succeeded completed what 
the plague had begun : many districts became waste, and forests 
sprang up where cultivated fields had previously existed. 

Haakon YI. (Magnusson) married the daughter of Yaldemar lY. of 
Denmark, and died in 1380, when the Norwegian crown descended to 
his infant son, then Olaf III. of Denmark, from which period, down to 
1814, the two countries remained united under one sceptre. Olaf III. 
of Denmark and Y. of Norway died young, and was succeeded by 
his mother, the famous Margaret, known as '* the Semiramis of the 
North." Yictorious over the King of Sweden, she subsequently united 

[16] Historical Notice. 

hifl country to her dominions, and in 1397 succeeded in obtaining the 
signatures of the chief nobles and prelates of the three kingdoms to 
the celebrated act known as the Union of Oalmar, the chief object 
of which was to unite the three crowns; and, with that view, it 
was stipulated that a perpetual peace should reign between the 
three countries, the subjects of each to have equal rights at the election 
of their sovereign, each kingdom to be governed by its own laws, and 
all to unite in the common defence. 

But the successors of Margaret, German princes distantly related 
to the old royal family of Denmark, had not the energy and ability to 
carry out her great work. 

Christian I. of Denmark mortgaged the Shetland and Orkney 
Islands for a portion of his daughter's dowry on her marriage with 
James III. of Scotland : the debt was never cleared, and therefore 
those islands remained permanently subject to the crown of Scotland. 

In 1523, the Swedes — ^who had never cordially accepted the Scandi- 
navian union, and who were exasperated at the cruel measures of King 
Christian II. — finally re-established their independence under Gustav 
Vasa, and, soon after, the political relation of Norway to Denmark was 
materially altered. In the same year in which Christian II. lost the 
crown of Sweden, the nobihty in Demnark r*^belled against him, and 
elected his uncle Frederick I. in his stead. Civil war ensued, for the 
lower and middle classes favoured Christian II. as much as the nobles 
hated him. He sought assistance abroad, and landed in Norway in 
1531, where he found many adherents, but was finally compelled to 
enter into negotiations, and was made a prisoner for life. At the death 
of Frederick I., in 1533, the Mends of Christian II. rose again, and 
Copenhagen declared for him ; but the arniies of Christian III. were 
victorious, and the capital succumbed after a twelvemonth's siege 
Norway was punished by the victorious party for her adherence to 
Christian 11. by the loss of her independence ; she was deprived of her 
parliament and reduced to a mere province of Denmark, instead of 
being a free elective kingdom — a hard measure to which she was too 
weak to offer even a show of resistance. 

In 1536, under Christian III., the Beformation was introduced, and 
gradually and peacefully carried through. Amongst the next Kings 
of Denmark none was more popular than Christian IV., who often 
visited the country, and founded the towns of Christiania (on the ruins 
of ancient Oslo) and Christiansand. In his reign the rich silver-mines 
at Kongsberg, and the copper-mines of Boros, once the most produc- 
tive in Norway, were discovered and worked. He also greatly im- 
proved the laws and administration of the country. His reign is 
interesting to British travellers iii connection with the so-called " Scot- 
tish Expedition " in 1612, of which an account will be given in our 
description of Bomsdalen. The marriage, in 1589, of James VI. of 
Scotland with Anne, sister of Christian IV., will be noticed in the 
description of Christiania. During the first two centuries after the 
separation of Sweden from Denmark and Norway, frequent wars 
occurred between the two Scandinavian Powers, in which the Nor- 
wegians took a conspicuous pajt. Tordenskjold, the most popular hero 
of the Danish navy, was a Norwegian, and it was in Norway, at the 

Historical Notice. [17] 

siege of FrederiksHaJd, that Charles XII. of Sweden met his death. 
Ahready, in those days, Norwegians took a considerable part in the 
literary and scientific life of Scandinavia. Ludvig Holberg, the father 
of modern Danish literature, Wessel, and some o&er highly esteemed 
authors were Norwegians. Copenhagen and its University, of course, 
formed the intellectual centre of the Dano- Norwegian nation, although 
a Norwegian Scientific Society had its seat at Trondhjem. In this 
respect, a change would in any case have resulted from the estabHsh- 
ment of a University at Christiania in 1811, under Frederick VI., but 
the two countries were violently separated, after having been united 
for more than 400 years. 

In 1810, the Emperor Alexander I. of Bussia guaranteed Norway 
to Sweden in exchange for Finland, on condition that the Crown Prince 
Begent of Sweden (Bernadotte) should join the aUied sovereigns. The 
Crown Prince accepted that arrangement, which was confirmed by the 
great Powers, and, afber the battle of Leipsic, he marched into Holstein 
with a considerable force and compelled Frederick VI., under the terms 
of the treaty of Kiel, to cede Norway to Sweden. 

Many Norwegians were at that time prisoners of war in England, 
and had been offered their liberty upon giving their parole not to bear 
arms during the continuance of the struggle their country was making. 
To a man they refused those terms, and remained in prison till the 
war was over. 

When the treaty of Kiel became known, the Norwegians were in- 
dignant at being thus transferred fi:om Denmark to Sweden without 
their consent, and resolved to resist it and to declare their independ- 
ence. Prince Christian (afterwards the eighth king of that name in 
Denmark) was then Danish Governor-General of Norway and resident 
there. He convoked a national diet, which, composed of 113 represent- 
atives of all classes of the people, met at Eidsvold, near Christiania, on 
April 11, 1814. A Constitution (Ortmd-lov) was drawn up by it. On 
May 17 following. Prince Christian was elected King of Norway, and 
the diet thenceforth took the name of " Storthing." The Swedes, led 
by Bernadotte, invaded Norway by way of Fredenkshald, and the aUies 
blockaded the coast. Longer resistance became a useless waste of life 
and property, and therefore, on August 14, favourable terms having 
been offered to the Norwegians, an armistice and convention were 
agreed to between the belHgerents. Christian abdicated the throne of 
Norway, and Charles XIII. of Sweden was elected in his place as King 
of Norway. On November 4, 1814, he accepted the Constitution, on 
which day it is therefore dated. It comprises 112 articles, the first of 
which declares that " Norway shall be a firee, independent, indivisible, 
and inahenable State, united to Sweden under one king." (See 
" Government, &c." ) On the death of Charles XIII., in 1818, Bernadotte 
ascended the throne of Norway as Charles John XIV. 

On his death, in 1844, his son, Oscar I., was proclaimed. Soon 
after his accession, that sovereign gave the Norwegians a separate 
national flag, on which, however, was to be displayed a symbol of the 
union of Sweden, just as the Swedish colours bear to this day the Nor- 
wegian " union," as a corresponding acknowledgment. He also decreed 
that, in aU acts and pubHc documents relating to Norway, he should 
[Norway— Yi, 92.] a 

[18] Sistoricat Notice* 

be styled King of Norway and Sweden, instead of Sweden and Kor* 
way, as heretofore. These and many other judicious arrangements, 
combined with his liberal and enlightened views, his scientific 
acquirements, and untiring industry in the duties of his high office, 
endeared him to his Norwegian subjects, with whom he was very 

In September 1857 King Oscar I. was attacked by a malady which 
incapacitated him from holding the reins of government. Prince Carl 
Louis Eugene was appointed Begent during the illness of his father, 
on whose death, in 1859, he succeeded to the throne under the title of 
Charles XV. He was bom on May 3, 1826, and married, in 1850, the 
Princess Louise, daughter of Prince William Frederic, a brother of 
the. King of Holland. He died September 18, 1872, and his brother, 
Oscar II. (bom January 21, 1829), and his consort, Sophie of Nassau, 
were crowned at Trondhjem, July 18, 1873. The Crown Prince, Oscar 
Gustav Adolf, bom June 16, 1858, was married in 1881 to Princess 
Victoria, daughter of the Grand Duke of Baden. 

The reigning sovereign succeeded to relatively troublous times in 
Norway. Under one of the most liberal constitutions in Europe — a 
substantial product of the great French Bevolution — the country had 
been peaceMly and happily governed since 1814. Education, more 
especially, had made great progress, and in its wake came a natural 
desire for corresponding material improvement in the old rough, 
patriarchal mode of life. Every career and the highest offices in the 
State became practically open to those who passed, at httle expense to 
themselves individuaJly, through the higher schools or graduated at 
the University of Christiania almost in forma pauperis. The plough 
began at last to feel the competition of learned professions and public 
or mercantile employments, and the dairy that of finer needlework, 
modem garments, and harmonious instruments. It was no longer by 
bread (or rather porridge) alone by which the people desired to Hve as 
they threw off their old home hfe, under which the family produced all 
it required for its own consumption, excepting spirits, tobacco, coffee, 
and sugar. It was only these articles which (apart from the communal 
assessments for poor reHef, education, roads, &c.) necessitated either 
the expenditure of hard cash (raised from surplus produce or firom 
the products of forestry) or a recourse to credit at neighbouring store- 
keepers — the middlemen of Ireland and Bussia to the present day 
Increasing wants in these respects could no longer be satisfied out of 
the produce of the land held in freehold by " the fireest and finest 
peasantry in the world." In these circumstances they began to feel 
heavily the strain of debt gradually incurred under the pecuHar Nor- 
wegian law of inheritance, which gives to every son and daughter an 
equal share in the parental estate, as weU as by the need of ready 
money for the amelioration of the conditions of life, seldom for that of 
the soil. To this day, every new partition of property (under which 
the eldest son has the right of buying out his co-heirs) increases the 
existing encumbrances, and which may be estimated at not less than 
50 per cent, on the value of almost every house or parcel of land 
throughout the country. 

The spirit of Conservatism, theoretically inherent to the ownership 

Historical Notice. [19] 

of real property, soon began to evaporate, especially after the forests 
had been thinned and converted into ready money. Norway then 
became ripe to receive the seeds of radical and socialistic doctrines 
which were broadly sown by agitators and place-hunters. The peasantry 
secured an overwhelming ** Liberal " majority in the representation 
of the rural districts, the towns alone (and in this case also against 
established theories) remaining true to the principles and forms under 
which the country had so £Gi.r been well and successfully administered. 
Political strife culminated in a deniaJ on the part of that majority of 
the right of the King to exercise an absolute veto in matters affecting 
the Constitution, His Majesty's privilege being well defined in the 
Constitution in regard to the sanction of all other laws. The veto in 
respect of ordinary legislation is suspensive only pending sessions of 
three successive Storthings or Parliaments, which, by passing such 
laws without amendment, can dispense with the royal sanction. Several 
years before the decisive battle over the veto was fought, the King 
spontaneously proposed that the Constitution should be amended in 
the direction of admitting his Ministers to participation in the de- 
bates of the Storthing, but under guarantees that would obviate as far 
as possible a frequent and factious dismissal of the chief servants of 
the Crown. The King insisted, more especially, upon the introduction, 
of a general " Pension Law," the existing system in that respect giving 
power to the Storthing to refuse a pension to any person obnoxious to 
the majority, or to modify it at pleasure in every individual case. It 
appeared necessary to have some check in that respect with the view 
of economising the national expenditure, and in order to prevent as 
much as possible the rapid passing of numerous ** bread-politicians *' 
through the office of "State Councillor " or Minister. 

But a majority of about three-fourths having been secured by the 
agitators under the leadership of Mr. J. Sverdrup, whose name became 
the watchword — " Confidence in Sverdrup " — at the general election to 
which this question refers, the King's Ministers were impeached before 
a ** High Court of the Bealm," composed exclusively of their political 
enemies and of a few Judges of the High Court of Justice, for advising 
his Majesty that the royal veto was absolute in questions affecting the 
Constitution, which had not provided for the presence of Ministers in 
Parliament. They had argued that, if no such veto were recognised, 
the Constitution, which was virtually a compact between the ruler and 
the nation, might lose its monarchical form and enable an impetuous 
majority to vote a Eepublie or a Commune. A cov^ d*4tat being out ot 
the question, the King had to submit to the condemnation of his 
Ministers, who were declared (by secret voting) unfit to hold office and 
sentenced to fines which, happily for them, as impecunious officials, 
were at once paid by a sympathising, loyal public. The King attempted 
to resist awhile by appointmg a Cabinet devoted to the original princi- 
ples of the Constitution, but less fossilised in the Civil Service and some- 
what more in touch with the people. Under the prospect of another 
" High Court of the Bealm " and of sentences of imprisonment, that 
Ministry resigned within a very short time, and the King, in his 
wisdom and far-sightedness, called upon Mr. Johan Sverdrup to form 
a Cabinet, while reserving solemnly his right to exercise the veto that 


[20] Oovemmenty &c. 

had been in dispute. Soon after, the new Prime Minister received 
the Grand Gross of St. Olaf, and acquired the confidence of the 
Sovereign. But dissensions in the party and the Cabinet rapidly altered 
the situation. Mr. Sverdrup found it practically impossible to comply 
with the desires of the more advanced section of his party, especiaUy 
in the direction of quarrelling with Sweden over the right it has always 
exercised of transacting the common diplomatic business of the United 
Kingdoms. A retrograde law imposing a serious disabiHty on ahens 
in the matter of the purchase or lease of real property, which now 
cannot be effected in Norway without the King's permission in each 
individual case, was passed during his tenure of office. He was forced 
to resign in 1889, after a debate in the Storthing of a bill relating to 
ecclesiastical matters, which obtained the support of only one vote. A 
new triennial election having improved somewhat the numerical 
position of the Conservative party and established the existence of 
a split in the Liberal ranks into two, if not three, sections (leaving the 
Loyalist party the only compact and the numerically superior body in 
the Storthing), the King had no other course open to him but that of 
entrusting the formation of a Cabinet to Mr. Emil Stang, who was 
at once joined by some of the ablest and most notable men in the 
kingdom. With the patriotic support of the moderate wing of the so- 
called Liberal party, the new Ministry was able to conduct the affairs 
of the country with acknowledged success and benefit. During the 
short previous Liberal tenure of office were introduced trial by jury in 
criminal cases, and a theoretical and still practically incomplete re- 
organisation of the Norwegian army. The most sahent act of pohcy 
on the part of the Conservative Government of Mr. Stang was a re- 
duction of the duty on co£fee, which was later supplemented by a corre- 
sponding boon in the matter of sugar — two articles of consumption 
in which Norwegian housewives are deeply interested. 

A general election, fought in 1891, resulted in the triumph of the 
Badical party. The main features of its programme were the intro- 
duction of universal suffrage and an equal participation with Sweden 
in the management of diplomatic affairs, involving apparently the 
appointment of Norwegian consular (if not also diplomatic) officers, 
side by side with'^those accredited by Sweden, and the formation of a 
separate Norwegian Foreign Office, under a Minister responsible to 
the Storthing. 

II. Oovemment, &o. 

1. Government. — Norway is an hereditary constitutional monarchy 
united with that of Sweden ; the mutual rights of the Crown and of the 
people being clearly defined by the Constitution of 1814, subsequently 
guaranteed by the AlHed Powers, and which instituted a Fcurliament of 
only one chamber — the Storthing. This is elected for three years, and 
assembles annually. The duration of the session is three months, or, 
with the sanction of the King, until the whole of the business is dis- 
patched. The King has not the power to dissolve it within the fixed 
term of a session. Each Storthing settles the taxes for the ensuing 
financial year (which begius on July 1), enacts, repeals, or alters 

Oovemmenty &c. [21] 

the laws, grants the sums which have been estimated for the different 
branches of expenditure, revises the pay and pension lists, and makes 
such alterations as it deems proper in any provisional grants made 
by the King daring the recess. It also appoints auditors to examine 
all the Government accounts. The reports of the public departments, 
as well as copies of all treaties, are laid before it. The Odelsthing can 
impeach and try before a " High Court of the Realm," composed of the 
Lagthing (a division of its own body) and of members of the High 
Court of Justice, Ministers and judges (for breach of official duty), as 
well as its own members (for crime). Besides these important con- 
trolling powers, secured to it by the Constitution, sworn to by the 
representatives of the nation at Eidsvold on May 17, and accepted 
by the King on November 4, 1814, the Storthing receives the oath of 
the King on coming of age or ascending the throne ; and, in case of a 
failure of the roysJ line, it can, in conjunction wil^ Sweden, elect a 
new dynasty. 

The first step taken by the Storthing, after it has been duly con- 
stituted, is to elect the Lagthing, This is done by choosing from 
among the members of the entire body one-fourth of their number. 
The fdnctions of this section are deliberative, and judicial in cases of 
impeachment. The other three-fourths constitute the Odelsthing : all 
enactments must be initiated in this section either by the Government or 
a member of the Odelsthing. After a bill has been passed in the Odels- 
thing, it is sent to the Lagthing, where it is deliberated upon, passed, 
rejected, or sent back with amendments to the Odelsthing. After 
being agreed to, it requires the sanction of the King before it can 
acquire the force of a legal enactment. But if (except in cases affecting 
the Constitution, as shown under "History*') a bill passes through 
both divisions in three successive Storthings, it becomes on the third 
occasion the law of the land without the royal assent. The law for 
the aboHtion of hereditary nobility was passed by the exercise of that 
right in 1821. Only one count and four or five barons survive, and 
within a few years no titles of nobility will remain in existence. 

Since 1884 the political franchise has been bestowed in a demo- 
cratic direction on every native Norwegian, twenty-five years of age, 
who has for five years been and stiU is domiciled in the coimtry, or 
(a) who is or has been a public official ; or (6) who owns or for more 
than five years has rented a registered parcel of land, or who has 
during five consecutive years been or still is in the enjoyment of such 
land ; or (c) who has for five years and still is, in Finmarken, a voter 
in virtue of certain contributions regulated bv law ; or {d) who is a 
burgess or rents in a town or shipping (loading) station a house or 
land of the value of at least 88Z. 6«. 8^. ; or (e) who has during the 
preceding year paid direct taxes (not yet existing) to the State or to a 
commune on an assumed income of at least 277. 15«. 6e2. in rural 
districts, or at least 44?. 9«. in towns and at shipping stations, and who 
shall have been domiciled for one year in the district in which the 
Section takes place, without belonging to another household. An oath 
of fidelity to the Constitution must be taken before the franchise can 
be exercised. 
• For the purpose of electing deputies to the Storthing the kingdom 

Oovemment, &c. [23] 

together with the Bishops of those Dioceses (Stift)^ form the SUfta- 
direMion, the superior authority in each 8tift, or ecclesiastical pro- 

The Prefectures are subdivided into fifty-six BaiH wicks (Fogderier), 
in each of which is a Foged (Baillie), who sees to the collection of 
taxes, and watches, as PoHcemaster, over the pubhc safety, acts as 
paymaster under the orders of the Prefect or a public department, 
carries out sentences, &c. Under him, in each Tmglag (judicial dis- 
trict) is a Lenamcmd (Bural Mayor), who acts as a police official and 
assists generally the Foged, looks after the roads, holds auctions, 
enforces small claims, &c. In towns the corresponding functions 
appertain to a Burgomaster, who at Christiania and Bergen is assisted 
by two Councillors and a special PoHcemaster. In the smaller towns 
the magisterial duties are generally combined with those of the Foged, 

The thirty-eight towns and the twenty not yet incorporated " loading 
stations " constitute together fifty-eight Urban Communes, while the 
fifty-six Bailiwicks are divided into 494 Bural Communes or Cantons 
{Herred), A Council [Forma/ndslcab) consisting of three to nine mem- 
bers in the rural districts, and of four to twelve in towns (Christiania 
alone having fifteen), is elected annually in each Commune by qualified 
voters, together with a Bepresentative Body {Bejprcesenta/ntahab), with 
three times the number of members on the Council. These deal with 
all local, financial, and economic matters. There is, moreover, in each 
Prefecture a Prefectoral Council (Amtati/ng), that meets every year, in 
summer, for not more than ten days, to discuss and settle local affairs 
relating to the entire district. It is composed of the chairman or vice- 
chairman of each Herred, as well as of the Baillies and the Prefect. 
In educational matters the Director of the District Schools attends. 
This body audits the accounts of the Prefecture and transacts much 
other business previously reported upon by special committees. 

3. The Beligion of Norway is Episcopal Lutheran. It remains in 
exactly the same state as that in which it was originally moulded after 
the subversion of Boman Catholicism ; but within the last few years a 
new liturgy has been introduced. Its optional adoption by congrega- 
tions is not conducive to uniformity in worship. No places of worship 
belonging to other creeds were permitted to exist until 1845, when an 
Act of general toleration was passed, giving religious liberty to all 
Christians, but stigmatising as ^* Dissenters " all persons belonging to 
any other Church, creed, or behef than the Established Church of 
Norway. Even members of the Church of England, which, when 
Boman Catholic, was the first to bring Christianity to Norway, are 
" Dissenters " as much as Baptists, Plymouth Brethren, Jews, and 
** infidels*' generally. Another Act (1861) admitted Jews to the 
country on conditions of equaUty with Christians. There are small 
Boman Catholic congregations at Christiania, Bergen, and Hammer - 
fest, but they do not make many proselytes. Dissent from the Estab- 
lished Church is gaining much ground £rom causes similar to those in 
England, until the activity and the spirit of the clergy of the Church 
of England began to pass through a happy reformation. Almost every 
dissenting sect is represented in Norway, including even the Mormons, 
Vfbo ^e, however, not allowed to practise polygamy in the country, 

[24] Oovemmenty &c. 

and therefore emigrate in small contingents to North America. After 
the lapse of eight centuries since the building of a church and monas- 
tery on an island close to Ohristiania, by Cistercian monks from Kirk- 
stead, in Lincoln, the Anglican Church once more rears her head in 

The clergy, speaking generally, are a well-educated class of men, 
many of them being acquainted with the literature of Europe and 
familiar with standard works in the German and English languages. 
A few can still converse in Latin, but this classical qualification has 
for some time been strongly on the decline. Taking into account the 
value of money in the country, their incomes are good, the average 
of the livings being 135^. to 180Z. per annum, with a good house and 
some land. 

Norway is divided into sixteen Bishoprics (Stift), and more than 
400 parishes, some of which are very extensive. 

The ecclesiastical patronage is vested in the Crown, subject to the 
recommendations of the State Council. 

4. Public Instruction. — In this respect Norway is in the foremost 
rank among the nations of Europe ; nearly every Norwegian, male or 
female, can read, and the greater part can also write. A desire to 
acquire further instruction is steadily on the increase. In 1889 a law 
was passed making it compulsory to send all children (not receiving 
elsewhere education at least equivalent) to the National Schools. In 
rural districts the ages for such instruction are from seven years 
(complete) to fifteen years, and in towns from six and a-half to fifteen. 
For seven years no school fees are payable. Fines are imposed for 
non-attendance, unless sufficient reason be given. The object of the 
National Schools ^established in sufficient numbers) is " to co-operate 
in the Christian education of children and to impart to them such 
general instruction as shall be common to aU classes of society.'* Each 
Herred (Canton) is divided iuto "school districts,*' each with a 
National School, consisting of two divisions, one for children between 
seven and ten, and the other for those who are ten to fourteen years 
old.'^ In each class instruction must be given during twelve weeks in 
the year, and the local educational authorities may increase the 
number of weeks to fifteen. They are also empowered to establish 
one or more Continuation Schools (in combination, if necessary, with 
neighbouring Cantons). The course of instruction in such schools lasts 
one to six months, and is attended by youths of fourteen to eighteen. 
As a rule, special buildings are erected or rented for such purposes, 
but ambulatory arrangements are frequently made in the case of 
schools for the smaller children, and sometimes for those of the second 

The School Board established in each Canton is composed of the 
Dean or resident Chaplain (according to the pleasure of the diocesan), 
the chairman of the Local Council, of an elected male or female 
teacher in the National Schools, and of as many other members as the 

* See " Ohristiania " for St. Edmund's Church. 

^ In towns there are three divisions, and the total of the vacations is 
twelve weeks, 

Governments &c. [26] 

Cantonal Council may deem requisite. The post of teacher is open to 
either sex, affcer examination, and on condition of the candidate 
belonging to the State Church. 

Although the National Schools are supported generally out ox 
cantonal fdnds, yet they receive in each case a subvention from the 
State. Funds are also contributed by the several Prefectures for the 
building of schools, for additional pay to teachers, and towards the sup- 
port of Continuation Schools, Handicrafts Schools, &c. 

In 1887 the total number of children subject to compulsory educa- 
tion at school was 294,064, of whom 221,444 belonged to rural districts, 
in which the school districts numbered 5,290. The total expenditure 
for the lower National Schools amounted in the rural districts to about 
172,000?. (of which 28 per cent, was contributed out of public funds), 
and that in towns to about 72,0002. The cost per pupil was severally 
158. Gd. and 34^. 6d, per annum. 

In 1889 there were thirty-seven higher schools of various descrip- 
tions, in addition to private schools, with a corresponding standard of 
instruction ; and seventeen public State -supported establishments for 
University candidates. 

The University will be further mentioned under " Christiania.*' 

Great importance is attached to the ceremony of Confirmation m 
Norway, prior to which the applicants undergo a long and careful 
course of religious instruction, and are subjected to rigid examination, 
both public and private, by the clergy of their respective parishes. 
Confirmation by a priest (not by a bishop) is an essential preliminary to 
holding situations, not only in the Civil Service, but also in offices, 
shops, &c. 

5. Justice. — Civil suits are in the first instance brought before the 
Lower Courts (TJnderretterne), of which there are thirty-seven in 
towns and eighty-one in the rural districts. In the former, the judge 
is the Mayor or " BaiUie '* (Byfoged), who is frequently also Police- 
master; and in the rural districts the Sorenslcriver (Cantonal Judge). 
They decide all cases personally, except those relating to OdeUret 
(Allodial Law), and to disputes about property. They are assisted by 
the presence of four jurymen {Meddomsmcend)^ who do not, however, 
take part in the proceedings or in pronouncing judgment. The eighty - 
one Cantonal Law Circuits (Sorensfriverier) are divided into 427 Tinglag 
(Courts of Assize), in which assizes are held two or three times during 
the year. An assize is, moreover, held as a rule once a month for the 
entire Cantonal Circuit. In towns, the Byti/ngene are held weekly. 

An appeal lies from these Courts to the Superior Courts {Overret) 
at Christiania, Bergen, and Trondhjem, each of which is composed of a 
President and two assessors. At Christiania there is also a Byret 
(City Court), with a President and eleven assessors ; and although its 
functions are those of a Court of First Instance, yet an appeal lies 
direct from it to the High Court of Justice (Hoieateret) at Christiania, 
the third and last Court of Appeal, composed of a JuaUtiarinis and 
eight assessors. 

Before any civil cause can be brought for trial there must be an 
attempt at arrangement before a Commission of Conciliation, estab- 
lished in almost every Commxme, and which also has in minor cases 

[26] Oovemmenty &c, 

of debt, &o., to give judgment. When the attempt fails (as it gener- 
ally does, owing to the litigious character of the people ^) the plaintiff 
applies to a Court of Law, in which the proceedings are not oral, but in 
writing, and last a considerable time, both parties having an ahnost 
indefinite leisure for refuting each other's statements. At last the 
case is declared ripe for judgment, which must be given within the 
subsequent six weeks. There are, however, exceptions to this mode of 
procedure, in the matter of bills, shipping cases, masters and servants, 
&c. In the High Court of Justice the proceedings are generally oral, 
and every person can conduct his own case before that tribunal, as 
well as before the Lower Courts. Advocates and solicitors are, how- 
ever, generally employed. The legal profession is a very flourishing 

Since 1890, the jury system has been introduced in eriminal cases. 
These are subject to the following tribunals : {a) Court of Interro- 
gatory (the French Instruction), composed of one inferior judge (at 
Christiania, of a member of the City Court, and at Bergen and 
Trondhjem, of special criminal judges), whose duty is to prepare the case 
by collecting information, examining witnesses, &c., and who, with the 
consent of the accused and on his admissions, when proved to be 
correct, can pronounce judgment without sending the prisoner for trial 
by (6) the Meddomsret, composed of an inferior judge and two jury- 
men, who pronounce judgment and sentences in common. The lesser 
crimes — Le, the majority of criminal cases — are tried before these 
Courts, which are established within the district of each inferior judge, 
as well as in each Sorenshrweri and town. The highest criminal 
Court is the Lagmcrndsret, or Court of Assize, held at least four times 
a year in each Lagsogn (District), and composed of a President {Lag- 
mand) and two judges learned in the law (not being members of the 
High Court of Justice). This Court is assisted by ten jurymen 
(Lagrettemcend), who must possess the political franchise or be eligible 
to local government offices, or be more than twenty-five years of age, 
and have paid, during the year previous to being placed on the jury 
list, a direct tax of at least As, 5d, in the rural districts, and &s, lOd, in 
a town. No juryman can be challenged after the Court has been 
constituted by election, and by a process of weeding entrusted to the 
Lagma/nd and the Crown Advocate (Prosecutor). The proceedings are 
oral, the witnesses being examined and cross-examined as in English 
Courts. A verdict of guilty can be given only by a majority of seven 
out of the ten jurymen, their votes being held secret. The Court may, 
however, whatever be the verdict, send the case for trial again before 

^w Lagmansthvng, and appeal can be made to the High Court of 
In fact, the new law admits of criminal cases being carried 
from SotBsMo Court with much facility. The King enjoys the pre- 
rogative of pardon, and rarely signs a death sentence. 

Although reduced in recent years, the punishments for crime are 
still amongst the most severe in Europe. This, added to an inherent 
leniency towards transgressors (proceeding perhaps from wide mter- 
relationship between all classes of the community), renders somewhat 

* The same characteristic is observable Jn Norm an dv. 

Geography^ Geology^ Mineralogy, &c, [27] 

doiibtfiil the fature benefits of the new jury system, which is also 
objected to as having replaced trial by judges and assessors who have 
been beyond reproach, except in regard to dilatoriness, and as inflict- 
ing on the country a great material loss hj deflecting labour from fields 
and trades in order to form juries, in imitation of countries in which 
trial by jury was indigenous and a necessary ancient safeguard. 

The penalUea are death (by decapitation with a sword), hard labour 
for life, or for periods varying (in five degrees), between fifteen years 
and six months, imprisonment with ordinary prison feure or on bread 
and water (for four, out of seven days in the week), and fines. 

III. Oeography, Oeolog^, Mineralogy, Climate, 

Botany, Zoology. 

1. Geography. — Occupying the northern and western portions of the 
Scandinavian Peninsula, the Kingdom of Norway lies between 57^ 57^ 
and 71° 12' N. lat., and 4° 30' and 31° 3' long. E. of Greenwich, and 
is the most northerly State in the world. Ckristiama, the capital, lies 
almost on the same degree of latitude (60°) as St. Petersburg. The 
difference in time between the extreme points of Norway is 1 h. 44 m. 
Its length, from LindesnsBS (the Naze) to the N. Cape, with Namsos 
as an approximate central point, is nearly 1086 nules.^ In width 
it varies greatly : tolerably equal and considerable (up to 260 m.) be- 
tween 59 and 62° N. lat., it lessens rapidly both to the N. and S. 
The northern portion of Norway is in foct almost only a strip of 
coast, frequently narrowing to 29 m., and at one place (from the head 
of the Ofotenfjord) to about 6 m. In Finmarken, however, the 
territory of Norway becomes considerably wider. Its total approxi- 
mate area is 124,535 sq. m., of which about one-third is withm the 
Polar Circle. The land frontier is 1575 m. in length, 1035 m. being 
common with Sweden. With Bussia, Norway is conterminous on 
the Jacobs Elv (or river), partly also on the Pasvik; and with 
the Grand Duchy of Finland along the Tana and the Pasvik 
rivers, to the N. boundary of Sweden. A small wedge of Finland has 
been driven in between the United Kingdoms of Norway and Sweden, 
and approaches the head of the Lyngenfjord, on the Atlantic coast, 
within 18 m. The greater part of the Norwegian coast is fringed by 
the Skjcergaa/rdf or belt of rocks and islands, the most important of the 
latter being those of the Lofoten group. 

The country is divided by a mountainous backbone, running 
almost parallel with the W. coast. This forms the principal watershed, 
which from olden times has caused Norway to be geographically 
divided into three natural sections, called severally — the Norden- 
fjeldahe^ W. of the great Kjolen chain and N. of the Dovrefjeld, from 
the Finland frontier to the Bomdalsfjord ; the Veatenfjeldskef W. of 
the Langfjeldene and their southern continuation from the Bomsdal- 
f jord to LindesnsBS (a comparatively narrow coast line, generally like 
the Nordenfjeld district) ; and the Simdenfjeldshe (or datkmdet, East 

* When miles (m.) are mentioned in this book, only English miles are 
fueant, The feet (ft.) are also EngUsh-. 

[28] Oeography, Geology, Mineralogy^ &c. 

Land), which includes the territory S. of the Dovrefjeld and E. of 
the Langfjeld range. It is impossible within the compass of a Hand- 
book for Travellers to give a minute account of all the physico -geo- 
graphical features of a country, but in the case of Norway it seems 
essential to describe at some length the mountains which impart to 
it a special attraction. 

The mountain masses of Norway do not present any distinctly 
marked articulation, yet, chiefly on geological grounds, they are 
divided into the following groups : 

A. The Bjolen, the long and generally elevated chain that rises in 
Bussian Lapland, and which, from the Tana river to the Faksefjeld, 
follows mainly the frontier of Norway with Sweden and Finland, form- 
ing the watershed between the Polar Ocean and the " Norwegian Sea ** 
(Atlantic) on the one side and the Gulf of Bothnia on the other. Its 
direction, originally S.W., gradually becomes more southerly, and on 
the FakseQeld, where it runs into Sweden, south-easterly. It has no 
great height in the N. part of Finmarken, but farther S. rises very 
considerably, exhibiting a great number of peaks that attain a height 
of 4000-6000 ft., the highest being that of SuUtjelma (6166 ft.), on 
the boundary between the sister kmgdoms. S. of this again rise the 
Ohstmdeme and the Store (Great) Borgefjeld, the latter with glaciers 
covering a total area of 147 sq. m. In the Bailiwick of Namdalen, 
the ridge of the Kjolen sinks, and several large lakes encroach upon 
it both on the Norwegian and the Swedish side ; but farther S. it 
gains considerably in height and grandeur, the highest points being 
Sjcekerhatten and Syltoppene (6870 ft.) and the Vigelfjeldy E. of 
Boros. In this portion also the Kjolen ridge presents deep depres- 
sions, with passes of 1650 to 2800 ft. Through one of these {Skurdala- 
porten) runs the Meraker railway from Trondhjem to Stockholm, 
while two other passes enable high roads to run from Levanger, through 
VsBrdalen, to Jemtland in Sweden, and from Boros to HerjeMalen, 
likewise in the sister kingdom. The highest points in the southern- 
most part of the Kjolen are the Svukufjeld (4660 ft.), the Fulufjeld 
and the Faksefjeld, 

B. The districts W. of the ^olen range are composed mostly of bare 
fjelds stretching out from the Kjolen and, farther S., partly from the 
Dovre. As far as the Porsangerfjord, the eastern part of Finmarken 
is a vast territory dotted with lakes and big boulders, but otherwise 
monotonous, and with the exception, for instance, of the Varanger 
fiord, treeless, and characterised by platecmx exceedingly bare. On 
the Finmarken hergslette (mountainous plateau), averaging 985 ft. in 
height, a few peaks (as, for instance, the Oataeme, in the Tana ijord) 
rise to about 2000 ft. 

S. of the Porsangerfjord, as far as the Bindalsfjord, the country 
assumes a generally wild character of much grandeur. Numerous 
fjords run into the mountain spurs on the mainland, as well as 
into many of the islands along the coast. The mountain-chain 
that runs along the coasts of Nordland and Finmarken up to the 
N. boundary of the Trondhjem Stifb (eccles. prov.) is distinguished 
principally by the N, Cape on Magero (island), which, from an 
elevation of 984 ft., descends abruptly to the Polar Ocean; by the 

Qeographyy Geohgy, Mmeralogyy &c. [29] 

KnivsTcjcBTodtde, on the same island and a little more northerly 
than the Cape, although lower and not so striking to the eye ; by the 
SeilcmdsbrcB, on Seiland island, the northernmost glacier in 
Europe ; by the Jokelfjeldene in the Kvsenangfjord, from which the 
johel (glaciers) come down in some places to the water's edge ; by the 
gr&nd Lyngen-Alper, in the Lyngenfjord, with the Jcegge-Varre, the 
highest peak in N. Norway (over 6600 ft.), and by the equally well- 
known pinnacles of Goalse-Va/rre, JcBgervandstmdeme, &o. To the 
same rajige belong — the high, partly snow-clad, peaks on the Lofoten 
and Yesteraalen islands, as well as Moaadlen and the Fishetind (a 
very pointed peak) on Hindo island ; Vaagehallen and Madmoderen on 
Ostvaago (island), and Himmeltindeme on Vestvaago ; the majestic 
fjelds on Landegode island; the Bota (Kunna) (about 2000 ft.), a 
rounded promontory jutting iax out into the sea ; the Hoitinden in 
Salten; Svartisen, on the boundary between Salten and Helgoland, 
the next largest glacier on the Continent of Europe, covering an area 
of about 309 sq. m., and shooting out immense johel almost down to 
the sea-level ; Bodoloven and Trcenstaveuj two peculiar mountains on 
Bodo and Trsenen islands ; Hestmanden (on the island of the same 
name), through which the Polar Circle passes, and which, when seen 
from a certain point, represents roughly the figure of a cloaked horse- 
man (whence the name) ; Lovtmden, Dynnesfjeld on Dynneso (island) ; 
the Syv Soatre (Seven Sisters) on Alsteno ; Brv/rakanken in Vefsen ; 
Torghatten on Torg island, in shape like a low-crowned hat, and with 
a remarkable natural tunnel ruiming through it ; and, lastly, Lekomden 
on Leko island. The greater part of all the above mountains are 
important landmarks, often seen at a great distance. Many of them 
rise up to 3300 ft., and some higher ; and they are nearly all remark- 
able for their peculiar Alpine forms, which give to that part of the 
Norwegian coast a singular and highly attractive character, notwith- 
standing their bleak and sombre aspect. The land between the chain 
nmning along the coast and the Kjolen range forms (especially towards 
the S.) a series of more or less broad and fertile river- valleys, of which 
the direction is principally from N. to S., or vice versa. 

The rest of the Nordenf jeldske formation is of a less wild and rocky 
character, and consists chiefly of somewhat low-lying woodlands, not 
very different from the SondeniQeldske country. The inland districts off 
the Trondhjemsf jord are intersected by many valleys, generally wide and 
fertile, and stretching out at their lower extremities into extensive 
plains, similar in many respects to the richest lowlands in S. Norway. 

C. The Trondlijem plateau includes the wide uncultivated tract 
which is bounded on the W. by the valley of the Tonna (an affluent 
of the Orkla and Glommen) ; on the N.W. by the flat plains in the 
Trondhjemsf jord ; on the N. by Vserdalen ; on the E. by the southern- 
most part of the Kjolen range, and which towards the S. extends 
almost to Tonset in Osterdalen. The average elevation of this great 
moimtain-plateau (one of the most important watersheds of the Scan- 
dinavian peninsula) is about 2000 ft. in the N., and in the S. part 
about 3100 ft. Some of its peaks (like the Forelhogna and Stors- 
hcurven) rise 4200-4900 ft. The railway between Christiania and 
Trondhjem passes over this plateau. 

[30] Oeography^ Geology y Mineralogy ^ &c> 

D. The Dovref jeld is a name locally given to that part of the molin* 
tainous country which lies between Orkedalen and Gudbrandsdalen. 
Geographically, however, the Dovre comprises the broad and elevated 
moimtainons region which is bounded on the E. by the valleys of the 
Tonna and Orlda, by a line drawn from Tonset ch. over Yaage ch., 
and then running along the Ottavand and the valley of its affluent, 
the Bovra, to the Lysterfjord ; in other directions it is bounded by 
the Sognefjord, the ocean, the Surendalsfjord, and the valleys rising 
therefrom. The Dovre, therefore, embraces a very considerable part 
of the interior of the country. From N.W. to S.E. it is intersected by 
the valleys of the Bauma and the Laagen, the highest point dividing 
the two latter being 2034 fb. 

The Dovres fjeldmva/rk is a tolerably even plateau (averaging about 
3600 ft.) in the E. part of the Dovre, stretching to the Driva on the W., 
and to the Laagen on the S.W. Some of its summits, such as the 
Pighcetta and the Knutsho (celebrated for its rich Alpine flora), are 
over 5300 ft. high. This is the Dovre fjeld, over which one of the high 
roads between Christiania and Trondhjem passes, and of which the 
elevation culminates at 4100 ft. The highest part of the Dovres 
hoifjelde lies W. of the Driva, with Snehcetta (7610 ft.), long considered 
as the highest point in Norway, Skredaho (of about the same height), 
and Skrimskolla (6560 ft.), all covered with immense snow-fields. 
Farther N. and N.W. extend several high and wild mountain-groups, 
amongst them Troldheimen, S. of Surendal and the Sundala-fjeldene^ 
on both sides of the Sundal valley. To the W. again, the Bomsdals- 
alpeme enclose the narrow gorge of the Eauma, and the Era, giving 
rise to a number of peaks (partly inaccessible), of which more especi- 
ally the Bomsdalshomf on the N. side of the r., and the picturesque 
Troldtvnder (on the S. bank) are famous. Farther S. the Loms- 
fjeldene rise in peaks, known as the Hestbrcepiggene and the pointed- 
roof shaped Lomseg, to a height of 5900 ft. to 6900 ft. 

Towards the W. the Dovre spreads out in many large, high, and 
(to a considerable extent) snow-clad peninsulas, separated by the deep, 
long ^ords in the prefectures of N. Bergenhus and Romsdal. Between 
the Storfjord and the Nordfjord rise the HornvngsdaU- fjeldene, 
in which the Hommgsdals-rolclcen, a curiously Bh&]ped fjeld connecting 
several smaller projecting peninsulas, rises in several peaks to a height 
of 5300. ft. to 5600 ft. To the southward, on the Jostedah-brce penin- 
sula, between the Nordfjord and the Sognefjord, stretches out the 
glacier of that name {JostedaUbrceen), the largest both in Norway and 
on the European continent, and not less than 500 sq. m. in area. 
The lowest margin of the glacier has an elevation varying from 
1000 ft. to 4600 ft., but several of its branches run down to 165- 
425 ft. above the sea, and to about 5 m. from shore of the fjord. These, 
called Suphellebrceen and BojiombrcBen, are in the Fjserlandsf jord. A 
few others, such as the Niga/rsbrce in the Jostedal, have in their descent 
done injury to cultivated fields. The Lodalskaapa rises out of the 
northern part of the Jostedals-brse snow-fields to a height of 6560 ft. 

E. The series of high mountain-lands geographically known as the 
Langljeldene extend from the valleys of the Vaage and the Lom in 
the N. to Bykle, the most elevated point in Ssetersdalen on the S., 

Oeography, Geology^ Mmeratoyyj &c. [31] 

whence they decline towards the inner arms of the Stavangerigo^^* 
The principal groups of this range are — 

(a) The Jotunfjeld-ene^ the highest and the wildest mountain^for- 
mations, not only in Norway, but in the whole of Europe, excepting 
the Alps and Carpathians. 

They extend southwards to the Bygdin and Tyin lakes, with a 
length and breadth of about 38 m., and this grand and wild Alpine 
region well deserves the appellation of Jottmhevm (the home of the Nor- 
wegian mythological gia/nta), given to the mtns. in 1820 by Keilhau and 
Chr. Boeck, who were the first to explore them and make them known. 
Lake Gjende, in the midst of the Jotun Mtns. had, however, been visited 
in 1812 and 1813 by Chr. Smith, the botanist. More than one hundred 
of the summits in the Jotunheim rise in bold peaks (not all ascended) 
to a height of over 6000 ft., while between the frowning colossal 
moimtain-masses spread out on all sides glittering glaciers or deep 
valleys and hollows (botner), occupied mostly by large and deep lakes. 

Ainong the many known elevated points of the Jotun Mtns. (the 
greater number of which afford views of indescribable grandeur) the prin- 
cipal are — Store (great) Galdhopiggen^ the highest summit of the Ymes- 
fjeldf and which, rising to 8397 ft., is assumed to be the most elevated 
point in Norway ; the Glitretind (about 30 ft. lower) ; the Knutahul- 
tvnd ; the Bessho, whence the narrow Besaeg runs between the Bessva/nd 
(lake) and Lake Ojende; the SJcagestolstindeme and Hortmgeme — a 
succession of peaks. More than sixty great snow-fields (glaciers), (such 
as Smoratahhrceen, Fcma/rdaken, GaldhobrcBeme, and Memurubrceen), 
spread out between those mtns., which are in many cases too steep 
to allow snow to remain on them. The mtn.-huts set up in the 
Jotuntjeld wiU be mentioned in the appropriate parts of this Hand- 

(b) The Fillefjeld lies S. of the Jotun group. The name is given 
locally to that part of the f jeld over which the northern highway be- 
tween Christiania and Bergen passes, on the section from Valders 
to Laerdal in Sogn bailiwick. The highest point between the well- 
known mtn. posting- stations of Nystuen and Maristuen is 3294 ft. 
Among the many known mtn.-tops on the Fillefjeld, the most 
remarkable are the Suleti/nd (5806 ft.) and Stugwnoaet (4825 ft.) 

(c) The HemsedaU-fjeldene is the name given to that part of the 
Lang-§eld which is traversed by the high road from HaUingdal to 
Sogn, with a maximum height of 3706 ft. We need mention among the 
numerous snow-clad summits of these mtns., only Juheleggen (6300 ft.), 
marking the limits of three prefectures (Christian, Buskerud, and 
N. Bergenhus), and, farther S., the great snow-field: Baubergskarven. 

(d) The HalUngdaU-fjeldene embrace the mountain country from 
the Hemsedals-fjeldene southwards up to the Hardanger-vidda 
(waste). The best known elevated points on these mtns. axe Hailing- 
aka/rven, a long mtn. ridge, Ha/rdangerjokelen, Vasfjceren^ and Vosse- 
skoA^lerij all about 6560 ft. high, and covered with large glaciers 

(e) After the Langfjeldene have sunk into the great mtn. waste 
(Hardcmger-vidden) above mentioned, they rise again ABtheHardanger- 
fjeldene (in the S.W. part of those mtns.) in high summits, amongst 

[32] Geography^ Geology, Mineralogyy &c. 

which the most remarkable are the Haa/rteig, a oylindrioal mass 
(5610 ft.), and the Treafonn^ Solfonn, and Kroiform. 

From these mtns. sprmgs in a S.W. direction a high ridge, forming 
the BdldaU'fjeldene, with the HoAikeU-fjeld and Bykle-fjeldenej which 
descend towards the inner branches of the Stavanger fjord, and, 
in Dskct, terminate the Lcmgfjeldene. The sonthem highway to the 
Hardanger fjord (the Yestenfjeldske coimtry) rons over the Boldal 
mtns. past the HauheU-scetery or mtn. posting-station. Vasdalseggen 
rises to a height of 5545 ft., at the point at which meet the four 
prefectures of S. Bergenhus, Stavanger, Nedenses, and Bratsberg. 

F. A highland-plateau (Oplandenes hoislette) extends southwards 
between the Langfjeld range and the S. part of the Ejolen, from which 
it is separated by a series of lakes (Aarsundsjo, Faemunsjo, &c.), and 
by the valley of the Tryssil. On the N. it is conterminous with the 
Trondhjem Plateau (see G) and the Dovre. From these it is separated 
by a chain of elevated mtns., amongst which are noticeable the Hum,- 
melfjeld in Tolgen, Tronfjeld in Tonset, Bondcme (an extremely 
grand Alpine mass between Osterdalen and Gudbrandsdalen, rising to 
nearly 7000 ft.), and the Jettafjeld in Vaage. 

Extending for some distance, with an average height of 8600 ft., 
the plateau in question (partly wild in character and cut up by several 
deep valleys) sinks gradually southwards and to an average of 
1650 ffc., descending at last to the Tyri-fjord and to the vicinity of 
Kongsberg. On this section the Norefjeld (W. of Krdderen) rises 
to a height of 4950 ft. 

G. The Hardanger-vidda (Ha/rdcmger-vidden), S.W. from the 
plateau just described, is the southernmost and highest plateau in 
Norway. It terminates on the W. at the Eidfjord and the Sorfjord 
(the innermost branches of the Hardanger-fjord), while on the E. it is 
bounded by several large lakes in Numedal and Telemarken, such as 
the Paalsbufjord, Maarvand, Mjosvand, Totakvand, &c. Southwards it 
extends, approximately, to a Ime between the Totakvand and Eoldal. 
With a length and breadth of about 55 m., its average height is about 
4000 ft. It is distinguished by its unusual flatness and by the many 
lakes, rich in fish, which chequer it. 

W. of the Ha/rdanger-vidda, and separated from it by the Sorfjord 
and by the valleys running thence towards Boldal, rises the great 
Folgefonn peninsula, surrounded on the W., N., and E. by the Hardanger- 
fjord, and on the S. partly by the Aakrefjord, one of the branches of 
the latter. A considerable part of this peninsula, steep on its E. side, is 
occupied by the Folgefonn glacier {snebne) (108 sq. m.), the ridge 
of which rises to a height of 5500 ft. above the sea-level, and from 
which again descend a long way down the Bua/rbrce and several other 

On the E. rise the Ovre Telema/rTcena fjelde (mtns. of Upper Tele* 
marken). Intersected by a great number of valleys and large lakes, 
the most celebrated elevations in these mountains are Gavstay with a 
rounded summit (6170 ft.) and the Lifjeld, a large and elevated mtn, 
mass N.E. of the Siljordsvand. 

H. The SsBtersdal heier (plateaux) are southern and lower continua- 
tions of the Ha/rdanger-mdda, These desolate, bare, and weather- 

Oeographyy Geology, Mineralogy, &c. [33] 

beaten mountain regions, which only occasionally rise to a height of 
3300 ft., embrace extensive districts on both sides of the Ssetersdal 
(almost the entire 8tift of Christiansand), and descend gently 
towards LindesnsBs. Several valleys intersect the mtns., generally in a 
S. direction. 

I. The Kystland or coast-line west of the high mtn.-ridge from 
the Bomsdalsfjord southwardSi is, together with certain parts of 
Nordland, the prettiest and most impressive region in Norway. Its 
long, narrow, and deep fjords, its narrow and steep-sided valleys, and 
its thousands of isles and rocks torn from the mainland, present to the 
eye a picture of disruption by mighty forces of nature, and at the same 
time a landscape of grand and ever- varied beauty, almost unrivalled in 
the world. 

The northern part of the Veatenfjeldske^ from the Bomsdal to the 
Sogne fjord, occupied by various of&hoots of the Dovre descending to 
the edge of the coast, has more especially an aspect of grandeur, 
derived in part from its bold, ragged mtn. features. We may mention 
the StatlaJndet peninsula, jutting &r out in the sea, the turreted, 
wall -shaped Homelen mtn. on Bremangerland island, the islands of 
Batcdden^ Skorpaf Kinn (with the extraordinary split Kvnnekloven 
mtn.), and Alden (with the Norske heat, or horse). These and many 
other mtns. look very picturesque from the sea. On the other hand, 
the coast between the Sogne and the Stavanger fjord, intersected 
by spurs of the Langf jeld mtns., is on the whole lower and of less 
grand aspect. Between Stavanger and Lindesnses intervenes the low 
coast of JcBderen and Liaterland, very different in character from 
that of the Yestland. Its lower stratum is composed of loose earth, 
peat-bog, clay, and sand, and the highest elevations do not exceed 
1650 ft. 

K. The lower dstland (Eastland), or SondenQeldske country, is of 
a totally different aspect from the Norderi' and the Vesten-fjeldaJce, 
The hills have mostly rounded and wooded tops of no great height ; the 
valleys are broader, and not nnfrequently expand into wide pliuns ; the 
rivers flow less rapidly, and often spread out into lakes ; the coast is 
low, uniform, and without many conspicuous landmarks ; and altogether 
the natural features are softer, and certainly £Eur less grand. This is 
the flattest, most fertile, and best populated part of Norway. Farther, 
however, to the S.W., towards the flat highlands of Saetersdalen, the 
country is, as a rule, hilly and arid, with narrow, steep-sided 
valleys and some bare mtns., fax inferior in grandeur to those of the 
Vestenfjeldske district. This is, therefore, the most desolate, the 
poorest, and the least attractive part of the Oatla/nd, 

The other salient geographical features of Norway (fjords or firths, 
lakes, rivers, waterfalls) are reserved for ^description in the Sections 
that deal with Boutes. 

Although it is intended that the ICaps attached to this work should 
supply the tourist, as well as the sportsman, with all the information 
he may require in pursuit of his object, yet it is necessary to add, for 
the benefit of the more ambitious explorer or mountain-climber, that 
tiie Norwegian Survey Office has issued a series of excellent maps of 
prefectures (Amtka/rter), charts (recently revised) of the entire coast 
[Norway— yi. 92.] ^ 

[84] Geography^ Oeology^ Mineralogy, &c, 

from Syinestind (on the Swedish frontier) to the Jaoobs-elv (on the 
bonndfury of Bussia), several sheets of a large map on the scale of 
1 : 100,000 (Bektangelkarter), as well as a general map of Southern 
Norway (Qeneralkart), a series of geological maps, &c. Professor J. A. 
Friis, the great Lappish scholar and explorer, has published a valuable 
series of maps relating principally to the ethnology of the prefecture 
of Tromso and Finmarken. They also show the rivers which are 
frequented by salmon, and the distances to which the latter ascend. 
AU these maps and charts are obtainable at any Tourist-Agent Office, 
and from all booksellers in the principal towns of Norway. 

2. Geology. — The whole Scandinavian peninsula is highly in- 
teresting to the geologist and mineralogist, although Sweden is much 
richer in minerals. Norway and Lapland are chiefly composed of gran- 
itic and metamorphic rocks. The prevailing primary rock is gneiss, 
which sometimes alternates with granite. Mica-slate ako abounds, and 
is associated with the gneiss ; while in beds subordinate to both are 
limestone, quartz, and hornblende. The plateaux of the mountains 
are often covered with blocks of a conglomerate rock, in which pebbles 
of quartz, felspar, &c., are embedded, and which, being smooth and 
roimded, have evidently been, during a remote but lengthened period, 
subject to violent friction. Vast deposits of till and boulder-clay abound 
in aU the lower valleys. Nearly all the larger valleys that open to the 
sea or the fjords are terraced with these. They form series of steps, 
usually rising to about 600 ft. above the present sea-level. 

Many of these steps spread out as large level fertile areas on which 
are located some of the best farms in Norwav. Fine examples may 
be seen by the tourist who drives or walks from Trondhjem to visit 
the falls of the Nid, and from the railway between Trondhjem and 
Storen. The glacial origin of all these clays is proved by the striated 
boulders they contain. Another remarkable deposit, not clayey, covers 
most of the fields and upper levels. It differs very matericJly from 
boulder-clay, oeing quite loose and gravelly. It differs also from 
moraines, not being heaped at all, and containing fax more sandy 
material. A similar de^sit, reaching down to Sie sea-level, and 
covering the old beds of mmor glaciers, forms the scanty soH of the small 
farms in northern Norway. The entire country stands pre-eminent as 
a field for the study of the vestiges of ancient glaciation. There is no 
doubt that it wsus at one time as completely ice-bound as Greenland is 
at present. 

3. Mineralogy. — Norway is not so rich as Sweden in minerals, but 
the development of railways and canals (especially in Telemarken) 
will no doubt render profitable the extension of Tm'ning operations. The 
principal metals at present extracted are : 1. Oold, found in small 
quantities in the quartz-veins around Eidsvold and (in recent years) on 
Bommel island (W. coast). It has also been found in the alluvial de- 
posits of the Alten and Tana and their tributaries (in the N.) 2. Native 
aiher is raised from mines in the Kongsberg district, among the richest 
m Europe, and where it frequently occurs in large pure masses of a 
cwt. and more. Silver ore of various kinds is also foimd in a few places 
such as Kongsberg, Svenningdal, and Hatf jelddal in Nordltmd, and on 
Hitteren island on the W. coast. 8. Iron ores are widely deposited, 

Geography y Oeologyy Mineralogy y &c. [35] 

the principal mines of purest iron being on the coast of Bamle and 
Nedenses, and more particularly at Kragero, Tvedestrand, and Arendal 
(Christiania fjord). Pyrites, used in the manufacture of sulphuric acid, 
is somewhat abundant on Karmo (island), in the Hardangerfjord, in 
Foldalen, and Meldalen, as well as on Ytteroen (an island near Tron- 
dhjem). 4. Several varieties of copper ore (especially copper pyrites) 
are raised from mines in the Roros and Meraker districts, on Ytteroen, 
and at many other places, such as Karmo, Yaraldso, in the Hardanger 
fjord, in Sogn, Sondfjord, Foldal, near Drammen and Arendal, in 
Ssetersdalen, Nordland, and Alten. Special mention must be made of 
the Bratsberg Copper Mines worked by an English company in Tele- 
inarken, not £a.r from the shore of the great Bandak lake, now connected 
by a canal and locks with the Christiania fjord, at Skien. 5. Nickel 
is an important mineral product, especially in the form of magnetic 
pyrites, and occurs chiefly in the S. of Norway. 6. Chrome ore is found 
chiefly in the Eoros district, in Snarum, Sundalen, and in Banen (Nord- 
land). 7. Lead and zinc occur here and there ; and 8. Mcmganese, 
in small quantities, at Drobak (Christiania fjord), in Telemarken, and 
near Christiansand. 

Limestone^ for lime and partly for cement, is abimdant in the Chris- 
tiania valley, at Drammen, in the Langesund fjord, on Lake Mjosen, 
and at many other places on the W. and in the N. Very fine-grained 
marble and serpentine are now quarried in Nordland, at Hop, near 
Bergen, and in the vicinity of Drammen ; and granite at Frederikstad 
and Christiania, as well as in the Iddefjord. Felspar, used in the manu- 
facture of porcelain, is very generally found in the mtns., and in recent 
years in Smaalenene (E. of Christiania fjord) and on the coast between 
Langesund and Grimstad on the same fjord, ^jpa^^, a mineral much 
used for artificial manure, is more especially raised and widely ex- 
ported on the coast from Bamle to Bisor (Christiania fjord). Service- 
able coal has so far not been discovered. Ice may be appropriately 
included in this section as an important article of export, specially 
from the Christiania fjord. 

Of the great number of m4/neral springs in Norway, the most im- 
portant are the two ferruginous springs at Modum and Eidsvold, and 
the sulphur spring at Sandefjord, all neEu: Christiania. A sulphurous 
spring, several ferruginous springs, and a saline spring are of great 
repute at Laurvig, next to Sandefjord. 

4. Climate. — Since about one -third of the area of the kingdom lies 

within the cold zone and the remainder in the northernmost part of the 

temperate zone, and, farther, as extensive stretches of the country 

have a considerable altitude over the sea, the climate of Norway, taken 

as a whole, is cold and severe. Yet, climatic conditions extending over 

thirteen degrees of latitude must necessarily be very different in the 

N. and the S. The isothermal lines run generaUy along the coast, whence 

it follows that the districts contiguous to it are much favoured, whilst 

warmth decreases, relatively, in a rapid manner towards the interior of 

the country. The coldest districts are found in the inner parts of Fin- 

marken, in the high, mountainous S.E. part of the S. Trondhjem prefect., 

and in the N. portion of Osterdalen. The mean annual temperature of 

the country may be stated at 36*5° Fabr., but during the summer months 


[86] Oeography, Geology , Mineralogy^ &c. 

the heat is often locally as great as or greater than that of England, 
whilst in mid-winter the thermometer frequently marks, also locally, 
many degrees below zero. Eesearches made(1876-78) by the Norwegian 
North Atlantic Expedition will not permit us any longer to attribute the 
relatively favourable climatic condition of Norway altogether to the 
action of the Gidf Stream. A main cause is to be found in the mild S. W. 
winds which blow along the W. coast, as a result of a constant baro- 
metrical minimum in the " Norwegian Sea " (between Norway, the Faero 
islands, Iceland, Jan Mayen, Spitzbergen, and the Bear (Cherry) islands. 
These winds set in motion the warm north-flowing surface stream 
of the North Atlantic, which, in its attempt to deflect eastwards (partly 
owing to the earth's rotation), washes the much indented western shores 
as far as the Russian frontier, and even beyond. Of great influence in 
this respect are the hanks connected with the Nordhavs ha/rrier (N. 
Atlantic barrier), a remarkable upheaval of the sea-bottom, which, with 
a relatively small depth of little more than 1300 fb., nms across to the 
Bear islsand, and Spitzbergen. The barrier extends S. to the mouth of 
the Sognefjord, whence across to the Shetlands lie the ha/n7cs which, con- 
nected as they all are (with a breadth of several nautical miles), decline 
gently until from a depth of about 1300 ft. they join abruptly the great 
chasm of the " Norwegian Sea '* (more than 4000 ft.) The abrupt edges 
of the banks are at a distance of 25 to 125 m. from the Norwegian 
coast, their nearest approaches being towards Bomsdal and outside the 
Vesteraalen islands (Lofoten). With respect to differences in tempera- 
ture according to the season, to rainfall^ and to toinds, Norway can be 
divided into two climatic regions, insensibly merged : 

(a) The west coast, between Lindesnses and the Lofoten group, has 
a well-marked coast'Climate. For reasons above given, the cold in 
winter is slight. In January (the coldest month) the mean temperature 
is 82° Fahr. from Lindesnses to Namdalen, and on some of the outlying 
islands even 35*6° — a great deal warmer than the corresponding mean 
temperature for the same degrees of latitude. At the N. Cape the mean 
temperature in January is 24*8° Fahr. The lowest recorded tem- 
perature between Lofoten and Skudenaes has been about 5° Fahr. 
On the other hand, the raw sea- air does not permit the attainment of 
any great heat in summer. Thus the mean heat between Lindesnses 
and Finmarken, in July, ranges between 57*5° and 48° Fahr., and the 
temperature seldom rises above 77°. To the advantage of the fisheries, 
the sea along the W. coast never freezes (except at the head of §ords), 
while in the Vestenfjeldske district proper domestic animals can 
remain out during the greater part of the year, and com is never liable 
to the danger of night frost. These conditions are unfavourable to the 
growth of trees (of which, however, in the N., the disproportionate leaf- 
development is remarkable), and frequently necessitates the cutting of 
com in a green state, notwithstanding early sowing. 

The proximity of the sea causes the humidity of the W. coast to be 
considerable. The sky is frequently clouded, especially on the Fin- 
marken coast, and in several places the number of rainy days is in bad 
seasons as much as 200. Bergen, especially, has a traditional reputa- 
tion for rain, which however it often belies, the weather being fre- 
quently delightful there in June and July ; of late years at least it has 

Geography^ Geology^ Mineralogy , &c. 


been during the summer greatly superior to that of Trondhjem and its 
neighbourhood. The large average of rainy days includes of course 
those of the spring, autumn, and winter. From Vardo to Lofoten snow 
is more frequent than rain in winter, and falls occasionally even in 
snnmier. On the remaining part of the W. coast it is rain that pre- 
vails. The rainfall is most considerable between Bergen and Stat (near 
Aalesund), and especially along the Jostedalsbrse. From a maximum 
of 119 cub. in., it falls N. and S. to about 62 in. 

In winter cold land-t(^<^« prevail, producing frost-/o^» in the fjords, 
and having outside the coast a tendency to deflect N. Storms occur 
frequently, especially in winter, and along the more northern coast. 
They occur on the average once a month at Skudenses, once a week 
at the N. Cape, and on the Bomsdal coast even once in every five 
days. Dangerous squalls are common in the fjords. 

(&) The eastf or SondenfjeldsJce, cov/ntry (S. of the Dovre and E. of 
the Langfjeld mtns.) Its climate, especially inland, varies greatly in 
the several seasons. Generally the winter is very severe. Thus, at 
Christiania the mean heat is about 23° Fahr., but not unfrequently the 
temperature falls to 1Q'G>°. In the S. part of Osterdal the mean heat 
of the same months will be 14°, and the lowest temperature down to 
40° Fahr. (below the freezing-point of quicksilver) ; at Eoros (between 
Christiania and Trondhjem) the mean readings are relatively 10*4° and 
47*2°. On the other hand, the summer heat is somewhat considerable. 
At Christiania the mean heat in July is about 61° Fahr., but the tem- 
perature occasionally rises to 89*6°, and more ; around Eoros, notwith- 
standing a height of over 2000 ft. above the sea, the thermometer 
will not seldom register 84*2°. 

In most winters the rivers and lakes in this part of the country, as 
well as its harbours and smaller fjords, remain frozen for four or five 
months. The most important of the harbours are kept open artificially 
by powerful ice-breaking steamers. It may be mentioned here that the 
average temperatv/re of the sea is 3^° to 7° warmer than the air, and 
necessarily lower than that of the air in summer and higher in winter. 

There is less moisture in this section of the country than in the 
one above dealt with. The number of rainy days is only 100 to 150. 
In the regions below an altitude of 5000 ft. rain is more frequent than 
snow. The annual rainfell varies from 20-25 cub. in. inland to 60 on 
the coast. Some of the valleys in the interior, particularly the upper 
part of Gudbrandsdal, are not unfrequently exposed to drought. 

The mean temperature and average rainfall in various parts of 
Norway between lat. 70° 22' and 59° 55' N. are as follows ; 


Temp. Fahr. 

Bain, inch 

Temp. Fahr. 

Bain, inch 

Vardo . 


Floro . 





Bergen . 



Bodo . 









LindesnsBS . 


Dovre . 



Christiania . 



Roros . 



Geography y Oeologyy Mineralogy y &c. 

As in the " Vestland," the prevailing winds are those that blo-w 
from the land, and which, in the interior of the country, follow the 
directions of the valleys, and bring cold down from the higher mtns. 
In summer the wind blows most frequently from the sea. Its strength 
is seldom considerable, and the annual number of stormy days is 
small — at Christiania scarcely one per annum. Hail- and thunder- 
storms are of rare occurrence. 

In such a northern country the summer is necessarily short. At 
Christiania, where it begins in May and ends in September, it can be 
taken to last four months, while in the northernmost part of the 
Trondhjem Stift (eccles. pro v.) it lasts only about two and a-half 
months (from the beginning of June to the middle of August), and in 
Finmarken scarcely two months. In the northernmost regions the 
shortness of the summer finds, to a certain extent, compensation in 
the length of the days, and by the sun remaining uninterruptedly over 
the horizon. Thus, at Bodo the solar-centre remains thirty-nine days 
over the horizon, at Tromso a little over two months, and at the N. Cape 
two and a-half months. 

Owing to its great elevation above the level of the ocean, the 
country is, over considerable stretches, covered with perpetual snow 
(glaciers, &c.) About 3100 sq. m. (8000 sq. kil.), or 2^ per cent, 
of the total area of Norway, are thus covered. The snow limit sinks 
not only towards the N., but generally also towards the W. Its height 
above the sea in various parts of the country is as follows : 


alt., feet 



alt., feet 

Folgef onn, W. side 

n E. „ 
FiUefjeld . 




Sulitjelma . 



Sahihrity, — The climate, which, except in the extreme N., belongs 
to the temperate zone, is, on the whole, very healthy, and permits 
the average duration of life to be longer than in any other country. 
The average death-rate for the whole of Norway is 19 per mille, while 
on Karmo island (near Haugesund) it is only 12. As regards the ages of 
the living, they compare favourably with the statistics of Great Britain 
and Germany. Out of 10,000 children bom alive in Norway, 7942 
males attain twenty years, 5626 fifty years, and 3370 the seventieth 
year. For England the corresponiHng figures are : 6800, 4770, and 
2221. The atmosphere is bracing and pure, and, as regards richness 
of ozorwy the maximum scale is found in Norway. Whether this be 
the chief or only reason why the atmosphere is so wonderfully invigo- 
rating has not yet been determined, "but certain it is," writes Dr. 
Stabell, an eminent physician at Christiania,^ " that the effect is ap- 
parent : the sad become cheerful, the apathetic recover their energy, 
and those who previously took food unwillingly recover their appetite, 
and eat as if they had done a hard day's work." 

» In Norway Illiistrated, Bergen, 1889. 

Geography, Oeology, Mineralogy, &c. 


Excellent physicians, surgeons, and dentists are found in Norway^ 
the fees being very small compared with those charged in England. 

Pra^yticcd weather-notes Except on the W. coast, the weather is 

generally more settled than in England, being either good or bad con'^ 
seontively for a considerable period. As a rule, a W. wind brings wet 
weather along the coast and dry weather inland ; an E. wind is accom- 
panied by rain in Gudbrandsdal and the valleys E. of the main ranges, 
with fine weather in the fjords. August and September are the most 
rainy months in the E. districts. On the W. coast the rainy season 
begins a Httle later. The cold in winter is generally dry inland and in 
the E. and S.E. parts of the country, and is therefore not only bearable, 
but enjoyable, by those who have the weakest constitutions. 

Thermomet^ Convpa/risons, — The scale used in Norway is that of 
B^aumur. Zero Fahrenheit corresponds with ndnns 17*78 Centigrade 
and mmus 14*22 B^aumur. 

To convert degrees of B^aumur into Fahrenheit above freezing- 
point, multiply by 2^ and add 32 ; below, multiply by 2^ and subtract 
the product from 82, thus : 

17 B. X 2J = 38:^, add 32 = 70J Fahr. of heat. 
8 B. X 2i = 18, subtract 18 from 82 = 14 Fahr. of heat. 

To convert degrees of Celsius or Centigrade into those of Fahrenheit, 
multiply by 1^ and add 82 if above freezing-point, and subtract if below. 

To convert degrees of Fahrenheit into those of B^aumur, subtract 
82 from the given number, and multiply by the fraction f ; thus : 

167 Fahr.-82«186 X f = 60 B. 













13 Temperate 













Zero Freezing 












































50 Quicksilver 

5. Botany. — The vegetation of Norway is of great uniformity, and 
almost entirely wanting in the forms and colours of warmer countries, 
although, owing to exceptionally £Bbvourable climatic conditions, it is 
richer than that of other regions in the same latitude. Instead of 
southern variety, we come across imiuense masses of one and the same 
species of vegetable growth ; particularly coniferous trees, the birch, 
the willow, various grasses and sedges, heather, wild-berry plants, 
mosses, ferns, and lichens. It is more especially where the substratum 
consists of granite or other not easily decomposable rocks, as well as on 
the marsh lands, that vegetable hfe has a poor, cold, and but little 
attractive character. Where the subsoil is looser, warmer, and drier, 
the vegetation is, on the other hand, rich and varied, resembling that 

[40] Geography, Geology , Mineralogy^ &c. 

of southern climes, and including many rare species, which find in 
such parts of Norway their most northerly extension. The Christiania 
valley and the Langesund fjord (running out of the Christiania fjord) 
are the most favoured in this respect. 

According to Prof. A. Blytt, the wild plants of Norway are divisible 
into the following groups : (a) Arctic species^ growing in N. Greenland, 
Spitzber^en, and other arctic regions, and which are perceptibly con- 
nected with the Qelds and the northern parts of Norway. (6) The Sub- 
atretic, not found in the two regions just mentioned, but spread over 
the whole of Norway, both on the fjelds and the lower country, par- 
ticularly in the shady, wooded valleys and on the slopes of the mtns. 
(c) Boreal, spread most extensively in the lower part of the country, 
especially where wood-clad rocks prevail, avoiding, however, the outer 
line of the west-coast region, (d) Svh-horeal, This species belongs 
to the lowest S.E. parts of the country, around the Christiania Qord 
more especieJly. (e) Atlantic^ chiefly prevalent along the coast from 
Stavanger to Christiansund. (/) Sub-Atlcmidc, found on the coast be- 
tween Stavanger and Kragero, as well as in the Smaalenene prefecture 
(E. of Christiania fjord). These groups never occur unmixed, but in 
sufficient character, general and individual, to impart locally a dis- 
tinctive stamp on the vegetation. Variety in climatic conditions 
naturally renders different Qxe vegetation of the W. and E. and the N. 
and S., and at different levels above the sea. Prof. Schtlbeler's in- 
vestigations show that in the northerly districts vegetation has the 
advantage of a rapid development, and of heavier, darker-coloured, 
more aromatic fruit (although less sweet), flowers, and leaves. 

Norway is still richer in forests than most other European coun- 
tries, about the fifth part of the area of the country being covered with 
them. The most important stretches of forest are found in the S., in 
the basins of the Tista, Glommen, Drammen, Numedal-Laagen, Skien, 
and Nid, and in the Nordenfjeldske country at the head of the 
Trondhjem fjord, in Namdalen, Yefsen, and Maalselvdalen. But the 
forests have almost in all parts of the country been to a great extent 
devastated, {»rincipally by me rapacious hand of man, partly by climatic 
changes, produced in some degree also by the reckless destruction of 
woods for conunercial purposes. There is no law to curb the de- 
foresting of the country or to make compulsory the replanting of it 
with trees. 

The forests consist almost exclusively of pine, fir, and birch, the 
quantity of oak and beech being relatively very small. The pme grows 
throughout the entire country, as far as Alten and the Porsanger fjord 
(70° N. lat.%'as well as along the Tana r. and in the S. Yaranger fjord, 
in about the same lat. In S. Norway it extends to a height of 
about 8100 ft. above the sea, but attains a much lesser elevation in 
the W., and especially in the N. In Finmarken it does not occur 
above a height of 800 fb. The^ abounds chiefly in the Sondenf jeldske 
and Nordenfjeldske districts, in company with the pine, but at a 
somewhat lesser altitude above the sea. Its northerly limit is in 
lat. 67** N.', but a species of it is found on the S. Yaranger fjord 
and on the banks of the Tana. In the W. part of Norway it does not 
<?row wild^ except at Yoss and at a few other places, where it is a great 

Geography y Geology y Mineralogy ^ &c, [41] 

rarity. The birch is widely spread over the entire coxintry up to the 
Arctic Ocean. In the lower parts of S. Norway it mingles as a rule 
with other forest trees, but on the fjelds, above the line of the cordfercB, 
as well as in Finmarken, it generally occupies forests of its own. In 
S. Norway this tree attains an altitude of 8600 ft. ; in the W. parts 
of Sogn it does not rise more than 1650 ft., and in Finmarken 1000 to 
1650 ft. The alder is everywhere indigenous (even as far as the 
Arctic Ocean) and attains on the fjelds almost the same altitude as 
the species above mentioned. The oak is found in the lower-lying 
districts as far as Nordmore and the Mjosen lake. There are small 
woods of it along the W. coast, especially on either side of LindesnsBS. 
The ash is con&ied to the S. of Norway, but the moxmtain-ash 
flourishes all oyer the country. The beech is the rarest tree in Nor- 
way, growing only in the prefectures of Jarlsberg and Laurvig (there 
being a large wood of it close to the town of Laurvig) and in the 
neighbourhood of Eragero and Arendal. Some few beech- trees are 
also found a little N. of Bergen. Avoiding notice of other inferior 
species of trees, we may mention here, in respect of vegetable life and 
its dependence on conditions of altitude, that three belts are distin- 
guishable on the Norwegian mtns. (fjelds), being more especially dis- 
tinct in the Yestenfjelds region, viz. : 
{a) The zone of Comferce. 

(b) The zone of the birch, 

(c) The zone of fjeld (mtn.) vegetation, between the birch zone 
and the snow limit, comprises at its lower extremity bushes of 
the jumper, the d/wa/rf birch (betula ncma), the aJder, and osiers, 
affording fuel to the elevated sseter (pasturage) regions. Within it are 
also found extensive, sometimes marshy, plateaux (flyer), covered with 
heather, berry-bearing plants, lichen, and- moss. Higher up the fjelds 
are generally clothed with a thick carpet of greyish herbage, from 
which bare black rocks rise towards the region of perpetual snow. In 
the clefts of the steep rock- sides, amongst the sand and gravel of the 
river-beds, and on other fiavourable spots, this zone has a rich and 
interesting mountain flora, chiefly with low stems, strong roots, and 
pretty flowers of exceptionally pure colour, but rarely with any scent. 

Cereals, — Wheat (especially spring com) is grown as feur as lat. 
64° 80^ N., and in the more southerly parts of the country up to an 
altitude of nearly 1000 ft. Its cultivation (relatively unimportant) is, 
however, chiefly limited to the regions around the Christiania fjord 
and along its coast as far as Lindesnses. Bye (principally winter com) 
extends to lat. 69° N., and in S. Norway to an altitude of 2000 ft., and 
is grown chiefly in the episcopal provinces (Stift) of Ghnstiania and 
Hamar. Oats grow almost as far N. as rye. Barley, the hardiest and 
quickest ripening cereal in Norway, is raised as far as lat. 70"^ N., and 
in S. Norway up to an altitude of 2130 ft. In Finmarken the interval 
between sowing and reaping is eighty to ninety days, in S. Norway a 
little longer, as a genera! rule. The ^o^^o. is extensively grown over 
a considerable area of the arable land in the S., and almost one-half 
of such land in the N. is devoted to its cultivation. Peas and beans 
are produced in occasional patches in the S. : flax and hemp on a 
small scale as f&r as Finmarken. Tti/mips are somewhat generally 

[42] Geography^ Geology, Mineralogy y &c, 

produced as food for cattle. The Norwegians are still very backward 
in the art of raising vegetables, of which there is a considerable neces- 
sary importation from France and Belgium. Vegetables (excepting 
potatoes) are very Httle used by the lower classes. In fact, cultivated 
land occupies an area of only 1100 sq. m. 

Fruit-trees, — The apple-tree flourishes as fiur as lat. 66° 10' N., 
and in S. Norway to an altitude of 1300 ft., and especially at the 
heads of the W. fjords and in the lower Sondenfjeld regions. Some 
very fine species are extensively grown in the W. cockst district. 
The pea/r-tree and the phim-tree are found as far N. as Inderden 
(Trondhjem pref.) Cherries are grown up to the Polar Circle. 
Gooseberries, cwrrcunts, and raspberries are abundant in gardens. 
Stra/wberries are cultivated, and are plentiful and excellent in Bergen 
and Ghristiania, and sometimes in Trondhjem. The principal wild 
berries are — the rmilte-bcer (cloudberry) : Bubiis CTuimusmorus — found 
in immense quantities in the marshy Nordenfjeldske district; the wild 
strawberry (jord-beer), common everywhere, but literally clothing the 
soil in parts of Vefsen ; the wild raspberry (brmge-bar), luxuriant 
wherever the forest has been partially cleared ; the bla^a-bar, or bil- 
berry ; the ndhheU-bcer (Skindtryte, blokkebaer), or whortleberry ; the 
cowberry (tytte-beer) ; and the trcme-bter, or cranberry. There is a 
great difference between the latter (more scarce) and the tytte-bter 
(a much smaller berry), which most Norwegians insist on calling 

6. Zoology. — As in the case of vegetation, the animal life of Norway 
is richer than that of any other country in the same latitude. The 
fcmna is remarkable for the number of species which in other parts of 
Europe have either disappeared or are fast dying out, such as the bear, 
wolf, lynx, glutton, elk — and piBrhaps the be<wer. There are many 
"BsBverdals" (beaver valleys) in Norway, and every hunter has 
noticed, in secluded glens, the ancient dams constructed by those in- 
teresting animals, once abundant in the country. They are now found 
only in a few places and in small numbers, chiefly in the prefects, 
of Bratsberg and Nedenses. The physical geography of the country 
necessarily affects the distribution of animal life. In the lowlcmds a 
considerable variety of small birds is noticeable, including the fieuniliar 
tribes of finches i flycatchers, wa/rblers, wagta/ils, pipits, bvmMngs, and 
Ui/m/ice, many of which, as well as the swallow, cucTcoo, and land/ra/il, 
are summer migrants ; besides the raven, crow, magpie, various ha/wTcs 
and owls, and many others, indigenous and resident. Nevertheless, 
English travellers in Norway will frequently remark the stillness of the 
woods ; for (making due allowance for the partial cessation of song and 
movement during the breeding-season) there is nowhere in the North- 
land — perhaps, indeed, nowhere in Europe — anything comparable to the 
exuberant inland bird-life of the British Isles. In the cultivated por- 
tion of the region to which we are now referring the common grey 
pa/rtridge occurs, and very seldom the quaih The mammalia' are 
chiefly represented by the rodent order, such as ha/res, sqwi/rreU, rats, 
nvice, wholes, bats, &c. , and the hedgehog (of partial distribution). Snakes, 
of the ordinary and harmless kind, are not uncommon. Adders and 
slow-worms are of local occurrence. 

Geography y Geology^ Mineralogy ^ &c. [43] 

Amongst the fishes inhabiting the rivers and lakes in the lower 
lands are iYie perch, j^lce^ sik {Coregonus lava/retus), burhot, eel, trout, 
and salmon. 

It is in the great forests of Norway that we find the elk, the 
biggest wild animal in Em*ope, which is now spreading considerably 
year by year all over the country ; the heanr, tenanting the most thickly 
wooded and rockiest districts ; the wolf, numerous everywhere scarcely 
half a century ago, but now confined principally to Finmarken, 
although it has recently invaded the prefect, of N. Trondhjem during 
the winter in considerable numbers ; and the lynx, evenly distributed, 
but most numerous in the prefects, of S. Trondhjem, Eomsdal, Brats- 
berg, and Nedenses. The red-deer is found only on the W. coast and 
its islands. Amongst the lesser mammalia of the forest region — to 
which many of those inhabiting the lowlands are of course also com- 
mon — are the badger, pole-cat, ma/rten, weasel, and red-fox. 

The principal game birds of the forest region — common also to 
some parts of the lowlands — are the capercailzie, black-grouse, taillow- 
grouse, hazel-grouse (Tetrao Bonasia), and woodcock. Amongst 
other members of the feathered tribes may be specially mentioned the 
crossbill, cinnamon jay, great black woodpecker (with its congeners, 
the green and spotted) ; in summer-time, the fieldfa/re and redwing, 
which nest in colonies; the crested titmouse {Pa/rus cristatus); and, far 
rarer, the magnificent eagle-owl, the nutcracker crow {Nudfraga 
ca/ryocatactes), the pine bullfinch {Pyrrhula emicleator), the blus- 
breasted robin (Sylvia svecica), and the Boherma/n, wax-vmig 
(AmpeUs garruhis) — all the latter birds being peculiarly characteristic 
of the Northland, particularly of those parts of it which are within the 
Arctic Circle, and where they are seldom seen except by the wandering 
naturalist. The highlam.ds, or fjeld districts, are tenanted during the 
summer and early autumn by a variety of waders, such as the golden 
'plover, dotterel, whimbrel, ruff, double and common snipe, which nest 
in the vicinity of the high-level marshes, and migrate thence before the 
winter. In the innumerable tarns and lakes are found at the same 
season various species of the duck tribe, including the mallard,uddgeon, 
teal, pintail, golden-eye, shovell^er, velvet and common scoter, and 
sca/up, and two divers (Lom), the black-throated and the red-throated 
(the most common), as well as the mergamser and, occasionally, the 
grebe. The great northern diver is much rarer, and even in the far 
North is seldom seen in summer. It is a late autnnm and winter 
visitor to Norway. 

The same regions are inhabited by such birds of prey as the eagle 
{golden and white tailed), the osprey, the ger- falcon, and the gos- 
hanjok, the rough-legged buzzard, the snowy owl, and the Lapkmd or 
cat owl, most of which are also found in the forest region, and occa- 
sionally descend to the lowlands. 

The most remarkable of the indigenous ma/mmalia in these lofty 
regions are the wild reindeer, now found almost exclusively on the 
high ridges S. of Nordland (Hardanger-vidden, Jotunfleld, Dovre, and 
tracts roimd the Rondane and the Tryssil fjelds), and estimated to 
number at present between 10,000 and 20,000 head. Here also is found 
the glutton or wolverine (Gulo boreaUs), the deadly enemy of the 

[44] Geography^ Geology, Mineralogy, &c. 

reindeer, most common in Finmarken and Nordland, but at the same 
time distributed over the country even to the verge of the southern 
lowlands near the Christiania fjord, and the rare hlue or silver foac 
(the fur of which is so valuable), as well as the also rare crossed species. 

Of the smaller quadrupeds of Norway, one may be briefly noticed 
on account of its singular habits and local interest, and this is the 
Lemming (My odes lemnvus). These small creatures, which are sonae- 
what smaller than a water-rat, and resemble a diminutive guinea-pig, 
being beautifully coloured with black, orange, and brown, have their 
home in the high mtn. plateaux of Norway, but migrate at irregular 
periods, in countless numbers, to the lowlands, always marching first 
down the slopes and then along the bottoms of valleys. Nothing stops 
them when once on the march — whether river, lake, or fjord. They 
are reported to have once invaded by millions the streets of Trondhjem. 
If, while migrating, they reach the open sea, they swim straight out 
and, fortunately for mankind, perish in the waters. They are also 
drowned in great numbers when crossing lakes and rivers, and the de- 
composition of their bodies in lakes, &c., firom which drinking-water is 
taken, frequently produces an epidemic locally known as ** Lemming 
Fever." They never return to the mtns. In their periodical halts 
they will infest the same region for one or two years, but seldom, if 
ever, longer. They do great damage to the crops and herbage in 
those districts which they select; so great indeed was the mischief 
caused by them in old times that they were solemnly exorcised by the 
priests, and a Lemming Litany was appointed with that object. They 
are always followed by a great number of the smaller hawks and owls, 
especially the snowy owl. The reindeer are said to feed on them at 
times. To the sportsman who happens to be hunting the district in 
which they are temporarily settled they are a great nuisance, for even 
the steadiest dogs get so excited over their capture as to neglect their 
sporting duties altogether. The lemming scorns to seek safety, as a 
rule, by hasty flight, for such is the courage contained in its diminu- 
tive body that it is ready to dispute the way with an elephant. 
It is amusing to watch one of these little creatures snapping and 
barking at the intruder on its haunts, and retreating with its face to 
the foe. 

The waters of many of the innumerable mtn. -lakes abound in 
trout and c7ia/r, which fatten on the clduds of insects — including the 
dreaded mosquito — that fill the air in many localities, especially in the 
interior of Finmarken. 

Immense flocks of geese (chiefly the grey -leg and hea/n-goose, but 
also the wTnte-fronted and brent), of ducJcSy and other* aquatic birds 
which have been bred to a great extent in the waters of the interior, 
as well as on the distant shores of Greenland and Spitzbergen, collect 
towards autumn on the W. and N.W. coasts of Norway. The " bird- 
mtns.," or precipitous island cliffe, on which the sea-fowl congre- 
gate, will be noticed in the section that deals with Routes in N. Norway. 
The eider-duck is strictly ' preserved from the Trondhjem fjord 
northwards, and in some districts farther S. The mammaUa of the 
coast-line are represented by otters (found also inland), and by several 
species of seals and whales. Amongst the fishes, mention must be 

Statifttics. [45] 

specially made of the swarms of herrings, cod, pollock, and coal-fish 
(Sei)j the capture of which gives employment to thousands of fisher- 
men, and constitutes a national industry. Halibut ajid Ung of great 
size, two or three species of small shark (caught for the sake of their 
oil), the wolf -fishy and ordinary sea-fish, such as mackerel, haddock, 
whiting, Jhtmder, and the like, abound, besides several species of wrask 
and sea-bream, not so familiar to the English market. Lobsters 
(exported), crabs, and oysters (the latter partially cultivated, but not 
numerous) are an important source of income on the W. coast. 

IV. statistics. 

1. Population. — In 1891 this was returned by a census at about two 
millions (including seamen abroad), the rural and urban proportions 
being severally 76 and 24 per cent. It is kept down by emigration, the 
rate of which has occasionally been as high as that firom Ireland in the 
worst times. From 4000 in 1865, 1875, and 1876, the number of 
emigrants rose to over 28,000 in 1882 (about one-sixtieth of the popu- 
lation), but fell again in 1888, on an improvement in trade, to 21,500 
(1-8 per cent.) In 1889, again, it sank to 12,478. Emigration is 
directed principally towards the U.S. of America (Wisconsin, Minnesota, 
Iowa, and Illinois), where the Norwegian population is now over half 
a million, in a form more or less concrete, preserving to a great extent 
its own language and maintaining its national priesthood, recruited 
from home. A smaller contingent repairs to Canada, New Holland, 
New Zealand, Natal, and parts of S. America. On the other hand, the 
immigration of aliens (notably of Finlanders into Finmarken and of 
Swedes into the prefectures of Smaalenene, Jarlsberg, and Laurvig) is 
inconsiderable. In the inland rural districts the population is almost 
stationary, the small annual increase (0*65 per cent.) being referable 
chiefly to the sea-board and to towns, where trade and navigation sup- 
plement the small gains of husbandry. The most populous towns are 
Christiania, Bergen, Trondhjem, Stavanger, and Drammen. (See de- 

As in the other two Scandinavian countries, in Norway the popula- 
tion is very homogeneous, even the Lapps and Finlanders forming less 
than 2 per cent, of it. 

The origin of the Norwegians has been dealt with in the ** Historical 
Notice." They are, as a rule, well-grown and strong, although the state- 
ment so frequently made that an average Briton looks small in a Nor- 
wegian crowd is fabulous. In a country where the conditions of 
climate and life are so hard, the fittest are necessarily strong. A Nor- 
wegian is of a serious turn of mind, sensible and cahn when not excited 
by agitation or drink, and not combative, although given to litigation. 
His obstinacy and a certain slowness in mind and body are possibly 
legacies of the Finnish races which he superseded, the same quali- 
ties being observable to the present day among the Finns of Eussia, 
and the Bulgarians of the S. of Europe. The Norwegians have in 
common with the Finns the characteristic proverb : " Hurry not, 
except when catching fleas." 

[46] Statistics. 

Self-conBcioosnesB and national vanity, and a love of liberty that 
tends somewhat to an extreme devolution, are likewise features of 
character as noticeable as the primitive virtue of hospitality. 

Of their Religion we have treated under ''Government and Ad- 
ministration.'* Morality, except in the sense of honesty, leaves much 
to be desired, in the rural districts more especially. The dangerous 
system of long engagements, restricting but Httle the intercourse of 
the sexes, is productive of evil, akin to that which exists in our own 
" Black Country,*' amongst our mining population, and in some parts 
of Scotland. The household arrangements in towns and the relegation 
of peasant girls to sceters (chdlets) for the summer months, in charge 
of cows and goats, are among the principal causes of a state of morality 
represented (according to a Norwegian official statistician^) by a very 
considerable amount of illegitimacy. He states that out of one hundred 
couples, thirteen have children during the three first months after 
marriage, twelve in the following three months, and eight in the two 
next months, making a total of 33 per cent, of births eight months 
after marriage. If, however, he continues, we take into account 
children born previously to wedlock, it will be found that, out of every 
hundred of couples of the peasant-proprietor class or of persons in 
easy circumstances in the rural districts, thirty-four children accrue 
to them before marriage or within eight months after, while amongst 
the husmcend (agricultural tenants) and workmen the corresponding 
proportion is not less than 50 per cent., and in some localities even 
65 per cent. It is not only permissible to legitimitise bastards by 
marriage, but they may, by customary law, be sworn in case of doubt 
to several fathers (up to four or five), each of whom can be bound 
to contribute a proportionate share for the maintenance of such off- 
spring up to the age of fifteen. Among the rude fishermen in the 
Lofoten islands a half share in such a responsibility is not uncommon. 
The law, or rather custom, is also remarkably lenient in respect of 
the right of every woman to receive her " betrothed " in her master's 
house, and no contract in derogation of that right is valid. 

Drtmhemiess is certainly on the decrease ; in rural districts cases 
of it are rarely seen out of doors, while in the towns the poUce vigi- 
lantly exercise their duty of taking up any person " apparently intoxi- 
cated." Teetotalism and the " blue ribbon" have contributed towards 
this satisfactory result ; but to attribute it solely to a total- abstinence 
movement and to the adoption of a wisely modified ''Gothenburg 
system" of local option for the sale of spirituous liquor (which sup- 
plies better quahty at a lower price) is to deny the effect of more 
careful and practical religious training, of education, and of improve- 
ment in the dwellings and in the mode of life of the lower classes. 
Nor should it be forgotten that, as in our own country, the " drink 
bill " is much influenced by the earnings of the population. The bonds 
(peasant-proprietor) has many other calls nowadays on his resources 
in ready money. 

2. Occupations of the People. — (a) Agricultv/re, — More than one half 
of the population is engaged in tilling the soil and in its accompanying 

* Le Boyaume de Norvige, Dr. 0. 1. Broch. Christiania, 1878. 

Statistics. [47] 

occupations of rearing cattle and cutting timber, although only 2 per 
cent, of the total area of the country has so far lent itself to cultivation. 
Of that small area only *84 per cent, consists of arable land, the re- 
mainder being artificial meadows, &c. In the northernmost baiUwicks 
agriculture is limited to the raising of an inconsiderable quantity of 
potatoes. Except on the larger estates, having the benefit of modem 
implements and machinery, agriculture is pursued in an antiquated 
manner, with rough appliances. The smallness and frequently the 
chequered distribution of holdings, are conditions unfavourable to im- 
provement. In several prefectures the minute subdivision of land is a 
condition that renders impossible the sustenance of a family, to which 
therefore proprietorship or tenancy is only a subsidiary source of in- 
come. In these circumstances about 86 per cent, of the com con- 
sumed in Norway is imported from Eussia, Denmark, and Germany. 
There is, however, a small exportation of oats, as well as of barley 
in the ultimate form of excellent ale, largely consumed also in the 

Cattle-rearing is relatively of greater importance, and not only 
suffices (with the adjunct of American pork) to supply the home 
demand, but also admits of the exportation of sheep from the W. 
coast to Great Britain. In 1891, when the last census was taken, the 
animal stock was — horses 150,740 ; homed cattle about 1,004,000 ; 
sheep 1,407,500 ; goats 271,500 ; stoine 121,300, and reindeer 167,600 

(6) Fishing, — This was in ancient days the most important occupa- 
tion of the Norwegian people, and even now is one of the principal means 
of existence, leaving a considerable surplus of fish for exportation. The 
fisheries may be classified as the great deep-sea fisheries (cod and 
herring) on the Yesten- and Norden-fjeldske coasts, and the minor 
fisheries (mackerel^ around Lindesnses and on the Jarlsberg and 
Laurvig coast), coal-fish^ Ung, sahnon, sea-trout, lobsters, &c. 
Whaling is pursued chiefly off the coasts of Finmarken and Tromsd, 
but in 1890-91 the take was considerable in the Skagerak, almost in 
the Ghrktiania fjord. Bottle-nose whales and seals are taken by Nor- 
wegian vessels (sailing and steam) in large quantities off Jan Mayen, 
Spitzbergen, Greenland, &o. Between 1882-88 the annual value of the 
coast fid^eries, deducting the fish for home consumption, was more 
than a million sterling, and that of the fish after processes of curing, 
&c. (for exportation) 2*8 millions. In 1888 the Lofoten cod fisheries 
alone gave employment to 82,000 men, the total number of men thus 
employed each season on the Norwegian sea-board being 81,400, in 
20,000 boats, large and small. Salted cod is exported chiefly to Spain 
and Portugal (70 per cent, of total export), and dried cod to Italy, 
Austria (40 per cent.), Holland, &c. The average annual value of the 
catch of herrings is about 280,OOOZ. Much progress has been made 
during the last century in the development of the fisheries, by aid and 
supervision both of the State and of local fishery boards or associations. 

(c) Mining gives employment to only about 2500 men, the industry 
having feJlen off since the beginning of the present century, when 
the production of iron (now cSmost ceased) began to decline. (See 
" Mineralogy.*') 

[48] Statistics. 

(d) Manufacturing industry, — This affords a livelihood to abo':t 
50,000 men. Notwithstanding a low customs tariff (almost the only 
revenue of the State), it has made, and continues to ms^e, very satis- 
factory progress with duty-free coal (from Great Britain), raw material 
only nominally taxed, and water-power of great magnitude and abun- 
dance. Some branches of it contribute substantially towards the ex- 
ports of the country : wood pulp (about 600,000i.)» 'matches (about 
100,000Z.), horseshoe and other naMs (about 160,000Z.), woollens (about 
130,000Z.) In 1889 the value of the exports of Norwegian manufac- 
tures (not including planed timber and fish oil) amounted to 
1,700,000Z., out of an aggregate export value of nearly seven and a-half 

(e) Shipping. — From the age of the Vikings, the Norwegians have 
lived principally by navigation. In proportion to the population, the 
shipping tonnage owned in Norway is now higher than that of any 
other country in the world, being eighty register tons per hundred 
inhabitants. In 1889 the Norwegian mercantile marine consisted of 
7285 vessels of 1,611,000 tons in the aggregate, and employing nearly 
56,000 men. In this respect Norway comes only after Great Britain 
and the U.S. of America ; but a large proportion being sailing ships 
(including many "floating cofl&ns'*), Norway stands lower than Ger- 
many and France on the list of steam tonnage, which was 137,500 
register tons in 1889, or only 9 per cent, of the total tonnage. The 
steamship tonnage is much on the increase, especially at Bergen. In 
1888 the gross earnings of the mercantile fleet engaged in the foreign 
trade were estimated at more than five miUions sterling, out of which 
about one-half was expended in foreign ports. 

(/) Trade, — In 1889 the imports were officially estimated at about 
10,600Z., and the exports at 7,400,000Z., the share of Great Britain being 
severally 31 and 33 per cent., while Germany supplied 25 per cent, of 
the total value of the imports and took only about 13 per cent, of that 
of the exports. The corresponding proportions for France were 2 J and 
6 per cent. In their order of value, the imports consisted of corn and 
flour (1,800,000Z.), textiles, &c. (1,600,000Z.), coffee, sugar, tobacco, &c. 
(1,200,000Z.) ; while 38 per cent, of the value of the exports represented 
timber, wood pulp, &c., 33 per cent, products of the fisheries, 24 per 
cent, other Norwegian productions, and 5 per cent, foreign goods 

3. Army and Navy. — {a) Army, — Military service is compulsory on 
all classes of the community, and conscription therefore embraces every 
citizen, not physically incapacitated, who has reached his twenty- 
second year. Only the clergy. Civil servants, pilot aldermen, pilots on 
the establishment, and (as yet) the inhabitants of Finmarken, are ex- 
empted. Substitutes cannot be provided. Even resident aliens, when 
not exempted by treaty, are subject to military service. Thus, British 
subjects domiciled (a very elastic term in Norway) in the country 
cannot prevent their sons from being converted into subjects of the King 
of Norway by compulsory enrolment. Those who contemplate settling 
even temporarily in Norway with sons approaching the age of liability 
to military conscription should keep this contingency clearly in view, 
together with the concurrent disability of not being able to acquire or 

Statistics. [49] 

rent, or to sell or devise to another alien, real property in any part of 
the kingdom, without special permission. Conscripts who are not 
thoroughly capacitated, or who are under a height of 5 ft. 3 in., are 
relegated to the train corps, the remainder being drafted into the Ime 
for a period of five years, after which they are attached for four years to 
the militia {Lcmd/v(Bmet)f but only for home service. Lastly, they form 
part of the Lcmdstorm, for local defence, during a farther period of 
four years. 

Nominally, the Norwegian army, as reorganised in 1886, is 
composed of about 64,000 men, including 880 officers and 3100 ser- 
geants and corporals. The theoretical strength of the line is 36,000, 
of whom not more than 18,000 can be placed on a war footing without 
the consent of the Storthing. About 2000 horses (artillery, cavalry, 
and train) belong to the army. The conscripts are exercised yearly — 
the junior class in the infantry and in the fortress and mountain artil- 
lery for at least forty -two days, the engineer troops for fifty days, and 
the cavalry and horse artillery for seventy days. These are the " Recruit 
School " exercises ; for subsequent training the men of the line are 
called up for at least twenty-four days, and the militia for not less than 
twelve days each year. 

The infa/ntry consists of H.M.'s Norwegian Guards, composed 
of two volimteer companies and of fiva brigades ; the ccuvalry of three 
corps, or eight squadrons ; the field artillery ^ also of three corps, of 
one battalion of three batteries, with six guns each. 

(6) Navy. — This is manned by seamen liable to service who have 
been at least twelve months on board foreign-going ships, and who 
are between the ages of twenty-two and thirty-five. These are more 
than 20,000 in number, but the contingent called out is subordinate to 
financial considerations. Marines and seamen for coast defence, as 
well as *^ district sea- troops '* (in Nordland and Tromso), are raised 
under special regulations. 

The fleet, of which the stations are — Horten (chief), FredriksvsBrn 
(equally in the Christiania fjord), Ghristiansand, Bergen, and Tron-^ 
dhjem — consists at present of 4 monitors (two guns each) ; gunboats : 
2 first class, 7 second class, 17 third class, and 4 of older type (mostly 
carrying one gun), and 9 torpedo-boats. In addition to these are 2 old 
stea/m frigates, 2 stea/m corvettes, 2 sailing corvettes, 1 tug, and 6 
travning and dockyard shvps. 

The fortresses are all obsolete, excepting Oscarsborg on Kaliolmen 
island, commanding at Drobak the approach to Christiania, which is 
gradually being strengthened. 

The chief arsenal is at Christiania (Akerhus fortress) ; the small- 
arms factory is at Eongsberg, and the powder mills at Skar, near 

The military and sea forces of the kingdom are under the superior 
command of the king. 

4. FinaxLcei. — (a) State. — The public debt of the country, incurred 
chiefly in the construction of railways, of which 972 miles are open, 
amounted at the end of 1889 to a little less than six and a -half millions 
sterling, well covered by various assets of the State. In 1890-91 the 
revenue was estimated at about 2,700,000Z., and the expenditure at 
[Norway — vi, 92.] o 

[60] Lcmguage, Literature^ and Art. 

abont 2,650,0002. Nearly 46 per cent, of the revenne is derived firom 
customs under a moderate tariff, which, however, falls rather heavily 
on sugar, coffee, tea, and other colonial produce ; 11| per cent, from 
the excise on spirits and malt, and the balance from stamps, succession 
duty, railways, Eongsberg silver mines, and other sources. There is 
no direct State tax on property or income.' The expenditure includes 
the following groups : King's Civil List, 26,800Z. (1 per cent.) ; Storth- 
ing, 24,4002. (nearly 1 per cent.) ; State Council and Central Govern- 
ment, 64,300Z. (2*4 per cent.) ; Army, 418,000Z. (nearly 16 per cent.) ; 
Navy, 163,000Z. (6 per cent.) ; PubHc Works, 648,0002. (20*6 per cent.) ; 
Justice, 277,0002. (10*4 per cent.) ; Interior Provincial Administration, 
Post and Telegraph Departments, Steamship subsidies, &c., 368,00OZ. 
(13*6 per cent.) ; Finance Department (interest on debt, local adminis- 
tration, pensions, &c.), 464,0002. (nearly 18 per cent.) ; Church, 268,4002. 
(9*9 per cent.) ; and Diplomatic and Consular services 37,6002. (1*4 per 
cent.) EaiLway construction has been resimaed and loans for that 
purpose raised (1892). 

(6) Commwaal Fincmce, — The communal debt amounted in 1887 
to about 3,300,0002. ; while in 1888 the taxation for local purposes 
(poor reUef, schools, roads. Church, &c.) was little short of a million 
(965,0002.), of which very little less than one-half fell on the towns. In 
the rural districts it was equivalent to 7«., and in the towns to 19s, lOd, 
per head of the population. It tells heavily on the national economy, 
and is all the more severely felt, since it is raised to the extent of 
nearly 71 per cent, in the form of a direct tax on contributors deeply 
indebted to the pubHc mortgage bank and otherwise. More than 26 per 
cent, of the communal expenditure is for relief of the poor, of whom 
in 1886 there were 168,000 (74,600 heads of famiHes, or about 8 per 
cent, of the population''^). Schools absorb 22 per cent, of the expendi- 
ture, and roads, the Church, police, sanitary service, administration, 
&c., the balance. 

T. Language, Literature, and Art 

1. Language. — Originally Norway had her own language, the Nor- 
rbne or old Norsk. As the old saga literature died out during the 
slow decadence of the kingdom after the Calmar union the language 
lost its natural support and was gradually replaced by several dialects, 
still spoken by the majority of the rural population, and divided into 
two main groups — the western and the eastern. During the long con- 
nection with Denmark, Danish became the common written language 
of the two countries, and later also the language spoken by the culti- 
vated classes, but with an accent more akin to that of the Swedish, 
and somewhat resembling Scotch, or the English accent of the Lake 

* A Bill for the introduction of a State Income Tax is before the Storth- 
ing, 1892. 

2 In England and Wales the corresponding ratio (1890) was 2*7 per 
cent. ; in Scotland about 2-6 per cent. ; and in Ireland (with a population of 
about 4,700,000) about 2-3 per cent. (106,866 persons relieved). 

LdnguagBj Literature^ and Art, [51] 

District. Efiforts have for some years been made, but not very suo- 
cessfiiUy, to introduce a new spoken and literary Norwegian lan- 
guage (the Lcmd9maiaJ)y more akin to the language spoken by the 

Nevertheless, it is not difficult for an Englishman, and especially 
for a Scotchman, to acquire in a month or six weeks sufficient Norsk 
for travelling purposes. But the tourist who spends only a few weeks 
in the country need not apprehend any practical inconvenience from 
ignorance of the language. All the hotel-keepers and waiters in the 
large towns (and even in country hotels and inns), as well as many of the 
posting and railway station-masters, speak English, which is, indeed, 
fast becoming generally known throughout the country. The grammar, 
vocabulary, and phrases loosely attached to this book will in any case 
(with due observance of the rules given for |)ronunciation) suffice to 
render the traveller understood in the least Imgnistically enlightened 
or most out-of-the-way places in the country. 

2. Literature and Art. — The Norwegians are decidedly a reading 
people. The long winter nights offer a great inducement to reading, 
and it is a remarkable phenomenon that religious books form a very 
large proportion of the literature consumed by the peasants and the 
lower classes. Norway is by fietr the best market for this class of books 
in the Dano-Norwe^an language, and very many are translated from 
English. The British and Foreign Bible Society and the Norwegian 
Bible Society disseminate at low prices about 30,000 copies of the Holy 
Scriptures per annum. But light literature is not neglected, and especi- 
ally in these later years of keen political conflict the people have 
acquired a taste for modern works on every kind of subject. Amongst 
writers of fiction Wergeland (d. 184$) and Welhaven (d. 1873) are the 
principal of the older period after 1814. To the same epoch belongs 
also the collection of the folklore. It will be remembered that a large 
portion of our own nursery tales are of Scandinavian origin. The 
Storthing votes relatively lioeral sums for scientific purposes, and for 
pensions to eminent men of letters. The most prolific modem writers 
of poems, novels, and stage plays are Lie, Ejelland, Bjomstjeme Bjom- 
Bon, and Ibsen. The two latter are now well known in Europe. Ibsen is 
prominently before the English public as a dramatist with a purpose, and 
the proclaimer of a new social gospel. His characters are often psychic- 
ally abnormal. At an earlier period of his life he wrote very interesting 
historical plays and some good poetry. His best works are considered 
to be *' Brand " and " Per Gynt," two versified dramas ; the former in 
the *^ Faust " line, the latter a withering satire on the weaknesses of his 
countrymen. Bjomson, after producing a matchless series of idylls of 
country and peasant life, has taken to plays that are not without a 
social gospel either, and also to politics, openly in the direction of 
severing the imion with Sweden. Both writers are distinguished by 
realistic coarseness (generally excluded from translations) and by crude 
theories of an advanced democratic and socialistic type. Norway can 
also boast of several celebrated names in science and art since 1814, 
such as the mathematician Abel (d. 1829), the zoologist Sars (d. 1869), 
the Orientalist Lassen, pro£ at Bonn (d. 1876), the historian Munch 
(d. 1863), the geologist Keilhau (d. 1858), the prof, in astronomy, 


[62] L<jmguage^ Literature, and Art. 

Hansteen (d. 1878), Prof. J. A. Friis, the eminent Lappish scholar and 
authority on the ethnology, sport, &e., of Finmarken. 

The state of the pnblic PresBj except the lower forms of it, is 
creditable to the country, and is conducted with considerable talent. 
The first Norwegian newspaper was started in 1763. Almost every 
town possesses one or more, and the capital several, representing 
various political views, besides a Penny Magazine and many monthly 
publications, literary and scientific. The press is perfectly free, sub- 
ject only to legal responsibility for libel, &c. 

The art of Painting is much cultivated, and has produced many 
artists of European fame, trained mostly in the Dlisseldorf school. 
The older (now deceased) painters were— J. C. Dahl (prof, at Dresden), 
Thos. Feamley (Munich), both landscape ; Ad. Tidemand, who studied 
and lived in Dusseldorf, and produced the well-known scenes from 
Norwegian peasant life ; G. P. Eckersberg and Aug. Cappelen (of re- 
markable talent, though he died 1852 quite young) : they were both 
landscape painters of the Dlisseldorf school ; F. Boe : still-life. Fore- 
most among living artists are — H. F. Gude (prof, at Berlin) : landscape 
and marines of much celebrity ; Morten MilUer : landscape — studied 
and lives at Dusseldorf; P. N. Arbo (distinguished court painter) : 
historical, northern mythology, battle-scenes, horses, portraits — studied 
in Dusseldorf and Paris, and lives in Ghristiania ; L. Munthe : land- 
scape, remarkable colourist, well known in London — studied and lives 
in Dusseldorf; F. Thaulow : landscape, chiefly winter scenes — studied 
in Germany and also in Paris, where he is highly appreciated ; Erik 
Werenskiold : figures and portraits, remarkable talent — studied at 
Munich and lives in Ghristiania ; Hans Heyerdahl : figures and por- 
traits ; L. Skramstad : a landscape painter of great eminence ; 0. Bind- 
ing : landscape (views in the Lofoten islands) — studied in Germany, like 
W. Barth, an admirable marine painter, who also resides at Ghristiania. 
The list of living painters would not be complete without mention of 
Dahl of Bergen, a painter of national life and smiling beauty ; V. S. 
Lerche: architecture and humouristic figures; Eihf Peterssen : figures; 
Ghr. Krohg : figures ; G. Uchermann : animals ; Ghr. Skredsvig ; land- 
scape and figures ; and G. Munthe : landscape. N. Ulfsten, who died 
1884, painted some very good views of the Norwegian coast. 

Sculptv/rCf studied chiefly at Copenhagen, is now represented by B. 
BergsHen and M. Skeibrok, who have adorned Ghristiania with some 
monuments. The late J. Middelthun was the first in this branch of 
art ; his busts and the Schweigaard moniunent in front of the Univer- 
sity at Ghristiania are in high repute. Stephan Sinding has already a 
European name as a sculptor. 

Architecture, — ^Among many excellent architects we may well 
mention Paul Due, who, amongst other prominent buildings, has adorned 
Ghristiania with charming detached and semi-detached villas. 

Photography, — Owing to art-cultivation and atmospheric advan- 
tages, the photography of Norway holds a high place in Europe. 
L. Szacinski of Ghristiania represents the highest perfection in that 

There are Theatres in Bergen and Ghristiania, and some of the 
native actors are excellent in comedy, which is, however, generally of 

Measures, Weights, and Coins. [53] 

a coarse character when of native origin. In the Scandinavian coun- 
tries, the theatrical profession is held in high esteem and respect. 

Singing is cultivated no less than music, and painting. Concerts are 
remarkable for the great amount of native talent which they display. 
In drawing-rooms the vocal music is of a perfect kind. 

Music. — A considerable collection of Norwegian national airs has 
been published, and some of the melodies are- very charming. The 
constant theme of the most popular songs and favourite airs is Gamle 
Norge (Old Norway). The most celebrated composers are Grieg, 
Kjerulf, Ole Olsen, Joh. Svendsen, and Chr. Sinding. 

VI. Measures, Weights, and Coins, compared with British. 

These are happily decvmal, and therefore easily dealt with.^ 
1. Measv/res : 

(a) Of length — ... 

1 metre . . . = 8 ft. 3-371 in. 
1 kilometre . . = 0-621 mile. 
100 „ ... =62 m.. 243-306 yds. (about Jrds.) 

[1 Eng. m. = 1-609 Jrilom.] 
1 nautical or geog. m. = 7-42 kilom..= 4 m. 
(6) Of swperfides — 

1 sq^ kilometre . = 0*386 sq. m. 
100 „ . . =38-600 „ 

(c) Of capacity — 

1 litre ... a 0-880 imp. quart. 
100 „ . . . =22 gallons. 

1 hectolitre (100 litres) = 2-751 bushels. 
100 „ . . « 84 quarts. 8 bushels. 

^ The melEksures and weights legal before 1880 being frequently quoted, 
we give the equivalents : 

Old Style New Style Approz. Eng. equivalent 

IMil =11 kilom. = 7 m. (6 m. 1470 yds.) 

1 Fjerdingrml . . . = 2-8 „ = 1 J m. 

I „ ... =1-4 „ =0-87 m. 

1 TUnde Lcmd = (100 sq. Alen) = = about an Eng. acre. 

1 MaalJord =(60 „ )= = about J „ „ 

4 Maal ....>* =1 Eng. acre. 

1 Tomme . . . . = 26 millim. = 1 in. 

1 Fad (12 Tomme) . . =0-814 metre =1 ft. (1*029) ; or 1 metre 

= 3-187 Fod. 
1 Alen (EU or 2 Fod) . . =62**8 centim. =2 ft. (2-068). 
1 Skaalpund . . . . = 0-498 kilog. = 1^ lbs. ; or 1 kilog. ^ 2007 

1 Bism&rpund (12 Skaalpund) = 5*976 kilog. = 13 lbs. 3 oz. 
1 lAsjpund . . . . = 8 „ « 17*6 lbs. 

IVog =18 „ = 39-64 lbs. 

1 Skippund . . . . = 160 „ = 362-32 lbs. 

IPot =1 litre (0*965) = 1 imp. quart ; or 1 litre 

= 1036 Pot. 

[54] Meamires, Weights, arid Coins. 

2. Weights: 

1 kilogramme . . « 2*205 lbs. Av. (nearly 2} lbs.) 
100 „ . . . t=l owt. 8qrs. 241bs. 
1000 „ (commercially) «> 1 ton. 

8. Gv/rrency. — Since 1877 * the currency of Norway has been deci- 
mal, like that of Sweden and Denmark, with the krone (pi. kroner) as 
the nnit, divided into 100 dre. 

Practically, 18 kroner are given for 12., and 90 ore for a shilling. 
A krone is, therefore, equal to 1«. 1|^., and an ore to a little above 
half a farthing. 

The covM are as follows : 
(a) Gold pieces: 

20 kroner 
10 „ 


Silver : 

1 krone 
50 ore . 
26 „ . 
10 „ . 

£ i. 

«1 2 
= 11 


2} (FiHglish). 

li n 

= 1 


(c) Bronze: 

The bronze tokens are severally for 5, 2, and 1 ore. 

The coins of the three Scandinavian kingdoms are freely inter- 
changeable, at par value. A supply (easily obtainable) of silver coin 
(Smaajpenge, or small coin) should always be carried by travellers in 
the interior of the country, where banknotes or gold pieces (Nor- 
wegian or British) are sometimes difficult to change. 

The paper cv/rrency (always at par) consists of banknotes for 
1000 kr., 500 kr., 100 kr., 50 kr., 10 kr., and 5 kr. 

Except in towns (where Swedish or Danish notes circulate at 
par), it is best to carry only Norwegian banknotes, and none ab ove 
the value of 50 kr. 

[Ohs. — British banknotes are readily exchanged by bankers, tourist 
agents, and at hotels, sometimes at the current rate of exchange (minus 
commission), which can rise to 18.20 kr. per £» Bankers always give the 
current exchange for circular notes, as well as for cheques, when the parties 
drawing them are known. Many of the British yioe-Consuls on the coast 
do banking business.] 

A table reducing British into Norwegian money, and 'oice versa, 
will be found inside the cover of this book. 

' Previously, the denominations of the currency were specie dollars, 
marks, and skillings. They are still occasionally quoted by the peasantry. 
They represented — 

1 S. dollar, about 4s. 6d. (4 kr.) 

1 mark or ort (24 skillings), about lOfd. 

1 skillin^, a little less than ^d. 

Mails and Postages ; Telegraph and Telephone. [55] 

VII. Mails and Postages ; Telegraph and Telephone. 

1. Madia, — Letters from Great Britain to any part of Norway, vid 
Copenhagen, go first to Christiania, and vice versd, so that letters 
addressed to Bergen or Trondhjem reach in about five to six days — 
viz. two and a-half to three days for the route from England to Chris- 
tiania, two to three days from Christiania to Bergen, or one day from 
Christiania to Trondhjem. Tourists travelling in Norway should have 
their letters sent by the mail steamers running between Newcastle-on- 
Tyne and Bergen three times a week. The envelopes must be crossed 
vid Newcastle. 

2. Post-offices, — For a half-ounce letter between Great Britain and 
Norway a 2^d, (20 ore) stamp is required. The postage from Norway 
to Sweden or Denmark is 10 ore, and to all other parts of Europe, as 
well as to the United States of America, 20 ore. The inland Tnim'Tmim 
rate is 10 6re. 

Should the postage not be prepaid, or be paid short of the full 
amount, the receiver is charged in some cases nearly three times the 

Foreign post-cards are 10 ore each ; inland (Sweden and Denmark 
included) 5 ore. 

The registering fee for foreign letters is 20 ore, for inland 10 ore. 

Foreign money letters can only be sent as registered letters, the 
responsibility of the post-office being as for a registered letter, not for 
the actual value transmitted. 

3. Telegraphs, — The internal rate is 60 ore for the first ten words, 
and 5 ore more for every additional word ; from any station in Norway 
to any in Great Britain, 26 ore for each word, three words being the 
minimum number. 

To the United States the charge ranges from 76 ore to 2.10 kr. per 
word, according to the distance of destination beyond New York. 

A word must not contain more than fifteen letters for inland tele- 
grams, and ten letters for foreign ; five figures count as a word for 
inland, and three for foreign telegrams ; stops are not counted. The 
address and signature are included in the number of words in all 
telegrams, but the telegraph-office does not require the signature to be 
added. Travellers will find that most places they visit are within the 
telegraph system. Telegrams must be written legibly in vrik, 

4. Telephone, — This highly usefiil service is more developed in 
Norway than in most other countries. At Christiania, for instance, 
not only business, but social engagements, household purchases, &c., 
are effected and arranged by telephone. 

N.B. — Locally, the tax is only 60 ore for a conversation of five 
minutes, but 60 ore extra are payable when the communication is with 
a neighbouring town having a separate telephone system. Even the 
posting-stations on the main Boutes are now frequently found con- 
nected by this rapid means of communication. 

[66] Sport : Anglmg and Shooting. 

Tin. Sport: Angling and Shooting. 

I. Angling. — The countless lakes and rivers of Norway, mostly 
well stocked with fish, render the country the most tempting one in 
Europe to the angler. The fish of foremost interest are salmon^ 
troutj gra/ylmg, and cha/r. 

Fishery Lcuws, Sc, — The right of freshwater fishing (including the 
tideways) accrues as a rule in Norway to the owner of the soil. In the 
interior of the country there are many high-lying wood and mountain 
districts which do not belong to private individuals, but which form 
so-called " Almenninger," or common lands, used in common by the 
people dwelling in the adjacent parish or parishes ; and in the rivers 
of those almenninger every inhabitant of the district has a right to 
fish. In the northernmost parts of the country, more especially, the 
State owns large districts, and in these the whole of the fishing rights 
belong to the State or its lessees. The superintendence of the salmon 
and other freshwater fisheries is entrusted to an inspector of fisheries 
at Christiania. The law of June 20, 1891,^ prohibits the catching or 
killing of sahnon and sea- trout in the sea from Aug. 26 to April 14, 
and in lakes and rivers from Aug. 26 to April 30, both dates included. 
There is also a weekly close-time, which, from the commencement of 
the year 1898, will last from Friday 6 p.m. to Monday 6 p.m. In 1892 
the close-time will be from Saturday 6 p.m. to Sunday 6 p.m., but in 
many provinces, by special Government decrees, 3, and in some in- 
stances 4, days' extension of such time is authorised in respect of the 
use of Jcilenoter (bag-nets) in the sea, and nets and traps in rivers 
during that year. Eod-fishing is permitted during the weekly close- 
time. Nets with smaller meshes than 5*8 cm. ( = 2*28 in.) between the 
knots may not be employed in taking salmon or sea-trout, and the 
same rule applies to the distance between vertical bars in traps. The 
use of leisters (spears) or foul-hookiug engines is prohibited ; likewise 
all apparatus or methods of fishing by which salmon or trout fry of a 
length less than 21 cm. ( = 8*27 in.) may be caught. The sale of such 
fry is prohibited. Fixed nets or other fixed engines cannot as a rule 
be used nearer the mid-stream line {medium filumY than at one- 
eighth (or in certain cases one-sixth) of the width of the river. The 
Government can prohibit the use of certain kinds of nets at the mouths 
of sahnon rivers. For sea-trout most of these rules hold good only for 
the rivers in which salmon are caught, and with regard to the fjords 
or sea. Infringement of the above rules involves a fine, and in certain 
cases confiscation. The public prosecutor institutes proceedings. 
Fishery overseers (or bailiffs) are in most districts established. Ex- 
penses connected with this are to be provided for, half by an impost 
on the fishery owners, and the remainder by a grant from the Treasury. 
These laws and regulations do not apply to rivers that form the boun- 

* An Eng. abstract has been published by F. Beyer, Bergen. 

"^ The site of which is to be determined, in the event of dispute, by the 
decision of the "Lensmand '' (police magistrate) and 2 men appointed by 
the Foged (baillie). 

Sport : Angling cmd Shooting. [67] 

dary of a neighbouring State (namely, the Tana, Pasvik, and Ostre 
Jacobs elv), where the Govemment is empowered to make regulations 
for the fishing. A special ordinance of May 4, 1872, regulates the 
fishing in the Tana. 

In regard to the taking of other freshwater fish, a law of May 27, 
1887, empowers the Government, on petition firom the local authori- 
ties, to forbid within a certain district the use of fishing appliances 
considered to be hurtful to the fishery, and also to establish an annual 
close time for the different kinds of fish. A fine is leviable for the 
transgression of such rules. A number of them have been made, 
especially for districts within the prefectures of Hedemarken, Christian, 
and Buskerud. Anglers should bear in mind that some of the rules con- 
tain a prohibition either of rod<fishing or of the use of certain kinds of 
angling appliances. Fishermen should therefore, in every district in 
which they wish to fish, inquire firom the lensman (the local police 
magistrate) or from some other rehable person the nature and scope 
of existing local regulations. A Hst of all angling prohibitions is 
generally published every second or third year by the Inspector of 
Fisheries in the " Norsk Jseger-og Fisker-Forenings Tidskrift " (the 
Norwegian Shooting and Fishing Association Magazine). Aliens, as 
well as natives, can become members of the association by paying an 
annual subscription of 5 kr. (5«. 6^.), or one sum of 100 kr. {51, lis. Id.) 
Members receive without further payment a copy of a journal pub- 
lished quarterly. Names and subscriptions can be given to M. Lund, 
bookseller, Christiania. 

The pay of boatmen and gilhes is generally 2 to 3 kr. per diem, 
according to the locality and season. 

Season for Fishing, — In comparison with the rivers in Great 
Britain and Ireland, the Norwegian salmon rivers are late and the 
fishing season short. Generally speaking, July must be considered as 
the best month for fishing. In the southern and western districts, and 
in those about Trondhjem the fishing in many of the rivers is good 
also in the last half of June, but seldom earher; while, especially in 
the northern districts, the month of August, or the first half of it, is 
just as good as, or even better than, July. In several rivers in the 
northern part of the country good sport can be had even in the latter 
half of August — in a few rivers even in the first half of September. 

It win, however, be seen from our description of the several rivers 
that the fishing season varies greatly, even in the case of rivers quite 
close to each other. It should be specially borne in mind that rivers 
which in their lower course fiow through large and deep lakes are 
generally late. The largest fish are caught as a rule at the beginning 
of the fishing season. Grilse do not ordinarily appear much before the 
end of June. 

Without taking into account the autumn floods, there are in all the 
large rivers of Norway — in many of the smaller ones also — as a rule, 
two regular floods in the year. The first, early in the spring, caused 
by the melting of snow in the valleys and on the lower, often wooded, 
bills ; the second, and far heavier one, at the end of May or in the first 
half of June, due to the thawing of the snow on the vast mountain 

[58] Sport : Angling and Bhootmg. 

Until the flood last-mentioned (which does not, as a role, occnr in 
rivers of which the channels do not partly run through high mountains 
or mountainous districts) has partly subsided, it is hardly worth the 
trouble of attempting to fish for salmon. 

Fishing Leases, — ^The hiring of a sahnon river in Norway is always 
attended with some difficulty, as proprietary rights are greatly sub- 
divided, involving, as a rule (especially in the case of large rivers), 
agreements with a great number of owners. Until very recently there 
have been scarcely any agents in Norway to assist in the preparation 
of such contracts, and foreigners have therefore been obliged to seek 
the aid of personal friends.^ 

Assistance of a reliable kind can also be had at the local tourist 
associations that now exist in most parts of the country. British 
sporting interests are well guarded along the Norwegian coast by Vice- 
Gonsuls, who are able and ever ready to give aid and advice. 

We now proceed to describe in a general way the various kinds 
of angling in the order of their importance. (For further details see 
several Boutes.) 

A. Salmon. — In the coast districts there are salmon in ahnost every 
river, and there are hundreds of streams in which this noble fish 
occurs. The greater part of the rivers are, however, small, or even 
diminutive. Owing to the extremely rugged character of the country, 
which causes nearly all the river-beds to have a rather steep declivity, 
and which are more or less full of waterfalls, the sahnon, even in the 
large rivers, as a rule, succeed in running up only a comparatively 
short distance. With the exception of the Tana river, in Finmarken, 
where salmon ascend to a distance exceeding 800 m. (includ- 
ing tributaries), there are no rivers in Norway in which sahnon go 
up more than 70 m. There are, in fact, not more than a dozen 
accessible for sahnon for a greater distance than 80 m., and only 
twenty-seven where they can ascend more than 15. Eelatively to the 
extent of their catchment basins (hereafter designated c. 6.), the rivers 
in W. and N. Norway carry a comparatively vast volume of water, 
on account of the excessive rainfall in the coast districts. Some of 
the rivers (especially in the Bergen " Stift ") are, moreover, fed firom 
glaciers, and these have, especially in hot summers, a rich water supply. 
A large number, therefore, of the smaller salmon rivers are well 
fitted for sportsmen, at all events for some part of the season. Bod- 
fishing in the rivers, however, is no longer so productive as it was 
some time ago. Beyond all doubt the number of salmon in the 
rivers has diminished, despite the measures and appliances enjoined 
by the Government for fishery preservation. This is due mainly to 
the very large increase during the last twenty-five years in the 
number of appliances for catching fish in the sea, especially the 
so-called " kilenoter '* (something like the Scotch bag- nets), of which 
there exist at present in Norway not far firom 6000, while their 
number is yearly on the increase by some hundreds. But, despite the 
fact that far too many salmon are caught in the sea before they ascend 

1 I'or Fishery Agents, see Ivdex^ 

Sport : Anglmg and Shooting, [59] 

the rivers, rod-fishing for them in many rivers is still excellent. Thus, 
in the early part of July 1885, three sportsmen caught in a short 
reach of the Namsen r., within four days, 48 salmon, weighing 
857 lbs. In the Tana r. an Englishman caught in the same year, in 
one day, 335 lbs. weight of salmon. In the Vefsen r. two others 
caught, in the summer of 1888, 288 salmon, weighing together more 
than 5200 lbs. The size of the fish varies very much in the several 
rivers, but must, on the whole, be characterised as considerable. Year 
by year a fish or two of extraordinary size is occasionally netted or 
caught. In the Voss r. a fish was caught (in 1884) of 52 lbs. It was 
hooked by an English lady, and landed by her husband ; while in the 
Tana, the Kussian Crown bailiff landed (in 1879, at Utsjok) a salmon of 
the enormous weight of 73 lbs. This is, perhaps, the biggest salmon 
that has ever been caught in any river with rod and Ime. On the 
Aaro r., in Sogn, well-known for its large and clumsy fish, a story is 
told of a salmon having been taken (not with the rod) of the unusual 
weight of nearly 100 lbs. But the trustworthiness of this record is not 
fully established. Nevertheless, it is a fact that five or six years ago, 
in the winter time (a little before Christmas), a dead salmon, probably 
killed by the ice, weighing 60 lbs., was found in the same river ; in 
summer, when "in condition," it must have weighed considerably 

Although there is so great a number of salmon rivers in Norway, 
it is not very easy to rent one. Very many of them, when fre- 
quented by salmon, are naturally too small to offer sufficient sport. 
In any case, they afford the chance of sport for so short a time each 
year that no fisherman would consider it worth his while to pass the 
summer on the spot. Of the considerable niunber of rivers which the 
sportsman might deem to be worth fishing, very few remain unleased ; 
for it has become more and more usual for English sportsmen to rent 
Norwegian rivers for a period of years, and consequently nearly all the 
first-class waters have already been taken by fishermen who have 
rented either the whole of a river or the best available reaches of it. 
Except on the expiration of contracts, there are few opportunities of 
acquiring good salmon-fishing rights. Even in such contingencies, the 
lease is generally extended or transferred by the lessee to a friend, 
without public advertisement. There are, however, still, in the B. 
of Norway, some large rivers, either unlet or let only for short stretches. 
The fishing on them being so valuable to the owners, the rent for an 
entire river, or for good stretches of it, would be exorbitant. 

This is the case in respect of the Laagen at Laurvik, the Nisser or 
Nidr. at Arendal, and the Mandals r. at Mandal (of which more anon). 
Even second and third class rivers are now for the most part taken up, 
especially in S. and W. Norway^ where, however, a few still remain 
.either unlet or leased to Norwegians with the object and right of 

It is, however, chiefly in the northernmost districts of Norway — in 
the prefectures of Tromso and Finmarken — that there is still a rich field 
for those who are prepared to stay four or five weeks in wilds remote 
firom civilisation, where the sportsman must, as a rule, either sleep 
in a tent or in a hut built aiid fmmished for his speciaJ use ; where no 

[60] Sport : Anglitig and Shooting. 

proviBions (except butter and milk) are obtainable, and where constant 
war must be waged against that summer plague of Northern lands — 
the mosquito.' On the other hand, Nature in those wilds appears to 
the traveller in. an aspect full of novel charm and interest. Night is 
there turned into day by the mild rays of the midnight sun ; unfamiliar 
notes of arctic birds strike the ear from wood and copse, from moun- 
tains, lakes, and morasses ; while the foot each moment presses rare 
flowers and plants. In some of the rivers and lakes the fish have not 
hitherto seen an artificial fly or a "phantom minnow.*'^ Spare 
moments can be devoted to the exceptional opportunity of studying 
the mode of life and the customs of one of the most remarkable races 
in Europe — viz. the Lapps. 

As regards third and fourth class rivers, they can be found m almost 
every district of Western Norway (Ryfylke, Hardanger, Sogn, Sond- 
fjord, Nordfjord, &c.), where beautiful and characteristic surroundings 
generally impart an additional value to the stream itself, which can 
usually be fished from the bank, a boat not being necessary as in the 
case of the larger rivers. Moreover, in a great number of the small 
rivers in question there is ample opportunity for catching sea-trout ; 
and, as a rule, they can be rented at a moderate price — an advantage 
that does not frequently occur in the case of first and second class 

We proceed to mention some of the beat salmon rivers in Norway, 
beginning at the Eussian frontier and following the coast southwards.^ 
The means of reaching them, the accommodation to be obtained, &c., 
must be sought in the several Routes in which the rivers occur. 

1. The Pasvik (c. b, about 4400 Eng. sq. m., d, 7 m.) forms for a 
long distance the boundary of Russia, but nms at its lower part entirely 
through Norwegian territory. The bulk of the salmon (which run up 
to 50 and 60 lbs.) do not get beyond the Skoltefos, only 2 or 3 m. 
from the fjord. (See Route 45.) 

2. The E, Jacobs elv, some m. to the E., and the Neiden (c. b, 
about 540 sq. m.), some m. W. of the Pasvik, are good salmon rivers. 
For particulars respecting the Neiden, apply to Mr. Hans Esbensen, 

3. The Tana (c. &. about 5700 sq. m.) is one of the largest rivers 
in Norway, and for a long distance divides the kingdom from the 
Grand Duchy of Finland. It is a first-rate sporting river, but the 
angler will hardly be able to avoid living in a tent, serviceable cottages 
being scarce. The best places for fishing are found at certain Fosses, 
called GuoiTca in Lappish (and which are rapids rather than 
waterfalls), viz. Seidafos, Storfossene, Galgofos, as well as at the 

* For precautions, see " XI. Hints to Travellers." 

'^ We cannot attempt to give advice in regard to the tackle, flies, and 
other artificial bait to be used in various parts of the country, of which the* 
requirements are weU known to British tackle-makers. Very good English 
appliances can now be obtained in the principal cities of Norway, especially 
at Christiania. 

' In parenthesis, after the names, are given in most cases the size of 
the catchment basin (c. 6.), and the approximate distance (d.) to which 
salmon can run up. 

8'port : Angliiig and SJwuting. [61] 

mouths of the tributaries — the Levojok and the Valijoh. The latter 
is about 110 m. from the estuary of the Tana. Exceptionally as re- 
gards Norwegian rivers, neither the whole of the Tana, nor any portion 
of it, can be obtained on lease with an exclusive right of fishii^. As 
the boundary between Norway and Bussian Finland, and the fishing 
being of great importance to the Lapps and Finns, a special law regu- 
lates the catching of salmon in the Tana. The resident inhabitants of 
the district (mostly Lapps and Finns) have equal fishing rights in the 
river, while those who dwell outside the district, whether Norwegians 
or aliens, must take an annual license from ^^Foged (baillie) of Tana, 
at a cost to foreigners of 60 kr. (3Z. 6«. ^d.y The Hcense gives the 
holder a right to fish in any part of the river where both banks are 
within Norwegian territory. But anyone wishing to fish in that part 
which forms the frontier (viz. in the best places) must obtain a siimlar 
license (not exclusive) from the " Crown Lensman " in Utsjok. The 
salmon in the Tana are of considerable size, and most excellent for the 
table. The latter quality apphes generally to rivers in Finmarken. 
Out of 158 salmon taken in 1886 in the Tana by two EngUshmen, nine- 
teen were over 26 lbs., while seven were over 30 lbs. in weight ; the 
average weight being about 20 lbs. 

Li August there is excellent aea-trout fishing at the mouth of the 

4. A river fi&r too little noticed by the angler, but admirably adapted 
for rod-fishing, is the Laks-elv. It falls into the head of the great 
Porsangerfjord, which cuts into the district directly E. of the N. Cape. 
(See Boute 45.) Kistrand is the nearest stopping-place for the steamer 
— about 30 m. from the mouth of the river. At no great distance there 
is a dwelling-house, but household requisites must be brought. The 
salmon are from 12 to 30 lbs. weight, and often larger. The best 
fishing is below the Kobbefos. In August there is first-rate sea-trout 
fishing in the lower part of the river. As the Laks-elv is owned chiefly 
by this State, application for a lease must be made to the Foged in 

5. Few rivers in Norway have gained so great a repute as the 
Alten (c, h, about 2660 sq. m., d, 28 m.), which for many years was 
rented by the late Duke of Boxburghe. In 1847 anEngUshnian took in 
it, within fourteen days, 2600 lbs. of salmon, weighing from 15 to 86 lbs., 
and it is still a splendid salmon river. The whole of it has recently been 
leased to an EngHshman for twenty years. In 1890 his party, con- 
sisting of four rods, landed 11,970 lbs., the average weight of the fish 
being 21^ lbs. 

6. The Beisen eh) (c. 6. 1190 sq. m., d, 60 m.), between Hammer- 
fest and Tromso, was in earher days known as a capital sporting river, 
but is said to have fallen off considerably of late. The best fishing 
places are in the neighbourhood of the Ovrefos, above which salmon 
do not ascend. A great number of salmon usually lie immediately 
imder this fall, but the spot is difficult of access on account of the 
rugged nature of the banks. Not far from it is an available house that 
belongs to the State, which owns also the greater part of the river. The 

' The price will, perhaps, soon be somewhat raised. 

[62] Sport : Angling and Shooting. 

lower 8 m. are useless for fishing, the river becoming very clayey after 
the conflnenoe of a tributary. Applications for a lease must be made 
to the Foged, or to Mr. Odin Troye, both at Tromso. 

7. At the head of the Salten Fjord, near Bodo, is the SaltdaU elv 
(c, h. 660 sq. m., d, 80 m.), a river with a considerable volume of water. 
The greater part of the stream is very rapid, and it sometimes shifbs 
its course. Bunning through a beautiful valley containing many large 
and well-built houses, a lessee can easily procure suitable accommoda- 
tion. The fishing is leased to a Norwegian, who is, however, willing 
to sublet. It is a very late river, the best season being generally August, 
and it is scarcely worth trying before the latter half of July. In 
autumn it holds a considerable quantity of sea-trout, 

8. The considerable Vefaen r. (c, h, 1968 sq. m.) disembogues at the 
small town of Mosjoen. Very few salmon had succeeded in surmount- 
ing the Fosjordfos (about 10 m. from the fjord) until the present 
salmon-ladder was constructed. A great number of salmon now run 
up to the Laksfos, about 9 m. higher up, and no doubt even farther. 
Salmon-ladders have also been placed at the Laksfos (over 50 ft;, high) 
as well as at the Fellingfos (14 ft.), 6 m. beyond. The considerable ex- 
tension of accessible spawning-beds will no doubt increase vastly the 
quantity of salmon in the Vefeen, which is even now by no means 

Timber floating, formerly very disturbing to the fishing, has now 
almost ceased, since the pine -forests, the remnants of which belong to 
the English North of Europe Land Company, were almost entirely 
destroyed by a former company. Inquiries respecting leases should 
be made to the British Vice-Consul at Mosjoen, or to Herr Johan 
Brodtkorb at Thjoto. (For farther particulars, see Boute 40.) 

9. Amongst all the salmon rivers of Norway perhaps none have 
stood in such high estimation as the Namsen (c. b, 2428 sq. m., d. 42 m.), 
which falls into the Namsenfjord at the small town of Namsos, in N. 
Trondhjem pref. The upper reaches have for many years been rented 
by English fishermen, and during latter years the leases have extended 
to almost the entire river, excepting its lowest part, where the stream is 
too still for fishing. Of late years seven to nine English sporting purties 
have fished the river. Numerous well-built houses are to be found in 
the neighbourhood, and many of the inhabitants are able to supply all 
necessary service and attention. The salmon in this river are large, fish 
of 40 lbs. weight being not uncommon ; but the size has perceptibly di- 
minished. Although during the last twenty years a great number of 
" Kilenoter " have been used in the fjord and on the adjoining coast, yet 
that the river is rich in fish is evident from the amount caught every 
year. Official returns for the years 1886-88 show a yearly average of 
about 22,000 lbs., of which by far the larger quantity was taken by 
the rod. Timber floating (on a considerable scale) is no small impedi- 
ment to the angler. 

10. No fewer than six fine rivers run into the Trondhjem fjord— 
viz. the Stenkjcer elv, the Vcerdal, the Stjordaly the Nidj the Gula, 
and the OrJcla. Of these, the Gula and the Orkla must be noted 
as first-class rivers ; next in rank come the Stjordal and the Stenkjaer, 
which are also good rivers ; while, notwithstanding its size, the Nid 

Sport : Angling wad BhooHng. [63] 

(c. b, 1247 sq. m.) is unimportant as a salmon river, the picturesque 
Lerfos preventing fish from going up the river more than a few miles. 

The VcBrdal r. (c. 6. 567 sq. m., d, 18 m.) is certainly better than the 
Nid r., but by no means equal to expectations from its appearance, owing, 
perhaps chiefly, to its becoming much discoloured in floods by clay. 
On the StenhjcBT r. (718 sq. m.), which forms the outlet of the Snaasen 
lake (about 30 m. in length), there is Httle, if any, fishing above the 
small Byfos, about 3 m. from the fjord. The regulating power of the 
Snaasen lake renders the water supply in this river exceptionally even, 
and the level is only to a slight extent influenced by sudden floods. 
The low temperature of the water in early stunmer (caused by its 
flowing from the lake) makes the river a much later one than the 
other rivers flowing into the Trondhjem fjord. The best season for 
fishing is therefore usually August or the end of July. Almost the 
whole of the fishing belongs to Mr. Gram, who lives close to Stenkj©r, 
It has for many years been leased by an EngUshman. (See Boute 38.) 
The Stjordals elv (c. h, 868 sq. m., d, 38 m.) is far earlier than the 
StenkJ8er,but in dry summers becomes too low as the season advances. 
June and the early part of July is the proper fishing time ; and the 
best reaches are in the upper part of the river, which for a number of 
years has been let to Englishmen. The lower part of the river, which 
affords fairly good sport, is frequently unlet. (See Route 37.) The Ghiln 
(c, b, 1405 sq. m., d. 67 m.) has, like the Namsen, been most visited by 
foreign anglers. Of late years the river has been leased by five or six 
parties of EngUshmen. There is certainly room for more, even though 
the best reaches are taken. Below the Gulfos (near Hovin rly. 
stat.) the river is less fitted for rod-fishing than higher up, since it 
here takes in a very clayey tributary, and becomes therefore in its 
lower course too thick during floods. (See Route 14.) The OrMa 
(c. b. 1347 sq. m., d. 56 m.) is likewise a salmon river admirably fur- 
nished with numerous fine pools, spread over a course of about 40 m. 
There are generally three or four Enghsh parties on it. In both of 
the two last-named rivers the fishing would be enormously improved 
if anglers would buy up the fishing rights in the lower part of the 
river, where the owners use only sweep-nets, which kill a far greater 
quantity of fish than that taken by the rod in the upper reaches of 
the river. 

11. The Nordmore bailiwick has two large rivers, the 8wma or 
Surendah elv (c. b, 420 sq. m., d, 30 m.), and the Driva or StmdaU 
elv (c. h. 1004 sq. m., d, 50 m.) They are both very good salmon rivers. 
Almost the whole of the Suma has for a long time been let for angling. 
On the other hand, the Driva is at present let only in its lowest part. 
If the numerous traps in the many small fosses of the river, in which 
a considerable number of fish are killed, and which seriously prevent 
the fish from ascending, were bought off, wonderful sport would be 
obtained above the reaches already occupied to a distance of 20 m. from 
the fjord. Higher up, the banks of the river are generally so rugged 
that rod-fishing is in most places impossible. Lensmand Oie in Sundalen 
might promote such an arrangement. In some seasons an immense 
number of aea-trout are taken in these rivers. They are locaUy called 

[64] Sport : Angling and Shooting. 

12. In the Bomsdal bailiwick, renowned for its beautiful soenery, 
are two large sahnon rivers — the Era or Eridsfjord elv (c, b, 425 
sq. m., <2. 24 m.) and the Bawma (c. 6. 458 sq. m., d, 27 m.) The Era 
runs through the Eikisdalsvand lake (about 12 m. long), which is one 
of the most beautiful, if not the grandest, sheet of water of all the 
thousands of Norwegian lakes. The fishing is almost exclusively on 
the 4 or 5 m. reach between the sea and EikisdaJsvand. In 1860, 
2569 lbs. of salmon were taken by one rod in thirty-nine days — i.e, on 
an average about 66 lbs. a day. The large number of "kilenoter," 
however, which have later been used on the coast, render no longer 
possible so large a catch. The reach below the lake has for a 
number of years been leased to an Englishman, who in the autumn 
of 1889 established a hatching apparatus calculated to hatch out 
200,000 young ssJmon yearly. The Bawma has also of late years 
given less sport than formerly. But it must stiU be mentioned as 
an excellent river. One part of it is owned, and another rented, 
by Englishmen ; but some parts of the river suitable for angling are 
generally available. The old Aak Hotel water belongs to an English 

13. The two best rivers in the Bergen stift (eccles. prov.) are the 
Lcerdals elv (c. 6. 442 sq. m., d. 14 m.), in Sogn, and the Vosse elv or 
BoUtad elv in Voss. The former is one of the rivers in Norway 
which were first rented by Enghsh fishermen, and it has ever since 
maintained its repute as an excellent river for sport. Almost all that 
portion of the river in which salmon are found has therefore during 
a long period been leased. At present the entire river is leased by an 
Englishman. In 1881, 6088 lbs. of salmon were caught by rod in it, 
in addition to a large quantity of sea- trout. It is remarkable for the 
fact, so rare in Norway, that aU the best water can be fished from the 

The Vcase elv (c. 6. 544 sq. m., d, 20 m.) is certainly not compar- 
able with the Lserdal r., but gives excellent sport. The best fishing 
places are in the reach from Evangervand down to the sea (2 to 3 m.), 
and in a reach of about the same length just above the lake. The 
greater part of the river is leased, partly by an Englishman, partly by 
a Norwegian (willing to sublet a part to foreigners). The salmon in 
this river often run very large, although their size seems even there to 
have decreased in consequence of the excessive use of " kilenoter *' in 
the fjord and on the shore outside. 

14. The best sporting rivers in Stavanger pre£ are the Suldals 
elv (c. 6. 586 sq. m., d. 15 m.), in Ryfylke, and Tengs elv or BjerJcreims 
elv, at Egersund. The first (which runs through the Suldals lake 
(17 m.) is a very late river. The best fishing does not usually begin 
before August or late in July, and in the upper part of the river still 
later. One reason of this is the existence of a fedl (Sandsfos) close 
to the outlet in the sea, which the salmon cannot pass before the water 
has fallen considerably after the spring flood. It is therefore permitted 
to fish up to the end of October in this river. The whole of the river 
below the Suldahvcmd (and it is only on this part that there is fishing) 
is leased for a long period of years to three Englishmen, who have 
made various arrangements to help the fish to ascend both the Sands- 

Sport : Angling and Shooting. [65] 

fos and a fall farther up. The saknon in thiR river attain a consider- 
able size, and their number appears to have increased since the fishing 
was leased about seven years ago. In the Tengs eh) (c. 6. 265 sq. m.) 
salmon have only exceptionally ascended beyond the Foslands-fos, a 
couple of miles from the estuary, where, as a rule, they have been 
stopped, partly by the waterfall, partly by a trap placed there. But 
in 1888 the Egersund Fishing Club hired the upper part of the river, 
removed the trap, and made a pass in the fall, so that salmon now get up 
without much difficulty. As above the fall the river contains a number 
of fine spawning beds, it may be assumed that in a few years there will 
be capital anglmg, and that the number of salmon will materially in- 
crease in the river. Hitherto the fish in the Tengs elv have run very 
small, one of 17 lbs. having been the largest taken by an English sports- 
man who had the river for some years. Larger or smaller reaches of 
the river may possibly be leased from the club above mentioned. 

15. In the pref. of Lister and Mandal (one of the best salmon 
fishing districts in Norway) there are, in addition to some smaller ones, 
four important salmon rivers — viz. the Kvina, or Kvmeadals eh) (c. b, 
614 sq. m., d, 7 m.), the Ma/ndals eVo, the TorrisdaU elv (or Otter elv), 
and the Topdals elv. By the lease (three or four years ago) of the Kvina 
to an Englishman, that river, wonderfully adapted as it is by nature 
for fishing, was saved from the ruin that threatened it as a result of 
the mischievous use (now abolished) of " Troldgajm " or nets closely 
resembling the Welsh trammel-nets. 

The Mandah elv (c. b, 680 sq. m., d, 35 m.) is at the present date 
the most productive salmon river in Norway. Between 1884-86 the 
average annual take was officially reported to be something over 
61,800 lbs. Of that quantity scarcely any part was caught by the rod, 
since only a very small portion of the river had been (and still is) leased 
for rod-fishing. If the whole of the river were leased for sport it would 
probably (at any rate in summers with favourable conditions of water) 
become a better sporting water than any other Norwegian river, the 
greater part of that portion of it which is accessible to salmon being 
well adapted for fishing with the rod. But the rent would be heavy. 
It is one of the earliest rivers in Norway, as some salmon ascend even 
in the month of April. The Torrisdals elv (c. b. 1413 sq. m., d, 9 m.), 
which runs into the sea at Christiansand, has suffered much from being 
fouled by a large sawmill at Vigelands fos, where the ascent of the 
salmon finds its limit. The best fishing is on the Vigeland water, 
belonging to Mr. Consul Wild, in Christiansand. The fishery here is 
not leased, but a lower reach has for a number of years been rented by 
a fishing club at Christiansand. 

Of far gireater importance than the Torrisdal r. is the Topdals elv 
(c. b, 734 sq. m., d. 30 m.), though only half its size, and lying some 
few m. farther E. There is a fall in it (Boenfos), about 4 m. from 
the sea and about 45 ft. high. Notwithstanding the height of the 
fos and its steep fall, salmon contrive, under favourable conditions of 
water, to ascend it in numbers by no means inconsiderable. In fact 
this is the highest fall not only in Norway, but in the whole of Europe, 
which salmon can ascend without a ladder. The great majority of 
fish remain, however, below the waterfall, and are caught in the waters 
[Norway— yi. 92.] d 

[66] S}fort : Angling and Shooting, 

under it. The fishing there is one of the best for sahnon in Norway. 
The owner (Mr. Hegermann) does not wish to let the fishing for a 
long period, although permission to fish with a rod for some days, or 
perhaps weeks, may sometimes be obtained. Bod-fishing above the 
fall will hardly repay the angler, excepting, perhaps, in the short reach 
between the Flaksvand lake and the Teinefos, which, though much 
lower than the Boenfos, is undoubtedly a greater hindrance to the 
ascending of fish than the latter. The fish in this river are of an 
unusual shape^ being very narrow in proportion to their length, and 
they never attain any great weight. 

16. In Nedenaes pref. there is only one large salmon river — the 
N laser elv, called also the Nid elv (c. b, 1633 sq. m., d, 7 m.) The take 
of fish in this river has of late years been 16,000 to 18,000 lbs. annually ; 
very few, however, are caught with the rod. Bod-fishing has hitherto 
been very Httle resorted to in this river, though in many places it seems 
naturally adapted for sport. The best water is owned by Mr. C. A. 
Boe, of Arendal. 

17. In the pref. of Jarlsberg and Laurvik there is likewise only one 
salmon river — viz. the Laagen (c. 6. 2186 sq. m., d. 40 m.), which has 
its outlet at Laurvik. Here also rod-fishing has hitherto been little 
practised, although several reaches of the river can give good sport. 
Owing to the constantly increasing use in the lower half of this river of 
the so-called " Evje "- or " Flaade "-fishing (fixed nets peculiar to this 
river), first-rate rod-fishing can, perhaps, no longer be expected ; but 
good sport may still be had on the waters belonging to Mr. H. J. Aschjem. 
(For aleaseapplytoa fishery agent, Christiania.) If some at least of the 
most productive nets or traps in the lower part of the river were leased 
(at considerable expense), splendid sport would no doubt be obtained. 
Bod-fishing in the Laagen has long encountered a serious obstacle 
in the refuse discharged firom a wood-pulp mill at the Vittingfos. But 
this mischievous practice has now been stopped by the Government. 

18. Only one considerable Norwegian salmon river, the Drams elv 
(c. 6. 6520 sq. m., d. 18 m.), remains to be mentioned. Next to the 
Mandal r., it is the most productive in the country. It is, however, 
of little use for rod-fishing, as the salmon are very unwilHng to take 
the fly or minnow, owing perhaps to the great depth of the river. 

Having thus shortly mentioned all the salmon rivers in Norway 
that are most valuable to the rod-fisher, we now enumerate (yet more 
concisely) rivers of the second- Midi third class (or perhaps even of the 
fourth class), following the same geographical order as before. In most 
cases we continue to state in parenthesis the extent of the river basins 
(c. 6.) as weU as the distances {d,) to which salmon ascend. 

1. In Finmarken pref.: The W, Jacobs elv (3 m.) and STcal eh', 
both near Vadso; the Kongs/jord elv, between Vardo and the Tanafjord. 

2. In Tromso pref. : The Maals elv (c, b. 2231 sq. m., d. 23 m.), where 
the number of salmon is not such as might be expected from the con- 
siderable size of the river, which would no doubt be enormously im- 
proved, if a salmon pass were constructed at the Malangen-fos. 

3. In Nordland pref. : The Hydsaaen (c. b, 834 sq. m., d. 10 m.) — the 
upper part suited for fishing, the lower (with clayey water) unfit ; the 

Sport : Angling and ShooUng. [67] 

Fust elu, in Vefsen (c. b, 224 eg. m., d. 6 m.) — generally let; and 
the Bindals elv — let ; the Bcmen (c, &. 1623 sq. m.), the largest river 
but one in Nordland, but not adapted for fishing. 

4. N. Trondhjem pref. : The Bonga elv (c. h, 160 sq. m., d. 8 m.) ; 
the Aargaa/rds elv (c. h, 208 sq. m., d, 4t m.) 

5. Eomsdal pref. : The Todals elv (c. b, 85 sq. m., d, 14 m.) ; 
the Valdals elv (c. b. 131 sq. m.) — let. 

6. N. Bergenhus pref.: The Eida or Homing daU elv (c. b, 207 sq. m., 
d. 7 m.) — the greater part of it let to a Norwegian; ^ the StryiM elv* 
{c. b. 211 sq. m., d. 7 m.) — ditto ; the Olden elv * (c, b, 95 sq. m., d. 
2 m.) ; the Glopjpen* or Bredhemis elv (c. b, 232 sq. m., d, 3 m.) ; the 
Forde elv (c. b. 263 sq. m., e2. 3 to 4 m.) ; and the Gcmla (c. 6. 246 sq. m., 
d.2 to B m.) The four last are let to EngUshmen. The Aaro elv * 
(c. b. 221 sq. m., d, 1 or 2 m.) ; the Fortv/ns elv * (c. b, 178 sq. m., d, 
10 m.) ; the Aardala elv * (c. b, 375 sq. m., d, 12 m.) ; the Av/rla/nda 
elv {c, b, 286 sq. m., d, 7 m.) — the three last rented by Norwegians ; 
the Floms elv (c. b. 104 sq. m., d, 3 m.) ; and the Ncero elv (c. 6. 108 
sq. m., d, 7 m.) — the two last often let to Englishmen. 

7. S. Bergenhus pref. : The Mo elv (c. 6. 123 sq. m., d. 3 m.) — rented 
by a Norwegian ; the Eksmgdals elv (c. b, 130 sq. m., d, 2 m.)— rented 
by an Englishman ; the Eidfjord elv (c. b. 387 sq. m., d. 7 m.) ; the 
Aaj)o elv (c. b, 184 sq. m., d, l^m.) — ^rented by an Englishman ; and the 
Etne elv (c. b. 90 sq. m., d, 7 ra.) — rented by a Norwegian. 

8. Stavanger pref. : The Aardals elv (c. b. 197 sq. m., d, 7 m.) ; the 
Figgen elv (c. b, 77 sq. m., d. 12 m.) — a very productive river, but in dry 
summers too low for sport; and the Soggendah elv (c. b. Ill sq. m., 
d, 6 m.) 

9. Lister and Mandal pref. : The 8ireaa{c. b. 722 sq. m.), well known 
for its large salmon-ladders, by which of late years a considerable 
extent of river and lake has been made accessible to salmon : fish- 
ing rights belong to the Aaensire Salmon Fishery Co., at Flekkef jord ; 
the Lyngdals elv (c. b. 259 sq. m., d. 14 m.) — has for many years been 
rented by Englishmen; the Undals elv (c. 6. 174 sq. m., d, 20 m.) — a very 
early river, now let. 

10. Nedenses pref. : The Sondeled elv (c. &. 158 sq. m., d, 2 m.) 

11. Bratsberg pref. : The SJciens elv (c. b, 4127 sq. m., d, 9 m.), one of 
the largest rivers in Norway, but not well adapted for fishing, nor con- 
taining many salmon. — In the largest river in Norway — viz. the 
Glommen (c. b, 15,610 sq. m.) — there is almost no salmon-fishing, as 
the Sarpfos prevents fish fi'om going up more than 9 m., and the lower 
reach of the river has no good spawning- beds. 

In addition to the above-named rivers there are a vast number of 
others which salmon frequent; but these are all so smaU that profitable 
sport will, as a rule, only be got under favourable conditions of water, 
and only for a short time. This rule also holds good with regard to 
some of the rivers we have just enumerated. 

In all the rivers on the S. coast, as well as in the rivers in 

' Bivers marked '*' gain their water supply in summer from glaciers, and 
are therefore during hot seasons comparatively full of water. Many of the 
other rivers derive their water also partly from glaciers. 


[68] Sport : Angling <md Shooting. 

the two Trondhjem pref., timber-floating is largely carried on J 
but in the other rivers this is not the case, or only to a very slight 

B. Tbottt. — General observations. — Excepting in the lower-lying 
districts of S.E. Norway (in the waters of which coarse fish predominate), 
or in many lakes at a considerable altitude, and also in a few lakes 
tenanted by other varieties offish in the interior of Finmarken, trout are 
more or less abundant in every lake, tarn, and river in the country. They 
are more especially numerous in the lakes of the high fjeld plateaux 
(up to 4000 ft. above the sea, and even occasionally higher). Nowhere 
in the world are trout more pink in colour, fatter, and of better flavour. 
Their chief food consists of various crustacese, especially the Gammancs 
pulex, which in many of the Norwegian lakes occurs in such quanti- 
ties that nets cannot remain in the water a m'ght without being 
damaged by these small voracious creatures. The waters in which 
these crustacese most abound are, however, as a rule, not particularly 
good for angling, since the fish in them do not generally care much for 
the angler's fly or other artificial bait, and adhere to their natural food. 
In many of the Norwegian lakes trout run to a vast size. In the 
Mjosen lake they have been caught of the extraordinary weight of 
36 lbs., and fish of 20 to 25 lbs. are taken there each year. In the 
Tyri fjord (in earlier days) fish have reached a similar weight ; and 
in the majority of the larger lakes trout of 12 to 15 lbs. are occa- 
sionally landed. In the lakes, of the .high mountain plateaux they 
seldom reach such great dimensions, but in return they are found 
there vast in quantity and most excellent in quality. Trout of 4 and 
5 lbs. and upwards occur constantly in those waters. 

In the Norwegian lakes trout vary not only in size, but also to a 
great extent in colour, markings (spots), and shape ; so that we are 
tempted to say that every lake has its special and iudividual species 
of trout, and even, occasionally, several such species in the same 
water. It is, however, held by Norwegian ichthyologists that those 
diversities are only accidental, being the result of varying external 
circumstances in the several lakes, and that the individual character- 
istics are not lasting or constant, but quickly lost or changed on the 
removal of the fish to other waters. 

Thus all the varieties are considered to belong to one and the same 
kind (species). The correctness of this opinion would seem to be 
proved by the many experiments that have been made in the stocking 
of fishless waters with trout. — Many anglers have noticed that in most 
lakes the fish are generally within a certain size. 

Season for trouting, — The best fishing season for trout is the 
month of July and the beginning of August. In low-lying lakes and 
rivers good sport can also be had in the latter half of June, occasionally 
even earlier. Thus, in the upper part of the Mjosen a quantity of the 
large so-called Hunnerorret (great lake-trout) are caught at the end of 
May or the beginning of June. Fishing in the lakes on the high 
mountain plateaux is generally not worth attempting before about the 
middle of July, but it remains good until about the middle of August ; 
and sea-trout fishing is often best in the latter month. 

Bight of fishing, dtc, — It is stiU quite easy to get good trout- 

Sport : Angling and Shooting, [69] 

fishing in Norway. For a short period this will be permitted in many 
places without payment. The sole right of fishing for a period of 
years must, of course, be paid for. Such renting has latterly become 
more general ; and there still are, in every part of the country, count- 
less rivers and lakes with capital trout-fishing, which anglers can rent, 
often for a very moderate sum. 

Trouting waters. — To enumerate even a fiftieth or a hundredth 
part of the places where good trout-fishing can be got is an impos- 
sibility. The number of such places is especially great in the W. and 
N. coast districts, where every river that in its lower course runs 
through large or small lakes offers superior fishing. But in those 
districts the fish are generally rather smaller than in the interior of the 
country. In the rivers accessible to fish from the sea a considerable 
number of sea-trout are generally found late on in the summer. Like the 
fireshwater-trout these occur in many different varieties, which, how- 
ever, in the opinion of Norwegian ichthyologists, all belong to one and 
the same species. In many of these waters a salmon or two may 
occasionally be caught, and, as mentioned already, sea-trout sxe 
found in considerable numbers in many of the regular salmon 

Among places that are specially noteworthy either as very good 
or as easily accessible may be mentioned: the Nordmiam^dslaagen, 
the Bjomsvandj and the adjacent upper portion of the course of the 
Laagen, on the so-called Hardanger-vidde, in Buskerud pref. ; the 
fishing in those waters, about 4000 ft. above the sea, is not to be sur- 
passed ; but their situation being very remote and beyond the beaten 
track, a tent and all food have to be carried; the Mjosvand, the 
Tinsjb, and many of the small lakes on the road to the Haukeli ; also 
the Nisservand, on the high road between Arendal and Telemarken ; 
the Opsjoeuy Strandefjord, and the lakes and river-reaches above, in 
Aal and Hoi; the Vinsterva/nd lakes, the Hevmdalsvand, and the 
river-reaches thence down to Olstappen, on the fjeld between Valders 
and Gudbrandsdal ; the Bussva/nd, and the Gjendeoset (the outlet of 
Lake Gjende), in the Jotunheim ; the Bena (tributary of the Glommen), 
especially the reach between Disaet and LosssBt; the Sevalen lake, 
near Tonsaet ; the upper part of the Trysil elv from Lake Fsemund, and 
thence lower down, and several lakes and rivers around the Fcemund 
lake, in Hedemarken pref. ; the Biensjo and the upper waters and river- 
reaches of the Glommen ; also the StuesjOy in the upper part of Tydal, 
both in S. Trondhjem pref.; the Bam,gsjd near Snaasen; and the 
Kvelisjo, the Murusjo, and other lakes and rivers in the pref. of N. 
Trondhjem; the Svenningdal lakes in the Vefsen district; and the 
Altevand, at Bardo, in Tromso pref. This large lake is one of the best 
trouting lakes in Norway, but it is so very much out of the way that the 
angler has to live in a tent and bring all his provisions with him. 

On the other hand, it may be said, generally, that in the large 
rivers that run through the principal vaJleys in the E. part of the 
country, such as the Glommen, the Laagen, the Drammen, &c., the 
trout-fishing is not good, except here and there in their upper courses ; 
neither do the small rivers that run out on the S. coast afford good 
sport. In the interior of Finmarken, also, there are many lakes in 

[70] Sport : Angling and Shooting. 

which the trout-fishing is inferior. This is supposed to be due to 
the faet that in these lakes perch and other coarse fish are present to 
destroy a quantity of young trout and trout-spawn. 

C. Grayling. — General observations. — This variety of fish has a 
tolerably circumscribed area in Norway. In S. Norway it occurs 
almost exclusively in the Trysil eh) and the Glommen (and their several 
tributaries), and in the Bauma (connected with the Glommen by 
means of the Laagen, a tributary of the Glommen). In the N. of 
Norway only in the Maal8\elv (Tromso pref.), as well as in the following 
rivers in Finmarken : the Laics elv (to a very small extent), the Tana 
(where fish of IJ lb. have taken a large salmon fly), the Neiden, and 
the Pasmk, 

Fishing season. — July and August are the best months. In the 
extreme N. (the Pasvik) the fishing is not good before the middle of 
July, whilst in the S. (the Vormen) it is best in August. • In the 
Glommen and the Laagen the farmers take a considerable quantity 
with the rod, even in the month of May ; but this practice is injurious, 
as grayling spawn at that time of the year. It is scarcely necessary to 
remind anglers that this fish is seldom foimd in the still reaches of a 
river, but in rapids, below waterfalls, and generally where there is a 
current more or less swift. 

In the proper season grayling rise well at the fly (especially when 
dressed yellow and red). Very small flies should be used, as the fish 
has a small and tender mouth. 

Fishing rights, dc, — Same circumstances as in the case of trout. 

Best grayling waters, — The best place for grayling-fishing in 
Norway is, undoubtedly, the Han^e fas, on the Pasviky in Finmarken, 
about 7 m. above the mouth of the river. Under favourable circum- 
stances, both just above and below the fall a great number of grayling 
can be taken m a very short time, either with a fly or minnow ; their 
weight, however, seldom exceeds 2 lbs., though, as an exception, it can 
run up to 3 and 4 lbs. In the Fjeldfrosk elv (a tributary of theMaals r., 
in Tromso pref.) excellent grayling-fishing is also to be had at the 
upper end of a so-called " Lompalo " (tarn) just below the fall. This 
river, with its lakes, is at the same time an excellent trout river, and 
some char are found in it- Quarters at Bjorkeng or Overby. 

The best fishing-places in S. Norway are, perhaps, in the upper 
parts of the Trysil elv ; but very good sport is to be had on the Bena, 
a tributary of the Glommen, especially between Disset and Lossset. 
Some sport can be got in almost all swift parts of the Glommen^ from. 
Jensvold rly. stat. down to Elverum, as well as here and there in 
the swift parts of the Glommen farther S., down to the Oieren lake. 
This applies also to the Laagen r. S. of the Mjosen may be mentioned 
the 8va/nfos in the Vormen r., 8 m. S. of Eidsvold. In the Bauma 
the grayUng-fishing is of little consequence. 

D. Char. — General observations, — Char are to be found here and 
there in nearly all parts of the country, although they are entirely 
absent in some considerable portions of the interior. They are most 
common in the northern districts of the country, whe re they are nearly 
as. general as trout. S. of the Nordland pref. char occur almost ex- 
clusively in lakes, but in the N. parts of Norway — namely, in the 

Sport : Angling and Shooting, [71] 

Tromso and Finmarken prefs. — the fish is an habitual native of the 
rivers and brooks. It even seeks in great quantities the sea, where it 
becomes silvery as salmon, but without the dark spots of the &almon, 
like which, in summer, it ascends the rivers from the sea. Although 
the char has a far wider geographical range in Norway than the gray- 
ling, its importance as a sporting fish is scarcely greater. 

Fishing season^ dc, — In most parts of the country char are rather 
unwilling to take the fly or other artificial bait, and it is only early in 
the summer, when the bird-cherry is in bloom, that they can be very 
successfully fished for with fly (chiefly red palmer). In the N. of 
Norway, and especially in Tromso and Finmarken prefs., on the 
other hand, they are more ready to take (in July and August) the fly, 
although scarcely anywhere so freely as the trout. We may mention 
that in the high-level lakes of Jemtland, in Sweden (bordering on 
Norway), char take the fly very freely from about Midsummer day tc 
the middle of July, and later on they sometimes take the " phantom " 
readily; but their local habits in this respect seem to dififer much. 
A few years ago the tackle ("plumb line") used for char in some of 
the Cumberland lakes was tried in Norway, but without much succesp, 
owing, perhaps, to want of experience and practice in management. 
Other anglers well acquainted with its use should try it on the Nor- 
wegian laJses in which the larger char are found, and thus extend the 
field for char-fishing. 

Char waters, — The silvery char mentioned above (which can 
attain a weight of 8 to 9 lbs., and will rise well to the fly) are most 
excellent for the table, surpassing, perhaps, in that respect every other 
kind of Norwegian fish, salmon not excepted. The southernmost river 
in which it occurs in any considerable quantity is the Ma^ls r. (Tromso). 
Other rivers in which this char is found are the Skibotten elv (c. h. 
112 sq. m.), in the Lyngen fjord (Tromso), and the Stabursnees ehf 
(c. b, about 116 sq. m.), and Bors eh) (c. 6. about 165 sq. m.), which 
fall into the Porsanger fjord (Finmarken). The two last mentioned 
contain also no small amount of salmon, while the B5rs elv would be a 
very good salmon river if its bottom were not so light-coloured and its 
water so transparent. The best inland char-fishing is obtainable in 
the extensive Bosvamd lake, in Ve&en, Nordland (next in size to the 
Mjosen), This water, which, like the smaller Tustervamd (connected 
with the Bosvand by a short rapid), swarms with char, belongs to the 
English N. of Europe Land Co. (See Boute 40.) 

E. Other Freshwateb-fish. — Amongst other sporting fish we can 
only mention the Sih (Coregonus lava/reius), the rare British gwiniadj 
or freshwater-herring. It inhabits deep waters, and is mostly taken 
in nets ; but in Bussian Finland (where it runs up to 10 lbs.) it has 
been found to rise freely in warm weather to a fly dressed white and 
red. It is a shy riser, very deKoate mouthed, and more difiicult even 
than the grayling to kill. Another species of Coregonus — albula — is 
of no importance to the angler. Pilce and jperch, and the carp species, 
reach a smaller size than in England, and are not so numerous as in 
Sweden or Finland. 

F. Sea-fish. — ^In addition to the sea-trout of which frequent 
mention has been already made, the W. coast (especially the N. part) 

[72] Sport: Angling and Shooting. 

and the fjords abound in every variety of sea-fish. The 8ei (coal-fisii) 
affords, perhaps, the best sport. They run to a considerable size at 
Molde, where they have to be fished at a depth of 50 fins. ; they are 
found also in the Christiania fjord as high up as Drobak, where (in 
July) the narrow sound swarms with them, as well as with herring^ 
cod, codUng, haddock, flat fish of various descriptions, and whiting. 
The Hvaloemet a little S. of Fredrikstad, are islands off which the cod- 
fishing is very good. Cod and haddock of huge size are taken among 
the Lofoten islands and off the N. Gape, at which the tourist steamers 
stop to enable passengers to fish with tackle supplied to them. The 
^aZi^i^^fishing on parts of the W. coast — for instance, off Sartor island 
(W. of Bergen) — is very exciting, the fish running up to 2 cwt., and 
having to be hauled up firom a depth of 40 to 50 fins. The native 
tackle is best adapted for such sport, and will be found at almost every 
place at which a steamer stops. An instrument called the Pilk, con- 
sisting of a bright bait in uie form of a fish, with two large hooks 
(and sometimes a " triangle " attached beneath), is very killing in 
the case of cod, haddock, sei, and large whiting. It is gently 
** jiggered" at a depth of about 6 ft. from the bottom. Even in 
the case of sea-fishing, success is greatly dependent on the fineness 
of lines, &c. 

II. Shooting. — Game Laws. — ^A law for the protection of game was 
not enacted in Norway until 1845, and it has since, at various periods, 
been amended and extended. The close time for game, wild birds, &c., 
is at present as follows : 

Elk : in Nordland fi*om November 1 to August 1 ; in Namdalen 
firom October 15 to September 1 ; in S. Trondhjem prefect, firom Octo- 
ber 15 to September 15 ; in some localities the close season has been 
extended to several years, in others to the whole year except 14 
days. The sportsman must be careful to obtain local information, 
and to remember that for offences against the laws, such as ki lh 'ng 
an elk out of season, or killing more than one on the same farm or 
single property, he renders himself liable to a very heavy fine, which 
is sure to be enforced, as half the fine goes to the informer. Not- 
withstanding these strict enactments, elk-poaching is by no means 
uncommon. Similar diversity in the close time exists in the case of 
red-deer, the general close season for which is November 1 to Septem- 
ber 15. As a rule, only stags can be shot, and only two (in some 
districts one) annually on the same fiurm. 

N.B. — In the case both of elk and red-deer, a royal license must 
be obtained for shooting them on State or com/mu/ncd lands, 

Beindeer : September 16 to August 15, both days included. One- 
year-old calves must not be shot. Bears, wolves, lynxes, and, generally, 
beasts and birds of prey are not protected. On the conjarary, premiums 
are paid for their destruction. Hares are freed firom June 1 to August 15 ; 
but the dates vary in some places. 

Capercailzie (hen) and greyhen : March 15 to August 15. Caper- 
cailzie (cock), blackcock, ptarmigan and willow -grouse, hazel-grouse : 
May 15 to August 15. Partridge : January 1 to September 1« 

The dose season for these birds varies locally. 

Sport : Angling and Shootmg. [73] 

General observations, — Amongst the best places to select for gene- 
ral shooting are the mountains on the borders of Sweden (Osterdalen), 
the Dovre, Fille, Sogn, and Haukeli fjelds, the Eomsdal, and the Lom 
(Gudbrandsdal), the Hallingdal districts (Buskerud pref.), and those of 
Salten and Banen. 

The wild beasts and birds that attract so many sportsmen to 
Norway are principally the following : 

(a) Big Game. — ElJc, — As a result of the introduction of game laws 
(which did not exist prior to 1845), and the disappearance, to a great 
extent, of wolves, this huge noble animal — a big bull will stand eighteen 
hands at the withers, and weigh 1500 lbs. — has greatly increased in 
numbers during the last ten years, particularly in the Sonden- and 
Norden-fjeldske regions — viz. in the Smaalenene, Hedemarken, and 
Buskerud prefs. (neighbouring Christiania), and N. in the districts on 
the Trondhjem fjord, and in the Namdalen (N. Trondhjem pref.) Its 
increase in the S. is specially noticeable. Only one elk can be shot 
on each matriculated property, the bulk of proprietors having the 
right of shooting only one ; and it is only the larger landowners (in 
the S.) with several numbered estates (independent of size) that can 
shoot more. In such cases battues are organised. This rule does not 
apply to the Crown (pubhc) domains. 

In the case both of elk and reindeer stalking, success can be attained 
only by the hardy sportsman with plenty of spare time, iniired to 
fatigue, well acquainted with the country or guided by an experienced 
native stalker (about 5 kr. a day), and prepared to camp out on the 
fjeld or in a rough sceter^ where a posting-station or feunn-house is not 
conveniently available. Whilst the reindeer keeps to the highest fjelds 
and the neighbourhood of snow and glacier, the elk frequents the great 
swamps and pine-forests of the lower ground, although during summer 
and autumn it will occasionally wander to a considerable altitude, and 
lie out on the bare moor. Few animals are more wary or difficult of 
approach, but late in the season the old buUs become now and then 
bold and even dangerous, charging the hunter at sight. Both in Nor- 
way and Sweden trained dogs are used in leaders for tracking the elk, 
and are often loosed to find and bring him to bay. But by Norwegian 
law the use of the loose dog is really forbidden. A considerable num- 
ber of the best elk-forests in Norway are now rented by English and 
German sportsmen. By the published returns of the Norsk Jteger-og 
Fisker-Forening it is shown that during the season of 1889 there were 
killed in Norway 850 elk, 515 being bulls and 885 cows. N. Trond- 
hjem's prefect, afforded 303 out of this total, the prefect, of Namdalen 
yielding 145, of which 104 were bulls. Akershus bailiwick comes next 
with 118 elk, whilst in Nordland only 9 were killed. Diiring the same 
period (on the average of different districts about a month), the return 
from Swedish forests was 1782 elk ; but in that country there is no 
limit to the number that may be killed on each farm, and the natives 
never spare calves. 

Wild reindeer are now found on the fjelds between lat. 62° and 
69°. There are scarcely any from Eoros northwards, up to the N. 
Cape, owing to that stretch of country being roamed over by herds of 
tame reindeer, which a?e shui^ned by their wild congeners, Of T©peiit 

[74] Sport : Angling and Shooting. 

years the keeping of tame reindeer has been extended southwards to 
the Hardanger-vidde and many other localities. This, together with 
the establishment of more seeterSy and an increase in the number of 
cattle and sheep, has been the principal cause of a noticeable falling 
off in the number of reindeer within reach of the sportsman. Fifty 
years ago herds of 200 to 400 were occasionally encountered, and a 
sportsman could kill as many as twenty a day. A herd of 200 is now 
but seldom seen. According to the same published report (mentioned 
above) the total number of wild reindeer killed in Norway in 1889 was 
471, Romsdal's prefect, being first with 143 head. Christian's prefect, 
second with 122, and Lister and Mandal's prefect, last with only 3. 
Great caution is needed in stalking reindeer, and the sportsman cannot 
pay too much attention to the direction of the wind. 

Bed- deer. — According to Professor Friis,^ of Christiania, there 
are eleven localities where these are found — viz. three islands off the 
Trondhjem coast (Hitteren the most important), and eight (mostly in- 
significant) points on the neighbouring mainland, close to the sea. 
Sir H. Pottinger * adds to this enumeration an island of considerable 
size in the Namsen ^ord — the Ottero. There is, however, very little 
sport in this direction, except for those already and for a long time 
in possession of it. The total number of red-deer killed in Norway 
during a single season is probably much short of 100. 

Bears, somewhat general (although steadily decreasing) in most of 
the forest districts of Norway, are most numerous in the prefs. of Tele- 
marken, Nedenses, Nordland, and N. Trondhjem. There are not a few 
on the Vefsen estate of the N. of Europe Land Co. It would scarcely 
repay the British sportsman to visit the country for the special purpose 
of killing them ; but occasional chances occur, of which advantage can 
be taken while bent on other sport. Unless molested, bears rarely 
attack men, but when only wounded will sometimes charge the 
hunter, who, in default of being able to get in fresh cai-tridges quickly 
enough or to retreat, may, if he likes, try the expedient of lying down 
with his face to the ground and suspending as much as possible his 
breathing. But perhaps not to go out bear-hunting is preferable to 
being reduced to this doubtful means of escape. The she-bear will 
invariably face the hunter in defence of her cubs, if she believes 
them to be in danger ; but, if time allows, she will force the cubs to 
conceal themselves amongst the rocks or by climbing trees, and herself 
lie in wait close by to watch the result. Bears have been hunted by 
Englishmen in Norway with some success by employing small black 
colley dogs, trained at home to follow the trail of a dead cat through 
eoverts stocked with game, the scent of the cat being not unlike that 
of the bear. The dogs are kept in hand by long leaders, but the im- 
mense distance that a bear will travel when disturbed renders suCh a 
chase very arduous. Dogs well trained to bear may be occasionally 

^ Author of (inter alia) a charming and instructive book on sport — 
"Tilfjelds," with a map showing the distribution of game. It was trans- 
lated into English in 1878, under the title of " Sporting Life on Norwegian 
Fjelds," by W. G. Loch. 

'^ Fortnightly Review, Feb. 1891 : " An Island Deer-forest," 

Sport : Angling and Shooting. [76] 

met with in Norway. In 1889-90 several bears were killed in the 
Namsos district by English and German elk-hunters. In the winter 
of 1889 a farmer who had laid poison in the carcass of a beast killed 
by beaxs, not far from Gudaa, in Stjordal, found, on visiting it the next 
morning, three of the marauders, large and small, lying dead, and was 
chased to a considerable distance by a fourth, whose share of the 
poison had only rendered him ferocious. 

Berries (especially bilberries) are the normal food of the bear. His 
favourite haunts in summer are in the thickly wooded mountain-valleys 
and slopes of the mountains, and particularly in the neighbourhood of 
the seeters, or mountain pastmres, where the cattle are grazed. Should 
a bear have killed a cow in the neighbourhood, and news of it be 
brought within a day or so afterwards, a possible method of getting 
a shot is for the sportsman to watch the carcass of the cow from some 
place of concealment close by, till the bear returns to gorge himself 
upon it a second time, which he seldom fails to do if undisturbed. But 
as he generally makes a circuit before approaching his meal, the 
chances are greatly in favour of his getting the wind of the ambushed 
hunter, and retiring until the coast is clear. 

The usual native mode of killing bears is to fix three or four guns, 
v/ith the muzzles pointing at different angles, across the carcass of a 
cow that has been killed, tying strings at one end to the triggers and 
at the other to the cow, so that they explode when the bear returns 
and begins to tug at the carcass again, in which case some of the balls 
can scarcely fall to kill or severely wound him. Over 100 bears 
are killed annually in Norway, and by far the greater number of 
these towards the end of the winter. A good bearskin may some- 
times be bought at posting-stations for 50 or 60 kr. 

Wolves. — There are still a considerable number of these animals 
scattered over the vast extent of rocky fjelds which form the backbone 
of Scandinavia ; particularly in the northern and central districts. In 
the south they are all but exterminated. During the winter they 
sometimes descend into the valleys, and approach the habitations of 
men. In December 1890 a number of wolves made their appearance 
in the neighbourhood of Stjordal, the vale through which the railway 
runs from Trondhjem to the Swedish frontier ; as many as a dozen 
being seen together at times. Fine wolfskins may be purchased in 
Trondhjem, but one very seldom hears of a sportsman getting even a 
glimpse of a wolf, as during the summer and autmnn months these 
animals manage to conceal themselves among the wildernesses of 
splintered crags and boulders on the summit of the fjeld, where they 
find convenient lairs in which to rear their young. 

Gluttons, — The glutton or wolverine (Gulo horeaUs ; Fjeldfras) is 
another animal of which the handsome skin may be occasionally met 
with, especially among the Lapps, but which is seldom, if ever, seen 
by the sportsman. It inhabits the most rocky and precipitous glens 
on the verge of the fjeld, and, being an active climber, is able to retreat 
to fastnesses on the face of the cliffs, where it is impossible to follow it. 
The elk -hunter who is obhged to leave the meat in the forest all night 
(in such districts as Namdalen), will occasionally find that the glutton 
has descended in the dark hours and taken his share. This wily 

[76] Sport : Angling and Shooting. 

animal, although comparatively slow of moment on foot, contrives to 
kill the tame reindeer, by lying on a projecting rock or the bough of 
a tree, and dropping on to the victim's neck as it passes below. 

Lynx {Lo8i or Goupe), — This very sanguinary and sly animal still 
manages to hold his own in Norway, despite the considerable pre- 
mium offered for his destruction. The decrease in the number of 
lynxes of late years appears to have been less than that of any other tribe 
of indigenous ferce ; but, like the wolf and the glutton, the lynx con- 
trives to keep out of sight of the ordinary sportsman. There are no 
animals of their size more bloodthirsty and destructive ; in districts 
which they haunt, the game, both far and feather, suffers terribly, and 
if they have the chance of attacking sheep they will kill, out of pure 
love of slaughter, as many as they possibly can. Their range does not 
extend much farther north than N. Trondhjem's prefect., where they are 
fairly numerous. The spotted skin of the lynx is very beautiful and 
soft, and conmiands a good price ; there are usually a fetir number of 
skins on sale in Trondhjem, and one or two miay be sometimes met 
with up the country. 

Otters, — Otters are found in nearly all the streams of any size in 
Norway, and a breed of imcouunon dimensions inhabits the range of 
innumerable rocky islets, extending up the coast as far as Finmarken. 
These otters live chiefly in the sea, but occasionally visit fresh water. 
They must not be confounded with the genuine sea-otter, whose far is so 
rare and valuable. Nevertheless, their skins, when properly dressed, are 
very handsome, and make excellent collars, cuffs, &c. They can be 
bought in Trondhjem, and now and then be picked up at the farm- 
houses on the coast or islands. By consulting the farmers, a shot 
might be obtained at one of these large otters, but it would probably 
entail much watching and patience. A similar breed exists on the 
coast of Scotland. 

Seals. — The spotted seal (Phoca vituUna) and the grey seal {HaU- 
choerus grypus) are found on the Norwegian coast. The latter is rather 
locally distributed, but the former exists in great numbers the whole 
length of the seaboard. With some trouble, shots may be had from a 
boat or the rocks at these animals, but the difl&culty of killing them, 
and securing the body, will deter most sportsmen from attempting 
the chase; especially as the trophies afforded by the common seal 
are only a certain amount of oil and a harsh skin adapted for covering 
trunks. It is true that these might be acceptable to a farmer or 

Ha/res are fairly plentiful. In winter the hare of the woods and 
mountains turns white, and is smaller than the field-hare, which is 
naturally more scarce. The majority are identical with the blue 
hare of Scotland ; the real English hare is not found in Scandinavia, 
neither is the rabbit. 

For farther mention of Mammalia, see antef " Zoology." 

(6) Feathered Game. — Ptarmigan (La^gopus alpina, or Nor- 
wegian Fjeld Hype) are indigenous to the rocky summits of lofty 
mountains, above the line of the growth of the mountain-willow and 
the dwarf-birch. Only a small portion of this vast field has as yet 
been taken up by sport^^}en shooting over dogs, whose bags form an iU" 

Spori : Angling and Shooting. [77] 

significant aggregate compared with the number of birds snared, or 
shot without the aid of dogs, by the natives. 

Early in the season ptarmigan afford but little sport, as they are 
not free flyers, but sit and croak on the approach of the shooter, or 
run over the bare groimd without rising, and, when forced to take 
wing, often alight again at a short distance. But the pursuit of 
them leads the sportsman into grandly desolate regions, frequently 
commanding magnificent views, and swept by the most buoyant and 
exhilarating air. Excellent shooting can, however, be obtained among 
the ptarmigan when (say in September) the first sprinkling of snow 
has fallen on the high fjelds, and the birds become wilder and, to a 
certain extent, packed. Then, when disturbed, they sweep round the 
slopes of the rocky summits on which they are usually found and 
which they seldom quit altogether, and the guns, by separating and 
going in different directions, can keep them on the move, and secure 
grand wild-shooting and splendid driving-shots. Earlier in the season — 
and indeed at all times — a steady setter, spaniel, or hunting retriever 
is necessary, as the young or scattered birds will crouch motionless and 
invisible among the stones which they so closely resemble until nearly 
trod upon. It must be understood that the fjeld-rype is identical 
with the ptarmigan of Scotland. Norwegians frequently fancy that 
the next bird in our list, the skov-rype, may be also spoken of in 
English as ptarmigan, which is of course a mistake. 

The SJcov- or Dal-rypCy the wood- or willow-grouse (LagBpua sub- 
alpma)y is declared by naturalists to have been originally identical with 
the red-grouse of the British Isles, a certain change of plumage and habit 
having been effected by climate. In full autumn (August) feathering, the 
colour of the two birds is the same — rich red brown in the cock, duller 
brown in the hen — on the back, breast, head, and neck ; but the willow- 
grouse has the pinion feathers of the wing snow-white with a black shaft, 
and the belly and leg feathers are also white. It has been asserted by 
savants that if it could be experimentally transferred to the British 
Isles it would in time assume the full plumage of the red-grouse, 
which, under a similar change to Norway, would become the rype. 
But, with all due respect to science, there must be considerable specu- 
lation about this opinion. The Norwegian bird might well be called 
the bir-ch -grouse, to the exclusion of any other name ; for, wherever in 
central or northern Norway, whether on mainland or island, a long 
stretch of birchwood is seen clothing the slopes of a hill or the levels 
of a valley, be sure that at least some few coveys of ryper may be 
found there, unless, indeed, the birds have been exterminated by resi- 
dent native sportsmen. In genuine pine-forest, altogether unmixed 
with birch, they are seldom seen. In dull or wet weather the ryper 
usually prefer the thick covert and the base of the hills, but on bright, 
warm days they gradually ascend to the brushwood on the edge of the 
open f jeld. Where, too, the f jeld itself is covered with patches of birch, 
dwarfed by situation into scrub, and of the real dwarf-birch (Betula 
nana), it is, as a rule, a favourite resort for ryper. In such localities 
they also fi:equent, especially during the heat of the day, the damp 
thickets of dwarf-willow which fill the hollows of the mountain and 
clothe the sides of the riUs, and this habit has given to the bird the 

[78] Sport : Anglvng and Shooting. 

name of willow-grouse, by which it is generally known to English sports- 
men and naturalists. The skov-ryper abound in Norway, but they are 
scattered over a vast region, and, except in certain fietvonred localities, a 
single shooter must expect to make only small or moderate bags — say 
from 16 to 26 brace — to be obtained by much hard work. The birds 
are very capricious in their choice of a residence, and often shift their 
ground with a change of wind ; a hillside may be alive with them at 
one time, and at another all but deserted. The finest rype-shooting 
in Norway is to be found in the Lofoten islands ; the best of it has 
long since been leased by Englishmen. In 1890 two guns bagged over 
dogs, in a few weeks, 1900 brace. The spring of that year was probably 
one of the finest breeding seasons ever known in Scandinavia. Every 
species of game abounded, even in localities not usually productive. A 
dog — pointer, or setter, or spaniel — is absolutely necessary for rype- 
shooting with anything like steady success. Two or three of the outer 
islands below Trondhjem, of which Smolen is the best known, are quite 
flat and entirely clothed with heather, with not a tree visible, and 
there skov-ryper afiford excellent sport, similar to that of the Scotch 
moors. In the south of Norway, however, where they are compara- 
tively rare, they must be sought at an elevation of firom 1000 to 2000 ft. 
above sea-level. Both the fjeld- and skov-ryper turn pure white in 
winter ; the latter may be distinguished by their superior size, rounder 
shape, and larger bill. Immense numbers are exported for the English 

Capercailzie : Tiur [male] ; Boy [female]. — This magnificent bird, the 
king of the grouse tribe, is found all over Scandinavia. Its pecuHar haunt 
is the pine-forest, especially that portion of it which is diversified by 
grassy glades, hillocks overgrown with berry-bearing shrubs, and oc- 
casional alder and willow swamps. The capercailzie are especially fond 
of feeding round the latter late in the afternoon. The old cocks, which 
sometimes attain a weight of 12 or 14 lbs., are extremely wary, and will 
run a long way and at great speed before the dog. The birds of the year 
will lie well in favourable ground, and several may be bagged out of a 
brood as they rise singly. The old hen, whom it is hoped the sports- 
man will spare, usually remains with her adult progeny until late in 
the season. Scotch sportsmen despise the capercajlzie as food, but the 
Norwegian bird, by feeding on the profusion of berries of various kinds 
with which the forests are carpeted, becomes very plump and deHcate 
in flavour, and excellent for the table. When, however, the winter 
snows have set in, its food is the shoots of the pine, and it firequently 
contracts a disagreeable flavour of turpentine- Most of the birds which 
are imported into England during the winter have more or less of this 
strong, unpleasant flavour, and those who trj'- them at such a time 
frequently conceive an unjust prejudice against them. The same re- 
marks apply to blackgame and other Norwegian game-birds. Caper- 
cailzie are killed in great numbers by the natives by a kind of figure- 
of-4 trap, set in the pathways and cattle -tracks, down which the birds 
delight to run. 

Blackgame : Orhane [male] ; Orhone [female] — are also plentiful all 
over Scandinavia. The best localities in which to find them are where 
the forest has been partially cleared, and young fir-trees, juniper-bushes, 

Sjport : Angling and Shooting. [79] 

and wild-raspberry canes are abundant. They are very fond of fre- 
quenting the neighbourhood of faraas, and of feeding in the morning 
and evening on the oat and barley stubbles. A road is also a great 
attraction to them, as it is, indeed, to all of the grouse tribe. In some 
parts of Scandinavia, where game is abundant, it is surprising how 
many capercailzie, blackgame, hjerper (or hazel-grouse), and even 
skov-ryper may be seen during an evening strolling along a quiet forest- 
road. When they have attained their full plumage, the young black- 
cock generally pack together, and become difficult of approach. Whilst 
yet in the brood they will lie like stones, and are easy to kill. 

Hjerjpe (Tetrao Bonasia, Tree- or Hazel-grouse ; Fr. GeVmotte ; 
Ger. Haselhuhn), — This beautiful Uttle bird, which is scarcely bigger 
than a partridge and has white flesh, is nevertheless a true grouse, the 
smallest of the tribe. It is abundant aU over northern and central 
Scandinavia, but is less common in the south, and nowhere found in 
the W. It is pecuhar for its habit of taking to the trees directly it is 
flushed. The whole covey scatters among the nearest birch- or pine- 
trees, and the birds sit motionless. Unless the spot where they have 
perched is accurately marked, they are difficult to distinguish among 
the fohage. When again disturbed they fly through the forest with 
astonishmg rapidity for a short distance, and settle again. If left in 
peace, they will soon betray their whereabouts by a soft whistle. The 
sportsman need have no shame in taking his chance when he can get 
it, and shooting them on the branches. Being dehcious eating, they 
are a most acceptable addition to the bag. During the winter they 
are to be seen hanging in considerable numbers in the shops of Enghsh 
poulterers. The plumage is deHcately mottled and spotted with grey, 
brown, and white. 

Partridge. — This familiar bird is plentiful in Sweden, whence it 
has strayed into Norway and estabHshed itself, to some extent, in the 
prefectures of Smaalenene, Akershus, Hedemarken, and Christian ; but 
in exceptionally severe winters nearly the whole stock perishes for 
want of food, and several seasons elapse before it is sufficiently re- 
cruited by immigration to become again noticeable. A few birds have 
been observed as far north as Trondhjem. The British sportsman in 
Norway wiU do well to spare psurtridges if, as is very unlikely, he should 
happen to meet with them. 

Woodcock (jRugde), — Immense numbers of woodcock breed in 
Norway, but the sportsman must not on that account expect to make 
large bags of them. He may consider himself unusually lucky if, during 
a long ramble in the forest at the end of August or beginning of Sei3- 
tember, he comes across two or three broods. W^hen tliis does occur, 
he may, however, secure the majority, as the old and young birds 
generally keep pretty close together. But at that season they are 
scarcely worth shooting, as they lack the plumpness and delicacy 
which they attain after the cold weather begins, and their peculiar 
flavour is often exaggerated even to rankness. Later on, if he be still 
in Norway, he may have the good fortune to meet with a flight of 
woodcock collected for the annual migration, which usually conunences 
with the last N.E. winds in October or the first in November ; but few 
English bird- shooters remain so late in Scandinavia. The breeding- 

[80] Sport : Angling and Shooting. 

range of the woodcock in Norway extends from the forests near 
Ohristiansand to those bordering the Yaranger fjord in Finmarken, but 
they are certainly much rarer in the north than in the centre and south. 
Snipe, — The double or solitary snipe (Scolopax major; Dohhelt 
Behhasi/n), an example of which is now and then recorded in Englajid, 
is found aJl over Scandinavia, but is comparatively rare in the extreme 
north. It is common, however, in the Lofoten and many islands of 
the western coast. This delicious bird, although frequently found in 
bogs and marshes, is much less paortial to wet ground than its smaller 
congeners, and is frequently flushed, like a woodcock, in perfectly dry 
woods and at a high elevation. It is also fond of tussocky meadows 
overgrown with sedge-grass, and of thickets of scrub and dwarf- willow 
on the banks of ditches and watercourses. It is coumion both to the 
lowlands and highlands, is met with on marshes high up on the Dovre 
f jeld, and as low down as the marshes round Bodo. The southward 
migration of this snipe begins as early as August, during which month 
it is found (sometimes in great numbers) in the immense tract of flat 
bog, morass, and rough meadow, extending beyond Stavanger towards 
Ekersund, and known as Jsederen, where in former years 40 or 50 
couples have been killed by a single gun in a day. But since the 
establishment of the raihoad between the two towns this wild tract 
has been invaded by an armv of local shooters, and the wild-fowl, 
snipe, and shore-birds with wnich it once abounded have been sadly 
reduced in numbers or driven away. It still contains, however, prob- 
ably the best snipe-ground in Norway. The double snipe is generally 
bursting with fat, and flies but slowly and heavily, dropping again at 
no great distance. It varies greatly in size, being sometimes not 
much larger than a big common snipe, and sometimes two-thirds as 
large as a woodcock. 

The common snipe (EnJeelt Behhasin) is also of frequent occurrence 
all over Norway, except in the far north, where it is comparatively 
rare. But there is little good snipe-shooting to be found in the 
country, the forest morasses and bogs, overgrown and matted as they 
are with herbage and moss, not being of that character which attracts 
the birds in any number. Here and there, however, the shooter may 
discover decent sport in swampy tracts bordering lakes or inlets of the 
sea, or the mouths of rivers, especially in the south, but such places 
require much searching for. A few snipe will be generally found in 
the wet natural meadows which are mown by the peasants on the 
fjelds. The snipe-shooting in Sweden is vastly superior to that in 
Norway. The jack-snipe (/Swiaa BeJchasin) is generally distributed 
about the country, but calls for no special notice. The breeding-place 
is believed to be almost invariably within the Arctic Circle. 

Wild-fowl. — Some disappointment will usually be experienced in 
Norway by the lover of wild-fowl shooting who expects a great deal, 
despite the enormous number of ducks and geese which are bred all 
over the country. The fact is, that during the time when most English 
sportsmen are in Norway, the birds are scattered among the innumer- 
able lakes, tarns, and rivers, near which they have nested, and are 
seldom congregated anywhere in sufficient numbers to afford really 
good shooting. It is often supposed that this may be obtained by 

Sport : Angling and Shooting. [81] 

taking a boat, and rowing or sailing among the countless islets of the 
western coast; but whatever be the case very late in the year, during 
the late summer or early autumn little sport is to be had in this way. 
Sea-fowl of all kinds will indeed be met with : gulls, skuas, terns, guille- 
mots, little auks, cormorants, razor-bills, and the like. The latter birds, 
or Alca tor da, are destroyed in great numbers in the Christiania fjord 
by Norwegian sportsmen in September and October, and are even pur- 
sued in small steamers, although worthless, except for their white breast 
feathers. To the list may be added a few sea-ducks, including scoters, 
shield- drakes, and eiders ; but of genuine wild-fowl very few will be thus 
obtained. We may here appropriately mention again that the eider- 
duck is strictly preserved within the Tromso SH/t and in many other 
localities. British sportsmen must always avoid shooting them. On the 
other hand, there is scarcely a mountain tarn that does not possess its 
brood or two of some species of wild- duck, which will also be found in the 
quieter reaches of every river, and in the adjoining swamps and back- 
waters. Opportunities occur on most of the fishing lakes of supplying 
the larder with edible wild-fowl. The sportsman who is satisfied with 
this kind of sport will find fair occupation for his gun, and obtain 
several varieties, among which may be mentioned the mallard, teal, 
widgeon, pintail, golden-eye, conunon and velvet scoter, shoveller, and 
scaup : all true ducks ; besides mergansers and red- and black-throated 
divers, which may be secured as specimens. The loud cry of the great 
northern diver {Lorn) will often be heard,' and the bird seen, but his 
skin is difl&cult to obtain owing to his great wariness. On the shores 
and islands of some of the mountain lakes great numbers of wild-geese 
are bred, and during the month of September these birds congregate in 
large flocks along the indented coasts of the outer islands on the western 
seaboard, such as Smolen and Froien, and among the reefs and inlets 
of the Lofoten group. By lying in wait for them at dusk and dawn, 
when they fiy to and &o between the sea and the local lakes and tarns, 
some few may be obtained. It is difficult to approach them within 
shooting distance in an ordinary boat. The gunning-punt is happily 
unknown in Norway. The young birds are sometimes massacred when 
barely able to fly, before they leave their breeding-places. A consider- 
able number of wild-fowl also breed in the swamps of Jsederen (before 
mentioned), and assemble at the mouths of the small rivers which run 
through that flat region into the open sea. The Norwegian peasant 
despises wild-ducks as food — at some farmhouses it is diflicult to get 
them cooked — but is generally eager to have theoi shot, to limit their 
depredations on his scanty crops. 

Plover, (Be, — The tjelds of Finmarken and Lapland are the 
breeding-places of countless thousands of golden plover and dotterel 
(Cha/radrius plv^viaUa and morinelhua; Heilo and Bundfugl), and of 
the ruff {Machetes pugnax ; Bruaha/ne), The whimbrel, curlew (Snuui- 
and Stor-spove), the godwit (Langnebbe), greenshank (Glutsneppe), 
redshank {Bodbeen Sneppe), and vairous species of sandpiper also 
nest in these vast solitudes. Of these birds, the first two are by far 
the commonest. In August, when the young birds are fully grown, 
the traveller on some of the ^elds will hear in every direction the wail- 
ing pipe of hosts of golden plover, and may shoot as many as he likes. 
[Norway--Yi, 92.] e 

[82] Seasons for Travel. 

Although, together with the plump little dotterels, they entail some 
trouhle in plucking, they are a welcome addition to the wanderer's 
larder. In Septemher they shift their quarters, and, collecting in their 
myriads on the fiats of Jsederen and similar localities along the S. coast, 
await the winds which favour their further migration. The green 
plover or peewit (Vibe) abouhds in parts of Norway, especially in 
JsBderen, and a few years since, we are sorry to say, its eggs were beings 
exported thence for the English market. 

In concluding this sketch of the sport which the sportsman is likely 
to meet with in Norway, we may ask him to visit that country in not 
too sanguine a frame of mind and with but moderate expectations, 
and to be, moreover, prepared, considering the vast extent of land over 
which the game is spread, for frequent disappointment and constant 
hard work. Let him be patient with the natives, making allowance 
for their habitual tardiness and respecting their prejudices, and always 
bear in mind the two following regulations, rigorously imposed : 

(a) AUena are not allowed to shoot on Crovm and comimi/nal 
la/nda — i.e, on ground which has no private owner — without an annual 
license J of which the cost is not less than 200 kr. (11 Z. 2«. Sd.), the 
maximum tax being 500 kr. A fine ranging between 200 kr. and 
1000 kr. is leviable when this regulation is disregarded. 

(b) Dogsy nominally for the exclusion of hydrophobia (which 
never existed in Norway), cannot be imported except from Sweden 
(where stringent quarantine 'regulations are imposed), and domestic 
dogs are strictly included in the prohibition. There are not many 
shooting dogs to be purchased in Norway, and their quality (except in 
the case of hounds for elk and reindeer) is not altogether satisfiActory ; 
but a few may be picked up in Christiania and Trondhjem, or pro- 
cured from Sweden. 

IX. Seasons for Travel. 

1. Summer, — Tours in the S. of Norway and from the W. coast 
may well be undertaken in June. As a rule, the trees are 
budding in Christiania and the neighbourhood early in May, and the 
snow is entirely off the ground. But it requires the experience of a 
long chilly winter to appreciate fully the delightful fragance of 
birch- and pine-trees in May. Nature, so long torpid, is then awakening 
in all its youthful beauty, and ere long fields and rocks are covered 
with wildflowers and ferns, the peculiar fiora of the North. The 
mountain torrents, as well as the diminutive rills, are in ftdl motion ; 
butterflies are hovering about; the swallows seeking and storing 
materials for their nests, and the forest-birds filling the woods with 
sounds of song and call over their mating engagements, which, how- 
ever, being quickly over, leave the forests as silent as they had been in 
winter. June is often very pleasant, and in some of the southern 
districts highly enjoyable, although occasionally, and locally, chilly. 
July is the month in which the pleasantest weather throughout Norway 
is generally found. In the middle of August it sometimes breaks and 
becomes unsettled ; but, nevertheless, August is, on the whole, more 
enjoyable in l^orway than in England, except to grouse-shooters. 

— ^ 

Seasons for TraiwL [83] 

But then the days begin to draw in rapidly, after having enabled the 
traveller to dispense with all artificial light, even when reading his 
" Times " at midnight- No inconvenience is, however, experienced 
in exploring Norway S. of Trondhjem in September. It can be 
avoided by due attention to probable atmospheric changes. As a 
matter of fact, there is less inconvenience and discomfort in passing a 
winter in Norway than in England or Scotland. As the N. Cape, with its 
midnight sun, is one of the principal attractions to the tourist, it is a 
matter of course that the latter end of June or the first half of July 
should be selected, considering that the upper part of the sun at mid- 
night is visible for the last time on August 1. 

2. Winter, — Too little attention has been paid to the health<giving 
properties of a winter in the S. or W. of Norway. At Christiania, the 
maximum cold is one-half of what it is at St. Petersburg in the same 
latitude ; while in several places on the W. coast and its fjords a 
temperate climate prevails throughout the winter. Norwegians with 
delicate lungs are sent, for instance, to the Hardanger fjord, in har- 
mony with the modem treatment of diseases of the chest which require, 
above all, a dry and equable (though cold) temperature. As in other 
parts of the North, Norwegian houses are well adapted to meet the 
rigour of a cold season. An equable temperature pervades the dwell- 
ing-rooms, fi:om which draughts are excluded by well-made windows, 
the " sash " window, so well calculated to produce an opposite effect, 
being ahnost unknown. Ventilation is effected by throwing windows 
wide open in the depth of wmter. Warmth is permanently retained in 
each room, not by open fireplaces, but by small iron cylindrical stoves, 
in which a shovelful of coal and coke suffices to generate warmth 
su£&cient for an entire night. By an arrangement so simple, coal 
(the principal fuel in all Norwegian towns) is not consumed merely in 
an attempt to warm the chimney and the atmosphere above it, with 
the accompanying result of adding blackness and all-pervading 
" smuts " to a fog. The comfort of Norwegian houses in occasional 
severe weather and easterly winds secures those who are weak from 
the risks they encounter in England and Scotland. It must be con- 
fessed, however, that the open fireplace, with its genial glow, blaze, 
and embers, will be missed by most true Britons. 

In respect even to recreation there is much to attract both the 
young and middle-aged man to Norway. At Christiania especially, 
the winter months (December to March) may be passed most pleasantly 
in skating and snow-shoeing, over and above the ordinary enjoyments, 
occupations, and pastimes of life at home. The Norwegians are 
strong and excellent skaters, although even their best performers 
scarcely attain in figure-cutting the accuracy and finish of the * Cana- 
dian and English schools. Bunning on snow-shoes is already attract- 
ing more and more attention from travellers, and those who have 
attained the art (in two or three weeks) become sometimes disdainful 
of the skater. The celebrated snow-shoe race at Christiania (in 
February), when leaps of 60 ft. and more are taken, is weU worth 
attending. The interior of the country (Telemarken in particular, 
within easy access of the capital) is well adapted for such sport. 
Tobogganing, or descending snowy slopes on sledges, is a rough, but 


[84] Modes of Travelling, 

exhilarating amnsement. It is the Norwegian snbstitnte (or rather the 
origin) of tiie Bnssian artificial ** ice-hills." January and February 
are the best months for these winter pastimes in Norway. 

The general attractiveness of the oomitry will, it is hoped, be 
established in the pages that follow, whether in summer or winter. 

X. Modes of Travelling : Steamship and Bailway Fares, 
Land and Water Posting, Yachting, &c. 

Travelling in Norway is special and peculiar, differing in many 
important respects firom that in any other part of Europe. This is 
due to the natural configuration of the country, and to the distribution 
and habits of the population. 

So many improvements have been made of late years in the 
means of locomotion, in the matter of roads, in acconamodation even 
at remote posting- stations, and in the character of the food supplied 
throughout the country, that no discomfort (or exceedingly little) need 
now be apprehended by those who contemplate a tour in Norway. 

The telegraph and telephone are so widely extended, and so cheap, 
that travellers in the height of the season can avail themselves largely 
of either of those means in order to secure accommodation, &o. 

Travelling Coupons. — BennetVs Tov/riat Office issues Coupons by 
which the traveller can without any extra cost be franked through on 
any route he may select, and thereby calculate his exact expenses. 
They cover conveyance of every kind, and include guides, boats, and 
horses for special excursions to points of interest on a journey. The 
" Skyds '* (posting) tickets are more especially convenient, as they are 
accepted at every posting-station on the main roads. Much of the 
travelling in Norway has to be done by driving, and the repeated 
payment of the posting-fare, the trouble of calculating it even from the 
tables we give, that of carrying a large supply of small coin, together 
with other incidental inconveniences, often cause annoyance even to 
an experienced traveller in Norway. 

Bennett's Tourist Office also issues Hotel Coupons which are 
available at all the principal hotels and stations throughout Norway. 
They secure meals and accommodation, and afford preferential advan- 
tages to the holders. 

Prospectuses relative to Bennett's Travelling Coupons for Norway, 
and givmg a series of specimen tours, &c., may be had (post free) 
on application to Bennett's Tourist Office, Christiania, Bergen, or 

Steamers (Dampslcibe). — The Wilson Mail Service to Christiania, 
Stavanger, Bergen, and Trondhjem is widely known for its excellence, 
and the steam communication between Scotland and the Norwegian 
coast, cheap and good as it already is, improves and extends yearly, 
under competition with Norwegian liues.' Too much praise cannot 
be accorded to the Norwegian coasting service. The steamers are 

* See " XII., Access to Norway," for the lines, British and Norwegian, 
that convey tourists to and from Norway. 

Modes of Travelling. [86] 

generally large, powerful, and comfortably fitted. On board some of 
the smaller steamers the sleeping accommodation, however, is not 
always adeq[uate, and in the height of the season the saloons of most of 
the packets are converted at night into sleeping apartments. Before 
starting on a long voyage along the coast it is advisable to make 
inquiries as to the accommodation offered, and to secure a good berth, 
either at the shipping office or immediately on embarkation. Most of 
the officers speak English, but the stewards rarely know any other 
language than their own, or perhaps German. But, with the aid of 
our vocabulary, or that of Norwegian fellow-passengers, there will be 
no difficulty in getting anything that maybe required. The meals on 
board the national steamers (breakfetst, dinner, and supper) are abundant 
and, as a rule, very good. A charge of 5-5| kr. {68. 7d,-68.2d,) per diem^ 
covers all expenses for food excepting coffee after meals, and ale, 
wine, and spirits. Norwegian beer (about 5d. per bottle) is light and 
pure, and preferred by many to British ale ; the wines on board 
(as throughout Norway) are not dear, and are certainly genuine. 
Champagne is generally sweet, but hock, both sparkling and still, good. 
Spirits are obtainable on board all the large coasting steamers; whiskey 
is, however, to be preferred to cognac, which cannot always be relied 
on. The charge for a bottle of whiskey is 4 kr. to 6 kr., and for a 
glass about Id. Old Norwegian Aquavit (flavoured with carraway- 
seeds) is an excellent and favourite '* dram," generally taken before 
meals or while tasting the relishes that are served as a preliminary 
course ; but it is not palatable with water. 

Fa/res are very moderate on board the Norwegian coasting steamers, 
the first-class fare being at the rate of 40 ore (about 5d.) per naut. m., 
with considerable reductions for long distances ; return tickets usually 
1| fare, which is also generally charged to husband and wife, while 
bond fide family parties are, as a rule, entitled to a " moderation." On 
the special fjord and lake steamers the charges are somewhat higher. 
Fares will fi'equently be mentioned in the Routes, but Bennett's Time- 
Tables should be consulted. 

Under the head of ** Steamers " prominent mention must be made 
of the so-called Towrist Ya^chts, that bring yearly more and more 
travellers to Norway. Their sailings are well advertised, and they are 
generally filled so rapidly that it is necessary to secure berths well 
in advance. During the "midnight sun" season they are more 
numerous, but one or two of the omnibus yachts extend their voyages 
to a late date in the autumn. The Norwegian tour, except in the 
excellent Wilson yachting steamer, is combined with a visit to Sweden, 
and often to the Gulf of Finland and St. Petersburg. One of the 
advantages of visiting Norway in a tourist yacht is that the cost (about 
501. for a month, exclusive only of wine, &c.) is a fixed amount. Nor- 
wegian tourist steamers take passengers from Newcastle, and back 
again, in 14 days, after visiting Bergen, Trondhjem, the principal 
fjords, &c., for 13/. or 142. a head, and for Idl. if a cabin be shared by 
three or four persons. The food (5.50 kr. per diem) on board all the 
tourist steamers is excellent, and the attention to passengers so perfect 

* Separately, breakfast or supper 1 to 1| kr. ; dinner 2 to 2J kr. 

[86] Modes of Travelling, 

that a yachting voyage is fully realised, at comparativefy small 

Bailways. — In 1890 the total mileage of the Norwegian railways in 
operation was 1562 kil. (971 m.) They are all State lines with tlie 
exception of the original Trurds Bailway between Christiania and 
EidsYold (68 kil.), which was built partly with British capital. 
They are admirably adapted to the requirements of tourists. Very few 
cuttmgs hide the surrounding country. The lines commonly run side 
by side with the old post-roads, foUowing the courses of the larger 
rivers, rising with them towards their sources, and mounting con- 
siderable inclines, and in some instances crossing the great fjelds. 
Thus very little of the scenery is lost ; some features are even better 
displayed than from the post-roads. This is especially the case where 
lateral valleys, branching into a main vaUey, are crossed by viaducts, 
or where the line is laid along a shelf blasted from a rock rising nearly 
perpendicularly above a roaring torrent. Being mostly narrow-gauged 
(1*067 metres), with only second- and third-class carriages, they are gene- 
rally slow. Ordinary fast trains attain a speed of 22 to 24 m., but mixed 
trains only 15 to 20 m. per hour. The stoppages are tedious from their 
number. During the tourist season a train is run to Trondhjem (349 m.) 
in 17 hours, with both first- and second-class carriages, with sleep- 
ing acconmaodation. The railway service to Sweden, in connection 
with improvements in the Swedish and Danish railway systems, is 
being gradually accelerated. Luggage not taken into the carriage (in 
which no bulky bags or bundles are permitted) must be booked, and, if 
in excess of about 50 to 70 lbs., must be paid for. All the trains have 
smoking and ladies' compartments. The fares and charges are 
moderate, and will be mentioned in the several Boutes, together with 
the stations at which passengers can obtain refreshment. The food is 
simple, but good in character, and very reasonable (not more than 
1.50 kr. for dinner or supper). Spirits are not obtainable, but wine and 
ale will be found wherever there is a restaurant. 

A time-table for the journey is generally suppUed in each carriage. 
General time-tables can be purchased at the principal railway-stations, 
and happily the publication by Mr. Bennett (as well as by Mr. Beyer, 
of Bergen) of steam and railway time-tables in the English language 
obviates recourse to the hitherto indispensable " Norges Communica- 

For circular railway coupons apply to Mr. T. Bennett. 

Observation, — A railway in construction from Ohristiansand wiU 
open fine tracts of country in the Ssetersdal ; but what tourists awaH 
with most impatience is the rail connection of Christiania with Bergen. 
This desire will probably be attained within three or four years. A 
line is being constructed from Hamar to Sell, in Gudbrandsdal, and 
another from Kongsvinger to Floberg, on the Swedish frontier. 

Posting. — 1. Overlcmd posti/ng (La/ndskyds^). — The absence of stage- 
coaches and ^f diligences, except on two or three routes on which they 

* Pron. Jj&nd-shyss. 

Modes of Travelling. [87] 

will be mentioned, is well compensated by the admirably organised 
posting arrangements of Norway, which admit of a maximum pro- 
gress of 100 kfl. per day. 

Every road upon which wheeled vehicles can run (and Norway has 
a greater mileage of good roads in proportion to its population them 
any other country) is provided with posting-stations (usually farm- 
houses) at from 6 to 15^ Eng. m. apart. 

The national carriole was indispensable to the country when its 
roads were little better than rough tracks, and before the few old 
regular roads were improved by modem engineering skill in regard to 
their gradients (now generally 1 in 20). The roads are maintained by 
the local landowners under communal supervision, for which purposes 
the parishes are divided into Boder (wards). Posts are placed along 
the road to indicate the name of the farm (with its registered number 
tmd that of its ward) that is bound to keep in order a specified length 
of highway. Although in reality no longer absolutely necessary except 
on cross-roads in remote districts, and where vehicles have to be trans- 
ported across lakes or rivers, the carriole survives and is still associated 
in the mind of the tourist with travel in Norway. Its construction is 
light and simple, and so well known that we need not stay to describe 
it. Carrying only one person, and a postboy (or girl — Jente) on the 
box or small trunk behind (with a small bag, fishing-basket, and 
rugs in fi*ont), it is a means of locomotion relatively expensive to the 
traveller, and certainly unsociable. Moreover, the forced supply of a 
horse for each traveller bent on carrioling is a very heavy tax on the 
peasant proprietor, whose sturdy little horse could weU draw at the same 
regulation pace' (about 7 Eng. m. per hour) two, or even three, travel- 
lers in a more capacious, almost equally light vehicle, and for a payment 
more remunerative than that which can be charged to a single person. 
The Stolkjcerre or "chair-car," which is becoming more and more 
general, holds two persons, their luggage, and the driver. When 
springless (as they usuaUy are) neither of these vehicles can be called 
comfortable, especially on long journeys ; but travellers who wish to 
avoid " roughing it " have only to apply to Mr. Bennett, the tourist 
agent at Christiania, Bergen, and Trondhjem, for a carriole, a stolk- 
jeerre, or a gig, with good springs, soft cushion, leather apron, &c. Mr. 
Bennett has sub-agents on all the great posting-routes. He also sup- 
plies an open four-wheeled vehicle called a TrilU, which accommodates 
four persons (including the driver), but requires two horses. 

A landau, or caUche^ a still more convenient carriage, and capable 
of holding, on a pinch, six persons (including the driver), is generally 
available, either from Mr. Bennett or from independent purveyors of 
vehicles. It is an advantage, in the case of large parties, to hire the 
more capacious vehicles, the individual proportion of posting expenses 
being thereby reduced. 

A novel departure in the matter of posting in Norway might with 
advantage be made by bringing out a strong but light Enghsh or 
American "trap" to suit a pony (14^ hands high), which can be 
purchased in Norway for about 15Z., and resold at a small loss on 
departure. Nor would it be difficult on similar terms to find a pur- 
chaser for the trap when done with. 

[88] Modes of Travelling. 

The further advantage of hiring or purchasing a carriole or other 
vehicle, especially in the case of ladies, is that it saves the trouble of 
shifting luggage at each station. The drawbacks are the difficulty and 
loss of finally disposing of it, the occasional necessity of abandoning it 
at some mountain-pass, and the trouble, delay, and expense of shipping 
and unshipping it in steamers and boats. Where a vehicle is hired 
for a particular journey, the difficulty of finally disposing of it is 
avoided, but the expense will be about four or five times greater than 
trusting to a station stolkjeerre or carriole picked up on the road. 
Those who are returning to Christiania, and only intend to remain a 
month or two ia the country, will do well to hire instead of buying. In 
this case the bargain should be for a fixed sum per day or week, the 
purveyor to pay for any repairs necessitated by wear and tear : the 
party hiring to be liable only for repairs arising from accidental 
damage, and to have the option of purchasing at a fixed smn within a 
stated period. New harness should be provided for a long journey. 
Mr. Bennett's average charges for a vehicle are : 

Carriole . . . 16s. 8^. to 22s. Sd. \ 

Gig .... 33s. 4d. I For a journey not 

Trille . . . 445. 6d. T exceeding ten days. 

Landau {caliche) . 55s. 7d. } 

However attractive may appear the driving of a carriole or other 
vehicle drawn by a skyda horse, it should, as a rule, be avoided, 
especially by ladies, in order to allow the onus of damage to rest on 
the driver supplied by the owner of the vehicle. Accidents are con- 
tinually occurring, and some have had a fatal result. Although the 
ponies are generally docile and surefooted, they know the difference 
between an aboriginal and a foreign holder of the reins. They resent 
the impatience of the latter to move on (even when not protested 
against by the skydsgut), are apt to turn sharply round comers, to 
swerve at a tangent into familiar farmyards, and sometimes (among 
other known equine tricks) to shy at unexpected objects. Moreover, 
overdriving is often boisterously resented by the man or boy in charge 
of the horse, and a penalty attaches to it. In any case a horse must 
be driven very gently out of and into a station, walked up a hill, and 
allowed a free rein only at the end of a descent. The acquisition of a 
whip should be avoided, as its use leads frequently to altercations. A 
Norwegian rarely carries or uses a whip, and never tugs at the reins. 
The horse is made to quicken its speed by a peculiar kissing sound of 
the mouth, and stopped at full speed by vibrating the lips so as to 
produce a sound like " Ptrru," as in the island of Skye and throughout 

The following strict regulations should be borne in mind : 

When the traveller leaves the reins to the post-boy, no responsibility 
with regard to the horse rests on him ; but if he drives himself, and the horse 
be ill-used or driven beyond its strength, and should the post-boy complain, 
the posting-master at the next station (two other men being called in to 
confirm his views) is to ascertain the extent of the injury done to the horse ; 

Modes of Travelling. [89] 

and this the traveller is bound to pay. Until he does so, the posting-master 
is authorised to refuse to provide him with horses. This money is to be 
deposited with the posting-master for four weeks, so that the traveller can 
appeal against his decision and have the case more fully investigated. 

At the landing-places of steamers, more especially, the risk of get- 
ting a bad horse or a rickety vehicle is great, many of the owners not 
being subject to the posting regulations and its responsibilities.^ The 
traveller should always personally inspect the wheels of a vehicle, see 
that they are greased (daily, if travelling in a hired conveyance), and 
that the luggage is properly secured with ropes or with straps (on which 
a good eye should be kept on changing vehicles). The rough harness, 
which frequently gives way in some part, also requires inspection. 

The rule of the road is the reverse of that in Great Britain-^the left 
hand being given in Norway, as elsewhere on the Continent. It is 
against courtesy to attempt to drive past another vehicle without the 
consent of its driver. 

Posting regulations for roads? — All the principal roads are por- 
tioned out into stages varying from 10 to 25 kil. (6 to 15J Enfi;. m.) 
The station (SJcydsstation) is usually a farmhouse, adapted to the 
purposes of an ^nri, and the occupier of which, generally a respectable 
farmer, and often a landowner, undertakes, in consideration of freedom 
from certain taxes and of other privileges, to have in readiness horses 
and vehicles to convey a traveller to the next station. The stations 
are of two kinds : (a) Fast — i.e. fixed or permanent (on all the main 
roads), at which a certain number of horses have to be kept for posting 

* In this respect we cannot do better than endorse the advice given in 
Mr. Bennett's Handbook for Norway, although it refers to a long journey. 
On a shorter one, say from Dalen in Telemarken to Odde in the Hardanger, 
a return vehicle can be taken with advantage, if the traveller is not in a 
hurry and desires to fish on the way. An arrangement to that effect is 
easily made at the ordinary posting-rate. Many of the so-called •• touters " 
can produce books issued to them by local Tourist Associations and in which 
travellers enter their recommendations or the reverse. " One of the few 
unpleasant features in travelling in Norway is the band of unauthorised 
private drivers who carry on a competition against the posting-stations by 
touting for hire at many of the starting-points on the posting-routes — ^for 
instance, at Odnses and Lsardalsoren on the Valders (Fillef jeld) route, and at 
Naes and Lillehammer on the Gudbrandsdal (Bomsdal) route. All the 
peasants of the district who own a conveyance and a couple of horses 
await the arrival of steamers, and vie with one another in securing cus- 
tomers. It is recommended to take no notice of these touters, who offer to 
drive the whole route through with their own horses. It is cruelty to drive 
150 Eng. m. at one stretch with the same animals, especially if, as is often 
the case, they have just been driven a similar distance. The distressed 
condition of the ponies in such cases considerably mars the pleasure of the 
trip. Moreover, as the station-keepers are at the expense of keeping posting- 
horses, and have to provide accommodation for the convenience of travel- 
lers, it is but fair to support them by using their horses as well as their houses, 
even if one can find a return conveyance at a cheaper price than the posting- 

^ The regulations for water-^osimg are given separately. 

[90] Modes of Travelling. 

purposes ; (b) Tihigelae, or stations the holders of which are bound to 
procure horses from the local owners or occupiers of land, each in their 
turn. Travellers accurately designate these as " slow," for the horses 
have frequently to be brought from a distant field, wood, or farm. 
The station-master is entitled to 14 ore for fetching each horse ; a delay 
of a few hours is not unusual. 

It is therefore only on these stages that a traveller will occasionally 
resort to the use of a Forhudy or order for horses, sent a few hours (or 
even a day) before the time at which the supply is required, by a letter 
or post-card (on mail roads), by special messenger, or by a preceding 
traveller on the same road. The practice, once so conunon and neces- 
sary, is, however, seldom resorted to. In case of urgent necessity the 
traveller can always obtain the assistance of a native traveller or of a 
station-master. Printed forms for Forhud are, moreover, purchaseable 
in every town.^ Money penalties and detention result from irregu- 
larities (when not involuntary) in keeping appointments thus made. 
On the other hand, a posting-master or horse-owner who detains a 
traveller more than 3 hrs. (except in case of unforeseen hindrance) is 
subject to a fine of 2 kr. for every additional hour. 

N.B. — The telephone is available between stations on some of the 
main routes. 

The posting-rates are very moderate, and, averaging only 2id. to 
S^d. per m., are not remunerative to those whom the law compels to 
supply horses (in reality a tax). 

[The Society in Bergen for the prevention of cruelty to animals 
requests the attention of travellers to the following rules : 

1. To allow 1 J hr. per 11 kil. (7 Eng. m.) when the road is ordinarily 
good : more along a hiUy stage. 

2. To drive slowly at first starting. 

3. To stop a little while to rest the horse in the middle of a long 

With the assistance of the tariff smd the information here given, the 
various charges for horses may be readily ascertained. The peasants 
are slow in calculating, but generally honest in their demands. "When 
any difference arises as to payment, the next station-master should be 
applied to, and his decision acted upon. The fare is usually paid at 
the end of a stage, but, when made in advance, the attention of the 
Skyds-gut should be called to the fact before starting. Although not 
entitled to anything, it is customary to give the post-boy (or girl) a 
gratuity {Drikhe-penge) of 25 ore to 1 kr. per stage, according to dis- 
tance and the number of horses driven. 

Where there are no posting-stations, a special agreement must be 

^ For the benefit of those who may be unexpectedly required to make 
out a Forhudseddel^ or order, we give the following form : 

Paa Skydsstation (name) bestilles en Hest (or to, tre, <fec., Heste) med 
Earjol (pi. Karjoler^ giving number) eller StolkjcBrre (pi. Stolkjcerrer) til 
(day of week, date, and hour — Formiddagen or Eftermiddagen), Onsker 
ogsaa vann Frokost (or Middag) for 1 Person (or 2, &c., Personer). 

(Date and Place.) (Signature.) 

Modes of Travelling. [91] 

made with owners of horses ; and in these cases the price charged is 
often high, especially if a mountain-pass has to be traversed. The 
ponies on the momitains are very surefooted, and pick their own way 
with perfect safety. It is not necessary to provide a pony for a g^de, 
who is always a good pedestrian. 

(For coupons in payment of posting-charges, beds, and meals, see 
head of section.) 

Weight of luggage,— In a carriole or Stolkjaerre 32 kilos, (about 
70 lbs.) may be carried hy one person ; but two persons in a Stolkjaerre 
can only have with them 12 kilos, (about 25 lbs.) In a Trille, or 
any light, open four-wheeled vehicle drawn by two horses and seat- 
ing three travellers, 75 kilos, (about 165 lbs.) are allowed. Two 
persons travelling in a landau (caUche) may have 50 kilos, (about 
110 lbs.), and three persons (who must always pay for three horses), 
75 kilos. 

Although the law thus fixes the weight of luggage, yet, unless the 
traveller has imprudently encumbered himself with a very undue 
quantity, and attempts to overload the horse or vehicle, no question as 
to the exact weight is ever raised. 

The Jov/mal (Dagbog), — At every station a book is kept, in which 
the traveller enters his name, destination, the number of horses he 
uses, and the complaints he may have to make against the posting- 
master, post-boy, or others. These books are periodically inspected 
by the authorities, the complaints stated in them inquired into, and 
the accused parties, if found to have acted improperly, punished. 
Should the posting-master refuse to produce the book, he is liable to a 
fine of 2 kr. To it are always attached the posting regulations, a 
statement of the distances to adjoining stations, and the number of 
horses to be kept at the station. At every post-station the Gjcestgiver^ 
or landlord, is bound to have, and to produce for inspection if required, 
a table of rates and charges of the different articles of food and 
liquors, as fixed by the authorities ; but the charges are generally so 
moderate that few travellers appeal to that document. A biU is rarely, 
if ever, given, even if asked for ; the total amount claimed being merely 

We need only say that the usual charges at posting- stations are : 
Bed, 80 ore to 1 kr. ; breakfast and supper, each 1 kr. ; and dinner, 
1^ to 2 kr. The waitress, or chambermaid (Fige^ Jente), is satisfied 
with 25 to 50 ore from each person. Good ale is always obtainable at 
25 ore per bottle {half -flask) , and claret or hock at 2 or 3 kr. In 
remote places the charges for bed and board are still smaller. 

Water-Posting {Baad- or VoMd-Skyds). — This is subject to simi- 
lar regulations as the overland posting, and the cost is about the same. 
Payment is divided into {a) boat-hire and (b) wage of rowers, each 
working a pair of oars. 

A ready-reckoner of the water -posting rates is given at p. [84*]. 

The rates of boat-hire are the same at "fast" and "slow" 
stations — ^viz. 2 J, 4, 5, and 7^ ore per kil., severally for four-, six-, 
eight-, and ten-oared boats. These include the use of a sail, if wanted, 
but on "slow" stages the rates for the same boats, when without 
sails, are respectively IJ, 2, 2^, and 4 ore per kil. 

[92] Modes of Travelling. 

Bowers are entitled to the foUowing payments : 

From " fast " stations in towns 9 ore ^ per kil. per man. 
From " fast " stations in the country 7^ ore per kil. per man. 
From " slow " stations in towns 9 ore per kil. per man. 
From " slow" stations in the country 6 ore per kil. per man. 

At " slow '* stations it is necessary to pay each rower 7 ore extra 
for tilsigelse (ordering the boat), and a farther sum of 7 ore when an 
eight- or ten- oared boat is ordered at country ** slow " stations. 

The rates are determined, not by the nxmaber of persons conveyed, 
but by the class of the boat. If the party be large, the luggage 
heavy, or speed desirable, a six- or eight-oared boat should be 
engaged. A guide may take the place of a rower, thus saving the 
expense of a local oarsman. Two men are generally required even 
for a single passenger, although two passengers may be carried in the 
same boat, unless the distance be great. 

A boat with two rowers (four oars) is called a Firring, and is 12 to 
16 ft. long ; with three rowers (six oars) a Sexrvng (15 to 18 ft.) ; 
and with four rowers (eight oars) an Ottermg (18 to 20 fb.) Boats 
of 20 fb. and more in length are paid for as ten-oared and requiring 
five rowers. 

Pedestrian Travelling. 

It is very usual to meet native gentlemen and ladies exploring 
their beautiful country, with perfect security, on foot. In this respect, 
our poet Moore may as well have sung of Norway as of Erin, for no 
son of Norway would offer harm of any kind to unprotected females. 
Parties of ladies (even in couples) are frequently met with, carrying a 
small knapsack, a waterproof (rolled up), and an umbrella against sun 
or rain ; having, as a matter of course, sent relays of clothing to the 
principal points they desire to reach. 

A day's march should be limited to 35 kil. A mile can easily be 
done in two hours on an ordinary road, but on rough or very hilly roads 
three hours are requisite. The novice in travelling on foot will train 
his powers on short stages, with more rest than a practised pedestrian 
will require. Needless to say, this is the cheapest and, in many 
respects, the most charming way of enjoying the lovely grandeur of 
the country, when not pressed for time. 

An equally cheap and attractive mode of travelling is cycling ^ an 
account of which will be found in pocket at end of book. 

Mowtttcdneering is undertaken by comparatively so few travellers 
that it will suffice if we offer them some little aid and advice in the 
Boutes on which "Alpine climbing" can be practised. 


The Norwegian fjords offer unrivalled attractions to yachtsmen, 
the only occasional discomfort being that of crossing from our own 
coast in a vessel of small size. The yacht may, however, be sent 
to Christiania, Bergen, or Trondhjem, and followed in a mail steamer. 

^ This rate is also occasionally charged in the country. 

Hints to Travellers, [93] 

The Hardanger fjord and the Sogne fjord and their branches are 
favourite yachting localities, and Bergen, perhaps, the best starting- 
point. The exploration of those magmficent estuaries, and the grand 
valleys which open into all their branches, may occupy two or three 
weeks, or an entire summer, according to the thoroughness with which 
the trip is done. The means of crossing overland from one fjord to 
the other, and all other necessary information, will be found in the 
Boutes given in this Handbook. 

It is not obligatory on yachts to engage pilots,^ but it is safer to do 
so when navigating within the Skerries (Skjcergaa/rd) along the W. 
coast, and also when steaming or sailing up the Christiania fjord, 
which no yachting party should neglect, either on the way to or from 
the W. coast. 

The whole of the W. coast up to Hammerfest and the N. Gape may 
be explored almost entirely in smooth water, there being very few open 
spaces between the islands and rocks that protect the mainland from 
the waves of the ocean. Steam yachts are naturally more convenient 
for such a voyage. In the case of a sailing yacht, a tug is often 
engaged at Bergen, &c., to attend her in the long, sometimes calm, and 
often squaUy, fjords. 

XI. Hints to Travellers: Hotels and Inns, Clothing, 

Eequisites, &c. 

Hotels and Inns. — Even ladies contemplating a visit to Norway must 
not be alarmed by what they read in old books concerning the physical 
hardships of Norwegian travel, very great changes having taken place 
and being still in progress. At Christiania, Trondhjem, Bergen, and the 
few other considerable towns there are excellent hotels, of which the 
proprietors and the servants speak EngHsh. In many country places — 
especially at the landing- stations of the most frequented fjords, where 
tourists most congregate — are good country inns, not so luxurious as 
the larger hotels in towns, but well provided with substantial comforts, 
scrupulously clean, and usually with a varied supply of genuine wine 
at moderate prices. The possibiHty of procuring good wine so far 
north surprises many tourists, but is easily explained. The Norwe- 
gians have extensive commercial transactions with the CathoHc coun- 
tries of the Mediterranean, supplying them with the salt-fish required 
for fast-days, and taking shipments of wine as return freight. 

The rural inns of Norway are of a pecuHar and exceptional character, 
mainly consequent on the fact that it is a country without villages, and 
therefore without anything corresponding to our public-house, to the 
French auherge, the German gaathaus, or the Italian oateria. The 
towns are so far apart, and the intervening population so scanty, that 
country hotels for native requirements are quite out of the question. 
Therefore none but " bond fide travellers " demand public entertain- 

' Yachtsmen should be careful in engaging a local, unlicensed pilot 
(KjcBTtdsmarid), The advice and assistance of one of the numerous British 
Vice-Consuls should in such matters be sought. 

[94] Hints to Travellers, 

ment, and this is provided at the posting- stations, which, as ah*eady 
stated, are usually farmhouses on or near the roadside, and bound to 
provide not only horses and vehicles, but also food and lodging for 
travellers. When Norway was but little known to foreign tourists and 
sportsmen, these provisions were simply adapted to supply the wants 
of the hardy natives, who were satisfied with fladbrod and amor — 
that is, oat-cake and butter — and a straw bed with a sheepskin for 
coverhd. At the primitive stations of the little frequented byways 
little or no more than these is even now obtainable, but on all the 
highways largely visited by tourists great and most praiseworthy 
efforts have been made to learn the requirements of foreign visitors. 

At most of the stations on the great highways separate buildings 
have been erected for the aoconmiodation of tourists, with every pos- 
sible effort in the direction of cleanliness, if not luxwy. At the same 
time, certain necessary arrangements are often so rude, nauseous, and 
public as to shock even a male traveller. Sufficient attention has not 
yet been directed to this important point by those who are anxious to 
improve the accommodation at hotels and inns in Norway. For the 
present, travellers must " make the best of it." 

Another defect, of which complaint is still made (although gradu- 
ally being remedied), is the shortness of the beds. By removing the 
wedge-shaped bolster, the inconvenience may generally be obviated. 
Blankets are becoming more common, and are supplied when asked 
for, in lieu of the Dyne or down-coverlet, to which most travellers object, 
especially in summer. 

In regard to food, tinned meats, biscuits (English and Norwegian), 
and even white bread are commonly obtainable. Fresh beef and mutton 
are rarities in country inns ; trout and salmon are abundant and 
excellent, as well as ptarmigan and other game in the shooting season, 
and reindeer venison in certain districts, especially in Arctic Norway. 
The ham commonly found is excellent, especially when German. 
When required to be fried it should be intimated that raw, not boiled, 
ham should be so treated. Native bacon is obtainable in towps, but in 
country districts American bacon is in general use. Sausages, smoked 
salmon, and preserved ddUcatesses are found on every table. Veal is 
the most abundant of fresh meat in central and southern Norway. 
Poultry and eggs are usually obtainable, except in the far north. Sweet 
dishes, pancakes, omelettes, and finiit jellies are usually provided. 
Vegetables are generally represented by potatoes. Milk and cream 
will be found good and abundant. Butter is plentiful and genuine. 
Cheese is served at every meal, Norwegians generally taking nothing 
else at breakfast, and particularly Myse-ost, or cheese made of whey 
or goat's milk. Oamle-oat (" Old cheese ") is a variety which, for good 
reason, wiU usually be found under a glass cover. English and Dutch 
cheese is, however, almost always obtainable. Coffee is good through- 
out Norway, but those who require tea should bring it with them, 
and, at all events, superintend its decoction. 

In fact, if travellers have now to complain of anything in the 
matters of food at inns it is the excessive use of butter, and the over- 
cooking of meat and goAne, They shoidd give hints in these respects, 
and, if on a long inland trip, produce a folding gridiron, which they 

Hints to Travellers. [96] 

should bring with them, and on which they should desire their fish^ 
steaks, and chops to be cooked. In some places, however, Norwegians 
are under the impression that Britishers eat only raw meat and 

As already stated, good ale is obtainable at the humblest stations, 
and wine at most. The tourist who requires spirits should carry his 
own flask and reserve. 

Clothing. — It should be borne in mind that even on a day's journey 
a considerable variation in the temperature and in the character of the 
weather may be encountered; also (and especially by ladies) that 
travelling in a carriole, stolkjffirre, or gig, involves constant exposure 
to the weather. The clothing must, therefore, be light and warm, and 
protected when necessary against rain by waterproof coats or cloaks 
with hoods, umbrellas being somewhat unmanageable, although they 
may occasionally be found useful also in keeping off the rays of a hot sun. 
A couple of square yards of waterproof sheeting or oiled canvas should 
be carried, to keep the knees or the rugs and coats dry. Extra wraps 
are very essential on board steamers, especially on the N. Gape tour. 
An indiarubber cushion is a luxury frequently appreciated, but a rug 
or thick plaid will serve the same purpose, while being available as an 
extra blanket at night. The male attire should be of stout and strong 
tweed, supplemented not only by a macintosh, but also by an ulster or 
some other form of overcoat. For ladies the travelling-dress should be 
of a strong but light wooUen fabric, and the waterproof cloak, already 
insisted upon, large enough to cover the dress entirely. A dust cloak and 
a wadded jacket or warm cloak should not be forgotten. Outer garments 
that confine the arms should be avoided. Ladies as well as gentlemen 
should wear stout boots or shoes. Warm woollen gloves should be 
available, and ladies* gloves long enough (or with gauntlets) to protect 
the wrists from mosquitoes, which can to a certain extent be warded off 
the face and neck by special veils. Such veils can be procured at Mr. 
Bennett's toiurist offices. On fishing expeditions in districts where 
mosquitoes abound in the middle of summer (and principally in the 
N.) a bell-shaped mosquito-net for suspension from the ceiling and 
over the bed will be a great comfort. Such netting must be procured 
and stitched together at home. Eucalyptus oil is now recommended 
as an ointment dreaded by mosquitoes. But as regards their presence 
in bedrooms, our experience in countries where the plague is general, 
not occasional as in Norway, enables us to recommend the pastilles of 
Dr. Zampironi, royal chemist, Venice. One of them, when burnt in 
an ordinary-sized room (with closed doors and windows), effectually 
disposes of the mosquito. 

Seqnisites. — In these days of travel, particularly in a country now 
so well known as Norway, it is no longer necessary to instruct an 
Englishman or an American in the details of the pursuit to which he 
is so generally addicted. His almost only rival in the Norwegian field 
is the German, in whom the aboriginal instinct of peregrination is 
being strongly resuscitated and largely directed towards Norway. We, 
therefore, eliminate from the present edition the long list of ordinary 
requisites previously given, and refer the rare novice to the tourist 
offices in Norway, at which everything essential is procurable. 

[96] Hints to Travellers. 

Luggage. — It is even scarcely necessary to say that the impedi- 
menta should be limited as much as possible in number and bulk when 
an overland journey is in view. Some of the vehicles being, however, 
peculiar to the country, it may be useful to recommend that the 
dimensions of a box or solid portmanteau, on which a post-boy (some- 
times a heavy man) is destined to sit, should not exceed 34 in. in 
length by 15 in. in breadth and 12 in. in height. Special boxes for 
such a purpose are provided by Mr. Bennett, who also takes charge of, 
or forwards by steamer, any luggage that is temporarily dispensed with. 

Ciutoiiu. — The examination of luggage on arrival in Norway is 
judiciously lenient. Travellers will not find it worth while to bring 
with them groceries, which are heavily taxed ; and wines, spirits, and 
tobacco (especially cigars) are excellent, and relatively cheap, owing 
to the Norwegian Gustcons duties being lower than the British Excise 

Frovisioiif. — The larders to be found at posting-stations, &c., have 
already been described. On some routes, and on shooting or fishing 
expeditions, a supply of tinned meats, &c., biscuits, Liebig's extract of 
meat, tea, sugar, coffee, and whiskey or brandy, shoidd be carried. All 
these are purchaseable in Norwegian towns, from which stocks can be 
easily replenished by proper arrangement. 

Interpreters, Conriers, &c. — The employment of a Tolk (lit. inter- 
preter), or guide, is a luxury, not a necessity, when travelling on the 
main routes. The country people are now quite accustomed to deal 
with tourists, are always civil and honest, and are fast picking up a 
smattering of English. Nevertheless, when a party is large, a Tolk is 
undoubtedly useful in securing post-horses, engaging rooms, arranging 
for meals, and in performing all the other usual duties of a travelling 
servant. He should be engaged through the agency of Mr. Bennett, 
who thus becomes responsible for his respectability. The usual pay- 
ment is 10 kr. per diem, the Tolk paying for his own board and 
lodging. The best class of Tolks are students, who are occasionally 
found (in Christiania) willing to occupy the summer vacation in travel- 
ling with English or American famihes. They must natm'ally be 
treated on a footing of equality. Young Norwegian ladies sometimes 
undertake the same office in the case of lady-travellers. 

The Norwegian Tourist Association should be supported by every 
traveller. The yearly subscription is 4 kr. The annual published by 
it, and suppHed gratis to its members, contains many interesting con- 
tributions (sometimes in English). The income of the Association is 
expended in improving access to waterfalls and views, in building 
mountain-huts, &c. Its badge, purchaseable for 1.50 kr. at Mr. Ben- 
nett's (where subscriptions are also received), secures civihty and a 
prior claim to accommodation at huts and other establishments sup- 
ported by the Association. 

Cost of Travel. — This may be reckoned at an average of 11, per 
diem, the gross cost of posting being 20 ore per kH., and that of 
board and lodging at stations 4 kr. to 8 kr., exclusive of wine and beer. 
In the larger towns the corresponding charge at the best hotels will be 
at least 10 kr. Travellers wishing to reduce their expenditure to an 
average of 11. (18 kr.) per day must not linger in towns, but stop as 

Skeleton Routes and Access to Norway. [97] 

long as possible at cheap, but good " stations." Two or three persons 
travelling together and dividing the posting gratuities (which should 
be moderate) and other extras can reduce the expenses to an average 
of lis, a day. Pedestrians and cyclists need not spend more than 
10«. a head, and less if much travelling by steamer or railway be 

Pasiports. — ^These are not required, except sometimes for the identi* 
fication of persons claiming poste-reatante letters. 

XII. Skeleton Eoutes and Access to Voirway. 

I. Skeleton Boutes. 

It is practically impossible within the compass of this book to give 
a sketch of all the tours that can be made in Norway. Their selection 
depends on conditions so various, with regard to disposable time and 
resources, points of embarkation, the choice of travel by steamer, rail, 
or carriage, &c., that out of a hundred travellers, perhaps only twenty- 
five would take exactly the same route. Travellers not experienced 
in making up a tour for themselves, with the help of the routes that 
we give, supplemented by the newest local information in respect of 
the sailing of steamers, the departures of trains, &c., will do well to 
apply to one of Bennett's Tourist Agencies,^ the principal business of 
which is to draw up skeleton tours in conformity with the conditions 
to which we have alluded. 

In planning a tour, the traveller will to some extent be influenced 
by the following general observations. 

The grandest scenery in Norway is connected with the great moun- 
tains that run from N. to S. almost throughout the whole length of the 
country. The best portions, as well as those most easily attainable, 
may be grouped as follows, according to the chief centres or head- 
quarters from which they can be explored : 

1. Chriatiama and its fjord, the Tyri fjord, Bingerike, the Bands- 
fjord, Telemarken and the Hardanger ; the routes over the FiUe and 
Dovre fjelds, the rly. to Trondhjem, the grand Jotunheim region, Ac. 

2. Stavcmger and the beautiful route now open to Odde (Har- 

8. Bergen, the starting-point for the most charming tours in 
Norway, to the N., S., and E. The Hardanger fjord on the S. and the 
Sogne tjord on the N. are the principal attractions from this point. 

4. Molde, Beautiful in itself, this is the basis (or the terminus) of 
a drive through the magnificent Bomsdal and Gudbrandsdal valleys, 
as well as a point of departure for an overland journey to Trondhjem 
vici the DovreQeld. The scenery is more especially beautiful between 
Molde and the Hardanger tjord. 

6. Trondhjem, reached by sea, or by rail from Christiania, through 
the grand valleys of the Glommen and the Gula. It is also the nearest 

> At Chcistiania, Bergen, Trondhjem, or Stavanger. No fees charged. 
Tourist agencies have also been established at Christiania and Bergen by 

Mf. Beyer 

[Norway— vi. 92.] / 

[98] Skeleton Routes and Access to Norway. 

starting-point for a peep at the midnight sun, and for the routes 
described in our seotion for N. Norway. 

Sportsmen will find guidance in our Notes on Angling and Shoot- 
mg, whHe cyclists will for the first time be sappUed in this edition 
with the special information they require. 

The pedestrian or hardy tourist that can climb mountains and 
traverse mere bridle-paths, can extend and modify his routes in many 

Beminding our readers once more of the necessity of consulting 
local time-tables (now published in English by Bennett's Tourist 
OfQce), we subjoin a few 

Specimens of Skeleton Boutes. 
1. From Christiama. 

A. Qrand Tour of Two or TtDO-and-a-half Months — Days. 

London or Hull to Ghristiania 2 — 3 

Ghristiania 1| — 2 

Gbristiania to Trondhjem, vid Mjdsen and Dovre f jeld . — 6 

Ghristiania to Trondhjem, by raU 1 — 

Trondhjem and the Lerfos, &c 1 — 2 

Trondhjem to Vadso, vid N. Gape, and back . . .16 — 18 
Trondhjem to Molde, vid the Orkedal and Surendal . — 4 

Trondhjem to Molde, by steamer 1 — 

Molde to NaBS and the Bomsdal, and back . . .8 — 3 
NsBS to Aalesund, vid Vestnses and Sobolt . . .0 — 2 

Nbbs to Aalesund, by steamer 1 — 

Aalesund or Soholt to Merok (Geiranger fjord) . . 1 — 1 
Merok to Faleide (Nord fjord), vid Hellesylt . . 1 — 2 

Faleide to Vadheim (Sogne fjord), vid Utvik, Sande, Ac. 1^ — 3 
Vadheim up Sogne fjord and Naero fjord to Gudvangen 1 — 2 

Gudvangen to Vossevangen OJ — 1 

Vossevangen to Bergen, by rail OJ — OJ 

Bergen 2 — 3 

Bergen to and up Hardanger fjord to Odde . . .1 — 2 
Odde to Boldal and over the Haukeli to Haukeli-saeter . 1^ — 2 
Haukeli-saeter to Dalen or Trisset, Telemarken . . 2 — 2 
TrissBt to XJlefos, vid Bandak lake . . . .1 — 1 

Ulefos to Eongsberg, vid Hitterdal, the Tinsjd, Bjukan- 

fos, &o 3 — 4 

Kongsberg to Ghristiania, by rail OJ — 0| 

Kongsberg to Honefos, by rail, with excursions on Lakes 

Kroderen and Spirillen, and the Bandsf jord . . — 4 
Bandsfjord to Ghristiania, by rail . . . .0 — 1 
Ghristiania to Hull or London 2 — 3 

45 —72 

Extra stoppages, &c 7 — 7 

52 —79 

B. Tour of Six or Seven Weeks — 

London or Hull to Ghristiania 2 — 3 

Ghristiania . . « .1 — 1 

Ghristiania to Skien 0| — 1 

Skeleton Routes and Access to Norway. [99] 


Skien to Hitterdal and Bjukanfos, and back to Ulefos . 3 — 2 

Ulefos to Trisaet or Dalen 1 — 1 

Thence over Haukeli to Odde 3 — 4 

Odde and Hardanger fjord 2 — 4 

Thence to Bergen 1 — 1 

Bergen 2 — 2 

Bergen to Vossevangen and Gudvangen . . .1 — 2 

Gudvangen to LsBrdalsoren and Va^eim (Sogne fjord) 1 — 2 

Vadheim to Utvik and Faleide 3 — 3 

Thence to Hellesylt and Merok (Geiranger fjord) . . 1 — 2 

Thence to Molde, vid Soholt, Ac 1^ — 2 

Molde 1 — 1 

MoldetoNflBS 0^— 1 

Thence up Bomsdal and over Dovre f jeld to Trondhjem 5 — 6 

Trondhjem to N. Cape and back 8 — 8 

Trondhjem 1 — 1 

Trondhjem to Ohristiania . . . * . . .1 — 1 

Christiania to Hull or London 2 — 8 


C. Tour of Fowr or Five Weeks in 8. and W, Norway-- 

London or Hull to Christiania 2 — 3 

Christiania 1 — 1 

Christiania to Odde (Hardanger fjord), md Telemarken 5 — 7 

Odde to Bergen 1 — 1 

Bergen to Vossevangen, by rail 0\ — 0| 

Vossevangen to Gudvangen 1 — 1 

Gudvangen to Vadheim (Sogne fjord) .... IJ — 2 

Vadheim to Utvik (Nord fjord) ..... il— 3 

Utvik and Faleide to Merok (Geiranger fjord) . . h — 2 

Merok to Molde, vid Sdholt, &q l|— 2 

Molde 1 — 1 

Molde to Nffis 0\ — 1 

Nffis, up Bomsdal and Gudbrandsdal, to Chris- 
tiania . . . 5 — 6 

Christiania to Hull or London 2 — 3 

26 — 33J 

Extra stoppages, cfec. . ... 4 — 4 

30 —37^ 

D. Tow of Three to Fowr-and-a-half Weeks—- 

London or Hull to Christiania 2 — 3 

Christiania 1 — 1 

Christiania to Honefos, by rail or carriage . . . 0^ — 1 
Honefos to Lserdalsoren and Gudvangen, over the Fille 

fjeld 5 — 6 

Gudvangen to Eide, Vik, Odde, (fee, and Bergen * . 4 — 6 

Bergen 1 — 1 

Bergen to Molde, by sea, visiting Sogne fjord . 1^ — li 

Molde 1 — 1 

Molde to Trondhjem, by sea 1 — 

Or, Molde to Christiania, vid Bomsdal, &c. . . .0 — 7 

[100] Skeleton Routes a/nd Access to Norway. 


Trondhjem 1 — 1 

Trondhjem to Ghristiania, by rail 1 — O 

Gliristiania 1 — 1 

Christiania to London or Hull 2 — 3 

22 —32 1 

(No allowance for extra stoppages* <&c.) 

E. TowofabotU Three Weeks— 

London or Hull to Christiania .... 2 — 3 

Christiania 1 — 1 

Christiania to Molde, vid Gudbrandsdal and Bomsdal . 6 — 7 

Molde .. . 1 — 1 

Molde to Bergen, vid Hellesylt and Vadheim . . .6 — 7 

Bergen and Vossevangen 2 — 3 

Bergen to Hull 2 — 2 

20 —24 
Extra stoppages, tfec 3 — 1 

23 —25 

F. Another Tour of Three Weeks — 

London or Hull to Christiania 2 — 3 

Christiania . .•.. .-. . .1 — 1 

Christiania to Hdnefos, KrMeren 1^— 2 

Eroderen to LsBrdalsdren, vid Hallingdal . . .3—4 
Laerdalsoren to Vossevangen, vid Gudvangen . . IJ — 2 
Vossevangen to Bergen, vid Hardanger fjord . . l| — 3 

Bergen . 2 — 3 

Bergen to Hull . • 2 — 2 

14i— 20 
Extra stoppages, <fcc 6| — 1 

21 —21 

G. Tour of about Tvx> Weeks— 

London or Hull to Christiania 2 — 3 

Christiania 1 — 1 

Christiania to Odde (Hardanger fjord), vid Haukeli . 5—6 

Odde to Bergen, vid EMde 1 — 2 

Bergen 1 — 1 

Bergen to Christiansand and England, by sea (direct to 

England, about two days) 4 — 5 

14 —18 
Extra stoppages, Ac 1 — 

15 —18 
H, An Eleven Days* Trip- 
London or Hull to Christiania 2 — 3 

Bail to Eidsvold, steamer on Mjosen, and return . . 3-^2 
Excursion to Drammen, Eongsberg, Bjukanfos, &c. . 4 — 3 
Return to Hull or London . ... . . 2 — 8 

11 —11 

Skeleton Routes cmd Access to Norway. [1^1] 

I. Trip of One Week— Days. 

London or Hull to CJhriBtiania 2 — 3 

Christiama and environs 1 — 1 

Excursion to Sundvolden . . . . • .1^—2 
Ghristiania to Hull or London ..... 2 — 3 

If the steamer on the Tinsjo is not available in time (which can 
be ascertained at Ghristiania), the excursion may be changed for one 
to Honefos and the Bingerike, by taJdng the Bandsl9<>'<^ ^® from 
Drunmen instead of the Kongsberg rly. 

2. From the West Coast of Norway, 

A. Grand Towr of Two or Two-and-a-half Months — 

Instead of starting from Ghristiania, the traveller would land at 
Trondhjem, proceed to the N. Gape and Yadso, and return to Trondhjem 
or Molde, whence the tour would be as in the grand tour from Ghristi- 
ania, but in a reverse order. The routes taken from Trondhjem sotith- 
wards can in both cases be varied in several directions. 

B. Tour of Five to Seven Weeks — 

. Landing at Bergen, it is assumed that the traveller's point of re- 
embarkation for England will be Ghristiania. 


To Bergen from Hull or Newcastle . . . .2 — 2^ 

Bergen 1 — 2 

Bergen to L8Brdalsoren,vi(tVossevangen and Gudvangen 2 — 2 
Lffirdalsoren to Vadheim (Sognefjord) . . . .1 — 1^ 
Vadheim to Molde (as in B, from Ghristiania) . . 6 — 8 

Molde 1 — 2 

Up Bomsdal and across Dovre to Trondhjem . 6 — 8 

Trondhjem and N. Cape and back . . . .8 — 8 

Trondhjem . 1 — 2 

Trondhjem to Ghristiania 1 — 1^ 

Ghristiania to Drammen, Honefos and Bandsf jord, and 

back . 2 — 4 

Ghristiania and environs 2 — 3 

Ghristiania to Hull or London ..... 2 — 3 

85 — 47i 

Extra stoppages, &o 3 — 3 

38 —go t 

C. Tour of Fou/r to Five Weeks— 

Hull or Newcastle to Stavanger 


Stavanger to Bdldal and Odde, in Hardanger 


Odde to Bergen • . • 

Bergen to LsBrdalsoren, as in preceding Bonte 
Lasrdalsoren to Molde, md Vadheim .... 
Molde . 

— 4 

— 2 

— 1 


— 8 

— 2 
Molde to Ghristiania, vid Bomsdal and Gudbrandsdal . 6 — 7 

Ghristiania 2 — 2 

GhriBtiania to HuU or London 2 -- 3 

a7i— 34 

[102] Skeleton Sautes <md Adcess to N&rway. 

D. Tour of Fourteen Days to Bergeny Trondhjem, and Qrandest FJordsf 
from Newcastle, by Norwegian Tourist Steamers, 

See Itineraries published (in English) each tourist season by the Ber- 
genske and Kordenijeldske Steamship Companies, and largely advertised. 

The fiires, sailings, and other arrangements of tourist yachting 
steamers are so variable that reference mnst pecessarily here be made 
to notices in Bradshaw, and time-tables published in Norway each 

II. Access to Nobwat. 

This is now as easy as to other parts of the Continent, the qnickest 
and cheapest route being by the laj-ge and commodious strs. proceed- 
ing direct from various ports in England, across the North Sea, to the 
chief ports in Norway ; out those who dislike the water may travel by 
rail, hmiting sea-passages to the straits between Dover and CaJaiB 
(21 m., 1^ hr.) ; Nyborg and Korsor (18 mu, 1^ hr.) ; and between Hel- 
singor and HeLsingborg (20 min.) But unless the traveller be desirous 
of stojpping to visit the countries traversed, the overland routes are more 
£atigumg and expensive and involve several trans-shipments. 

Subject to subsequent modifications, extensions, &c. (for which con- 
sult Bradshaw and Bennett's time-tables), Norway can be reached by 
one of the following routes : 

A. South Nobwat. 

1. Sea-Boutes* 

[Ohs,^ The following list cannot remain exhaustive until another edition 
of this Handbook is issaed, and travellers must therefore understand that 
reference to advertisements and time-tables becomes more essential year by 

(1) Lines of Boyal Mail Strs. maintained by T. Wilson, Sons & Co. 
from London, HuU, and Grimsby. Apply to them for the sailings of 
their passenger and yachting steamers published each season. Pas- 
sages must be booked well in advance. 

(a) London to ChristianBand (511 n.m., about 46 hrs.) and Chris- 
tiania (656 n.m., about 60 hrs.) From Millwall Docks every Friday 
morning^ for Christiania, but only on alternate Fridays for Christian- 
sand (returning from Christiania on Thursdays). W. E. Bott & Co., 
1 East India Avenue, Leadenhall Street, are the London agents. 
Fares : To Christiansand or Christiania — Single, 1st cl., 42. ; return,^ 62. 

* If the hour of departure be early, passengers from London or Hull may 
embark on the previous evening. 

' Betum tickets for Christiansand or Christiania are available for return 
by the Wilson Line strs. from Stavanger or Bergen, or vice versd, A ticket 
is issued at SI. 10s, from Hull to Trondhjem (not available from Trondhjem, 
Christiansund, or Aalesund) to return from Bergen, Stavanger, Christiania, 
Christiansand, or Gothenburg to Hull, or from Christiania or Christiansand 
to London, including victg. 

Shehtan Routes cmd Access to Norway. [108] 

Yiotg., 6<. 6(2. per day. Children under 12 yrs. half-price; infants 

(6) Hull to ChristUnsand (410 n.m., 82 hrs.) and Christiania (568 
n.m., 48 hrs.) every Friday evening, returning from Christiania 
(caUing at Christiansand) every Friday afternoon. Fa/re (to either 
port) : 4Z. ; return, 6Z. Victg. 6«. M. per day. 

(o) Hull to Gothenburg (510 n.m., about 86 hrs.) Thence by rail or 
str. to Christiaaia. Every Saturday after arrival of the mail-train from 
London, due 4.82 a.h. Fa/res to Oothenhu/rg : Single, Ist cL, 8Z. 8«.; 
return, hi, 59. Victg., 6«. ^d, per day. Betum tickets to Gothenburg 
are issued at 62. (exclusive of victuals), available for return from 
Christiania. Betum tickets, Hull to Gothenburg, can be used also for 
return to London by the Thule Steamship Line. A similar advantage 
is offered in the case of the weekly (Tuesday) Wilson str. from Grimsby 
to Gothenburg, by which the feures are the same as from Hull. 

(d) Hull to Copenbagen (621 n.m., about 66 hrs.) Thence by rail or 
str. to Christiania. Weekly, leaving Copenhagen for Hull every Thurs- 
day. Fares : 1st cl., 82. 8«. ; return, 62. 6«. 

(2) Other Steamship Lines. 

(a) ITewcastle to Christiania (calling at ArendaJ) (722 n.m., about 66 
hrs.) by the Norwegian Ostlandske Lloyds Co.'s strs., every Friday 
afternoon, arriving at Arendal on Sunday and at Christiania on 
Monday morning. Betum from Christiania every Wednesdav, stop- 
ping at Laurvik to take in cargo, leaving again Friday night afber 
arrival of trains from Christiania and Skien. Another caJl is made at 
Arendal, which is left on Saturday noon, the str. reaching Newcastle 
on Monday morning. Fa/rea; Single, 1st cl., 2Z. 10s,; return, 4Z. 
Single, 2nd cl., 12. 10s, ; return, 22. 10s. Yictg., 6«. Id, and ds, id, 
per diem. Bates same to Laurvik or Christiania. 

(h) Leith to Christiansand (whence daily strs. in 21 hrs. to Chris- 
tiania: 410 n.m., about 86 hrs.), by the Leith, Hull, and Hamburg 
Steam Packet Co.'s strs. every Thursday afternoon, arriving at Chris- 
tiansand Saturday morning (and proceeding thence to Copenhagen). 
Calls at Christiansand for Leith every Friday evening, arriving Sunday 
noon. Saloon single fare between Leith and Christiansand, 82. Qs,; 
return, 61,, with victg. 

(c) Grangemouth to Christiania, by Norwegian strs. " Norway ** and 
" Scotland " (fast, and luxuriously fitted). Every Wednesday, calling at 
Egersund, Christiansand, and Arendal. Fa^e : 1st cl., 22. 10s, ; re- 
turn, 42. Yictg., 58. 6d, per day. Average passage from land to land, 
about 28 hrs. Agents : I. T. Salveson & Co., Grangemouth. 

(d) Antwerp to Christiania (8^ days) by the excellent Norwegian 
Ostlandske Lloyds strs. every Thursday, calling one week at Christian- 
sand and Arendal, the other week at Arendal only.. Betum from 
Christiania alternately on Tuesday and Thursday. 1st cl. single, 
22. 10«. ; return, 42, Yictg., 5s. Id, per day. 

[104] Skeleton Routes and Access to Norway. 

(e) Amiterdain to Christiaiiia (60 hrs.) Weekly service every Satur- 
day. To Ghristiania via Gothenburg; from Ghristiania vt^ Frederikstad 
(4^ hrs. rail from Ghristiania), 84 hrs. Fare$ : 1st cL, 21, Victuals 
4«. 6^. per day. 

(^ Botterdam to ChristlEiiia vid Ghristiansand {65 hrs.) Fortnightly 
service. 1st cl. fieure : 21. single. 

(g) Havre to Chriftiaiiia, calling at Arendal (about 3i days), by 
Norwegian 8ondenf jeldske Line, every alternate Thursday afternoon, 
reaching Ghristiania on Monday. Departure from Ghristiania every 
other Thursday at 1 p.m., calling at Ghristiansand Friday morning, 
and arriving at Havre Monday morning. 1st cl. single, 4Z, 9a,; 
return, 71. 15«. Id, 2nd cl. single, &L 2«. Sd,; return, 5L 69. 8^. 
Including victuals. 

(h) Bordeaux to Ghristiania (about 7 days). Fortnightly sailings by 
Norwegian strs. 1st cl. single, SI, lis. lOd. ; return, 61, 28, Sd, 
2nd cl. single, 11, lbs. Id. ; return, 21. Via, lOd. Victg. is. 6d, and 
28. Sd, per day. 

(t) Hamburg to Christiaiiia (about 2^ days), calling at Ghristiansand, 
Arendal, and Laurvik, by the well-appointed Sondenf jeldske Line, 
every Saturday night, arriving at Ghristiania Monday morning. De- 
parture from Ghristiania every Saturday afternoon, arriving at Ham- 
burg Monday afternoon. 1st cl. single, 11, 13«. 4^.; return, 21. 15«. 7d, 
2nd cl. single, 11. 4«. 6d. ; return, 11. 18fi. lid. Victuals, 48. 6d, per 

(7) Hamburg to ChristianBaiid (about 2 days), by the £eigenske-Nor- 
denfleldske Line (exceUent strs.), every Friday. Strs. proceed along 
west coast to Yadso. 1st cl. single, 11. 168, 6d, ; return, 21, 14«. 9d. 
Victg. about 6a. 2d, per day. 

{h) Stettin to Copenhagen and Christiaiiia (about 2 days), by str. 
" M. G. Melchior *' (high-class), leaving every Tuesday, 2 p.m., cidKngat 
Gopenhagen Wednesday, and reaching Ghristiania Thursday about noon. 
Ketum from Ghristiania every Friday morning, calling at Gopenhagen 
Saturday, and arriving at Stettin early on Sunday. 1st cl, single, 
21, Ss. lid, ; return, SI, 16a. Ad. 2nd cl. single, 11, 10a. 5d, ; return, 
21, l8. lOd, 

(l) Copenhagen to Christiania vid Frederikshavn (about 1^ day), by 
str. " Baldur," every Sunday evening, calling early next afternoon at 
Frederikshavn, and reaching Ghristiania before noon on Tuesday, after 
touching at Laurvik, Vallo, Horten, and Moss. Return every Thurs- 
day, arriving Gopenhagen early on Saturday. 1st cl. single, 11. 11a. 2d. ; 
return, 21, 6a. %d, 2nd cl. single, 11, ; return, 1?. 10a. 

(m) Copenhagen to Christiania vid Gothenburg (about 1 day), by fine 
paddle-str. " Ghristiania," every Monday and Friday morning, calling 
at Gothenburg and Horten. Return from Ghristiania every Tuesday 
and Saturday afternoon, reaching Gopenhagen next day. Same faxes 
as per " Baldur." 

(n) Frederikshavn (Denmark) to Christiania (about 11 hrs.), every 
Tuesday, Thursday, and Satnrday.noon, by Ghristiania coasting strs. 

SJceleton Routes and Access to Norway. [105] 

Betum every Sunday, Tuesday, and Friday before noon. Fare : 1st oL, 
138. ^d. 

[Obs. — For further information respecting steamers between Germany, 
Denmark, and Norway, and their correspondence with railways, consult 

(o) Stockholm to Christiania. A str. runs weekly between the two 
cities, but as the voyage (broken at Malmo, Helsingborg, and Gothen- 
burg) occupies 4 days and costs 2Z. 4«. 6t?., travellers will prefer taking 

(p) ITew Tork to Christiania (14 days), by Thingvalla Line, fort- 
nightly. 1st cl. fare, from 111, 2s. Bd, to 13L lis, lOd, 

For Tourist Yacht routes and sailings see ** B. Western Norway by 
Steamer," and annual advertisements. 

2. By Bailway and Steamer, 

(a) London to ChrlBtiania, in 57| hrs>, vid Queensborough, Flush- 
ing, Hamburg, and Kiel, where a str. crosses in 4 to 5 hrs. (day and 
night service) to Korsor. Thence in 2 hrs. (night service) or 2^ hrs. 
(day service) to Copenhagen, where rail is taken to Helsingor (1 hr. 
22 m.) A str. then carries travellers over to Helsingborg (Sweden) in 
20 m., in time for a train which reaches Gothenburg in the evening 
and Christiania early next morning. Through rates to Christia/rda : 
1st cl. single, 8Z. 168, Id, ; return, IBl, ds, 6d, 2nd cl. single, 6Z. lAs, Ad, ; 
return, 92. 188, lid, 

N.£. — The through faxe vid Calais or Ostend is 111, 1st cl. Those 
who require a short sea^passage should, when bound for Gothenburg or 
Christiania, take the Dover-Calais and Eamburg-rrederikBhavn route. 
The journey can in each case be broken at several places. The de- 
velopment of railway comimunication through Denmark and Sweden 
requires reference to future time-tables and advertisements. 

(h) London to Christiania vid Hamburg and Frederikshavn and 
Gothenburg. A Danish company runs a str. three times a week 
between Frederikshavn (Denmark) and Gothenburg in connection with 
the trains between Hamburg and Frederikshavn, and with the trains 
between Gothenburg and Christiania, Gothenburg and Stockholm, &c. 
Leaving Hamburg at 6.60 p.m. the traveller reaches Frederikshavn 
next day at 12.20 p.m. He is taken thence by str. to Gothenburg in 5 
hrs. (fare 8«. 11^.) The rly. then takes him to Christiania in 10 hrs. 
Through rates Hamibwrg-Christiarda : 1st cl. rly, and str., 31, lbs. ^d. ; 
2nd cl. rly. and 1st cl. str., 31. Os. 6d. 

(c) Harwich-Botterdam-Cliristiania. Night and day service in 13 hrs. 
to Hamburg, whence the route is the same as in (6). 

{d) London to Christiania vid Denmark and Stockholm, in 58 J hrs. 
to Stockholm, whence rail to Christiania in 15^ hrs. (in summer). 

(e) London or Hull to Christiania vid Gothenburg. In 47 hrs., over- 
land to Gothenburg. Thence by rail in 11 hrs., or by str. in 13 hrs., to 
[Norwa/y — vi. 92.] g 

[106] Skeleton Routes and Access to Norway. 

B. Western Norway. 

By Steamer, 

(a) Great Britain or Continent to ChristianBand. Vide *' A. South 
Norway : 1. Sea-Boutes," and the Ohs. respecting changes. 

(b) Hull to Stavanger and Bergen, by Wilson Line, every Tuesday 
afternoon, in about 38 hrs., after calling at Stavanger (27 to 30 hrs.), 
with time, usually, to see that town. Betum from Bergen {via 
Stavanger) every Saturday noon. Fares to Stavanger or Bergen : 
1st cl. single, Al,; return, 61. 2nd cl. single, BL; return, 41, lOs. 
Victuals included. 

[Obs. — First-class return tickets for Christiansand or Ghristiania are 
available to return by the Wilson Line strs. from Stavanger or Bergen with- 
out extra payment. Second-class return tickets on payment of IO5. extra. 
Beturn tickets for Stavanger or Bergen are available to return by the 
Wilson Line strs. from Cbristiania or Christiansand on payment of the 
victg. on board latter str. For return tickets, see p. [102]. 

In addition to the Tuesday service to Bergen, the Trondhjem strs. call 
there (until the middle of August). Only the Tuesday strs. call at Stavanger. 

(c) Hull to Trondbjem vid Aalesnnd, Molde, or Christiansund (in 65 
to 70 hrs.), by Wilson Line strs., every Thursday afternoon during 
tourist season and afterwards every alternate Thursday. Betum from 
Trondhjem by the same route on Thursdays. Fares for entire voyage 
or part of it : 1st cl. single, 6L lOs, ; return, 91, 15s, 2nd cl. single, 
4:1, 4«. ; return, 61, 6s. Victuals included. 

(d) Hull to Fjords of W. ITorway. — ^In July and August Messrs. 
Wilson despatch one of their finest passenger strs. to the N. Cape, 
touching at Stavanger, Bergen, Molde, &c., the Lofoten islands, £c., 
and ascending the three principal fjords. These yachting cruises (of 
which there are two) occupy about 21 days, the greater part of the 
voyage being through magnificent scenery in smooth water, inside the 
coast belt of rocks and islands (Skerries) ; the actual sea-passage being 
only across the N. Sea (about 33 hrs.) Betum fa/res from Hull : Each 
berth in double or three -berth cabin amidships, 35 guineas ; each 
berth aft (number limited), 80 guineas. Victg. (but not wine, &c.) 

N.B. — ^As in the case of the regular passenger strs. to Norway, 
timely appUcaHon must be made to Messrs. Wilson for berths. 

(e) Newcastle to Bergen vid Haugesund and Stavanger, three times 
weekly, by subsidised Norwegian mail strs. and by the excellent 
Bergenske-Nordenfjeldske mail strs., despatched every Tuesday even- 
ing. In the tourist season the passage by the Norwegian mail strs. 
averages 38-40 hrs. Fa/res to Bergen : 1st cl. single, 41, ; return, 61. 
Intermediate, Bl, ; return, 4Z. 10«. Victuals included. 

(/) Leith and Aberdeen to Fjords of W. Norway. The N. of Scot- 
land and Orkney and Shetland Steam Navigation Co. employs tWo of 

Skeleton Routes and Access to Norway. [107] 

its finest strs. on this ronte between the latter part of May and the end 
of August. The sailingB (twelve in all) are fortnightly, each voyage 
occupying 12 days (except N. Cape trip, which takes 3 weeks), almost 
entirely in smoodi water. The sea-passage from Aberdeen to the Nor- 
wegian coast (Skudenses) is effected in about 20 hrs. Fa/res : Cabin on 
upper deck (one person), 181,; cabin for two persons, each 14Z. 14*., or 
151, 15«. ; in ladies* cabin and in cabins holding more than two, each 
121, 128, or 151, 158, Yictg. included. 

N.B. — In the latter part of August one of this company's strs. 
touches at Christiania on the way to Copenhagen, Stockholm, and 
St. Petersburg. 

(g) London to Fjords of W. ITorway. Ocean steam-yacht excursion 
trips are made several times during the season by strs. named the 
"Victoria," the " Chimborazo,*' the "Garonne," and the "Ceylon." 
The trip is generally combined with a visit to Sweden, Denmark, 
St. Petersburg, &c., and usually lasts one month. As the arrange- 
ments are annually varied, information must be obtained from the 
managers, who advertise frequently. Travellers are taken by these 
splendidly appointed ships to view the midnight sun and the other 
glories of Norwegian scenery, including calls at Christiania, Bergen, 
Trondhjem, &c. 

(h) Hamburg to Chrifltiansand, Stavanger, Bergen, and Trondhjem 
(calling at principal intermediate ports, ascending fjords, and visiting 
the Lofoten islands), twice a week by the Bergenake-Nordenfjeldske 
Line. Leaving on Friday, the str. reaches Christiansand on Sunday, 
Stavanger and Bergen on Monday, Trondhjem on Saturday. 

Starting hence on the next Tuesday, it gets to Tromso on Saturday, 
Hammerfest on Sunday, and Vadso on Tuesday. Saloon fa/res : To 
Christiansand, IZ. 168. 6d. ; Stavanger, 21, 6a. lOd, ; Bergen, 2/. 15^. 2d, ; 
Trondhjem, 4Z. 10a. Sd, ; Tromso, 11. Os, 2d, ; Vadso, 81. 16a. lid, 
Eetum tickets (without leave to break voyage), half-fare additional. 
Victg. by agreement with steward, about 6a. 2d, per diem. 

(t) For Stettin-Copenhagen, Stavanger, Bergen, Trondhjem, &c., 
Line see below. 

C. Northern Norway. 

(a) Hull to Trondlgem, dn/rect, by Wilson Line strs. (of very high 
speed, lighted by electricity and splendidly fitted), every Thursday 
during the season ; otherwise on alternate Thursdays, in 65-70 hrs. ; 
landing passengers at Aalesund and Christiansund, and at Molde when 
speciaUy arranged. Fares : 1st cl. single, 61, 10a. ; return, 91, 15a. 
2nd cl. single, Al, 4a. ; return, 61, 6a. Victg. included. 

[Obs, — For return vid another port see (b) "B. Western Norway," 
where this route, which partly belongs to our W. coast section, has already 
been mentioned.] 

(b) Hamburg to Trondhjem and Vadsd. See {h) "B. Western 

[108] Skeleton Routes and Access to Norway. 

(c) Stettin-CopenliagenoTroiidlgom, every 10 or 11 days, touohingf at 
Arendal, ChristianBand, Stavanger, Bergen, Aalesund, and Christian- 
Blind, in about 5 days, by the Danish "Forenede Dampskibsselskab " 
Line. Fa/res f from Copenhagen to Trondhjem : 1st d. single, SI. Is, ; 
2nd cl. single, 21, Is. Betiim, 25 per cent, allowed on fall fare. Yictg. 
As, 6d. per diem* 

(d) For other means of access to N. Norway see preceding 
" B. Western Norway,*' and contemporaneous time-tables and adver- 
tisements, which must in all cases, we repeat, be carefully consulted. 


Section I 


[Norway — vi. 92.] 


Bufl. = Bufifet. 

Oh. = Church. 

Dil. = Diligence. 

Ft. = Feet (always English). 

Hr. = Hour. 

Isl. = Island. 

Eil. = KilomMre. 

Kr. = Kroner. 

L. = Left hand. 

M. = Miles (always English). 

Min. i= Minute. 

Mtn. = Mountain. 

0. = Ore. 

R. = Biver. 

Bd. = Boad. 

Bly. = Bailway. 

Bt. = Bight hand. 

Bte. - Boute. 

St. = Street (gade in Norwegian). 

Stat. = Station. 

Str. = Steamer. 


[The names of places are printed in italics only in those Boutes 

where the places are described.] 

Route Page 

1. To Christianiat vid Chris- 

Uansandf by sea . . 3 

2. To Christiania from Copen- 

hagen or Gothenburg, vid 
FrederikshaJd and Sarps- 
horg, by rail ... 24 

3. Stockholm to Christiania, 

vid Charlottenberg and 
KongsvingeTt by rail . 28 

4. Christiania to Skierit vid 

Drammen,&G.,yni»h. branch 

to Horten, by rail . . 29 

5. Skien to Odde (Hardanger) 

and Bergen, vid Tele- 
marken .... 36 

6. Christiania to Kongsherg^ 

vid Drammen and Houg- 
sund, by rail ; and to the 
BjuJcanfos and Hitterdalj 
by road and str. . . 42 

7. Christiania to Bandsfjordt 

vid Hougsund and HQne- 
fosy by rail ... 46 

8. Christiania to Bergen, vid 

Randsfjord, VatderSy the 
Fillefjeld, and Lcerddl- 
s&ren (Sogne fjord), by 
rail, str., and road . . 48 


9. Christiania to Bergen, vid 
Kr&derenj Hallingdal, and 
Lferdalsoren, by rail, str., 
and road . . . . 

10. Christiania to Bergen, vid 

Lake Spirillen, Yalders, 
and Lffirdalsoren, by rail, 
str., and road . 

11. The Jottmheim . . . 

12. Christiania to Molde, vid 

LaheMjbsen, Oudbrands- 
dal, and Romsdaly by rail 
str., and road . 

13. Christiania to Trondhjem 

through Gudbrandsdal 
and over the Dovrefjeld 
by rail, str., and road 

14. Christiania to Trondhjem 

by rail . 

15. Christiania to Christian- 

sand, vid intermediate 
ports .... 

16. Arendal, or Tvedestrand, to 

Telemarken, by road 

17. Christiansand to Telemar- 

ken, through Scetersdalen, 
by road .... 












(By sea.) 

[For means and cost of access, distance and 
length of voyage, see IntraductionJ] 

In about 8 hrs. after leaving Hull 
(73 m. from the Humber) the str. 
passes over the S.W. patch of the 
sandy Dogger Bank — the productive 
fishing-ground of the N. Sea — where 
passengers are enlivened by the pic- 
turesque sight of hundreds of smacks 
of the great N. Sea fishing-fleets 
flitting about in every direction, or 
steady at their trawls. On approach- 
ing this bank the water suddenly 
shoals from about 150 ft. to 42 ft., the 

shoal extending a distance of about 6 
m., when the water gradually deepens 
to 60 and 100 ft., until 50 m. from 
the coast of Norway, where the 
depth in many places along the 
coast exceed 200 fms. On the sands 
in question a sea rises rapidly with 
a fresh wind, but subsides as quickly. 
Beyond the Dogger the interest of 
the passenger is perforce centred in 
the movements of the swift seagulls 
that follow the vessel in the hope, 
frequently gratified, of having food 
thrown to them. 

Strs. from London only skirt the 
S.E. edge of the Dogger, while those 
from the N. of England pass along it 

to the N. 



Route 1. — To Christiania hy 8ea. 

The first sight of the Norwegian 
coast, generally obtained in aboat 26 
hrs. from Hull and 40 hrs. from 
London, is not very striking or 
pleasing, as it consists of compara- 
tively low rocky and rounded pro- 
montories. Of these, Cape lAn- 
desnces (the Naze) is the point to- 
wards which the ship's coarse is 
usually set. Keeping well to the E. of 
it, and after passing OksO light, the 
str. makes direct for the narrow W. 
entrance of the harbour of the city of 

Chriitiansand, « the capital of the 
eccles. prov. or diocese of that name. 
Pop. 12,830. Brit, Vice-Consul and 
U.S. Cons. Agency, 

[Steam commanication E. and W., with 
Denmark, &o., by mail and other steamships ; 
also local strs. to neighbouring places on the 

ToPOGBAPHY, Ac. — Founded in 
1641, by Christian IV. (but a site of 
great commercial importance for 
nearly a cent, earlier), the city ranks 
as the fourth, while its harbour is 
one of the best in Norway. On the 
other hand, travellers will on landing 
be ^sappointed with the architectursJ 
meajmess and the outward dulness 
(especially on Sundays) of so import- 
ant a place. The houses are mostly 
of timber and 2-storeyed, lining 
wide and deserted-looking streets 
that run at rt. angles. This is, 
however, the residence of the pro- 
vincial prefect and of the bishop. 
The Cathedral is a whitewashed 
building of stone, restored after a 
great fire in 1880, and ranking next 
to the caths. of Trondhjem and 
Stavanger ; the Altar-piece, by Eilif 
Petersen, is worthy of admiration. 
(Keys at 26 Vestre Strand st.) The 
square around it is prettily laid out 
as a Public garden, with a handsome 
granite fountain. The Torrisdal 
(Otteraa) r. enters the fjord E. of 
the city. In former times the har- 

* This sign in the text appended to a 
Name indicates that further information re- 
lating to the subject is to be found in the 
Index and Directorp at the end of the 

hour was defended by a Fort on the 
small island of OdderD, at its entrance ; 
but, like the older Fortifications on 
Flekkerd island (5 m. S.), raised in 
the l^th cent., the defences are 
practically obsolete. They favoured, 
however, the privateering exploits of 
the Norwegians between 1807 and 
1812, when England was an enemy. 
The city has a considerable export 
trade in timber, wood pulp, and fish. 
In 1890, 208,260 mackerel, 231,000 
live lobsters, and 110 tons of fresh 
salmcm were shipped, a large propor- 
tion being for Great Britain. A 
large trade in salted mackerel is being 
developed with the U.S.A. 

Walks amd Drives. — The strs. from 
ports in Great Britain generally re- 
main long enough in harbour to 
enable travellers to correct the impres- 
sion of Norway which they may derive 
from the aspect of the city and its 
immediate surroundings. They are 
strongly recommended, subject to 
advice received on board, to walk or 
drive to the pretty Ba'tmedal (valley) 
W. of the city. Even on foot (a 
charming walk) the str. can be 
regained in 2 hrs., while the use of a 
cab (see Index), if available at a very 
early hour, will shorten the time con- 
siderably : it will take the Satersdal- 
Mandal high road, over Egelunden 
(oak-grove). Pedestrians will make 
for a ridge N.W. of the city, now 
prettily planted and intersected by 
a network of paths, approached by 
way of the Fire-stat. and the School- 
house in Tordenskjold st, ascend- 
ing thence to the Cemetery on the 
Saatersdals rd., in which is a monu- 
ment to the Danes who fell at Heli- 
goland in 1864. From the ridge, on 
which are several tarns, a pretty 
view of the city and its marine sur- 
roundings will be obtained. Following 
one of the paths over the ridge, a 
valley-road, somewhat hilly and with 
a rivulet winding through it, will be 
reached in a few minutes. Bearing 
then to the rt., the charming natorcJ 
pleasure-grounds of the BavnedalwXL 
be entered. They are enclosed by 

Route 1. — Ghristiansand, 

Mgh perpendicular rocks. The small 
ionntain and pond are fed by a lake 
on the hill above (the Bavneheif 
reached by a flight of steps at the 
upper end of the grounds), from 
which a fine and extensive view of the 
sea and the vicinity can be enjoyed. 
Refreshments at the Bestauranti 
where a band sometimes plays from 
5.30 to 7 P.M. 

If the traveller have more than 2 
hrs. at his disposal, he should take one 
of the footpaths that lead S. from the 
Bavnedal grounds to the Beacon on 
the highest point of the ridge, whence 
a vast prospect opens. Continuing a 
little way to the rt. of the beacon and 
then turning to the 1. towards the 
cliff in front of Klappene farm^ the 
Orimsdal (valley) will be seen lying 
deep below. Returning to the beacon, 
and following thence the crest of the 
mtn. in a straight line (with a slight 
declension to the rt.), the pedestrian 
can descend to the Beservoirs of the 
Eg lunatic asylum (an imposing 
building), from which a beautiful view 
will be had over the asylum and 
its plantations, as well as of the 
lower course of the Otteraa r., S&dal 
and EgstO farms j Oddemces ch. tower ^ 
Qimle mansion^ and the upper and 
lower Kongsgaard hotises. Eg asylum 
can easily be reached in ^ an hr. from 
the city by a good road along the 
river bank. If the traveller shall have 
driven to the Bavnedal, the carriage 
can be ordered to meet him at Eg, 2 
hrs. then sufficing for the entire trip. 
A shorter way to Eg is the path 
from the Bavnedal, past the Svart- 
l^em ("Black Pool "), direct to the 
reservoirs. A good pedestrian can 
take the longest route from the city 
and back in 2 hrs. 

A pleasant short walk can be taken 
to OddemcBS ch,f reached by a bridge 
across the Otteraa r. from the E. end 
of the city. The ch. is of some 
antiquity, with several old tombstones 
and a Bunic stone. Like the neigh- 
bouring Hamrehei (ridge), it affords 
an excellent point of view. To attain 
the latter, the LUlesand (or E.) rd. is 
followed as far as the broad parish 

road running to the rt., and, continu- 
ing along the latter to the Stenklev 
(crag), the ridge will be seen to the rt. 

The Dticknipe is another charming 
point of vantage. Leaving the city 
by the fine road running W. and 
visible from the harbour, and after 
passing the Mdllervand (lake), a mtn.- 
path from the top of the Mdllevands- 
kleVy or crag, ascends (1.) to the 
object of the walk. The descent can 
be made in the opposite direction to- 
wards the W. harbour, down to the 
W. road above mentioned, and on 
which will be passed the Sandmg 
pleasure-grounds i where a military 
band frequently plays. 

OdderOen is a rocky island S. of the 
city, from which it is separated by a 
canal (Oravene) connecting the E. 
and W. harbours. Pretty walks and 
views, the latter more especially from 
the Kikud (the highest point, 350 ft.), 
where there are ruins of an old Watch- 
tower thskt has frequently been injured 
by lightning. 

Excursions, — These are too numer- 
ous to be fully described, and some 
of the pretty places in the Saetersdal 
valley accessible from the city will 
be mentioned in Bte. 19. In half a 
day the tourist can make a trip up the 
Otteraa river (twice daily) to Kvar- 
sten (11 kil. or 1 hr.) and walk thence 
to the Vigelandsfos and the Hundsfos 
{Helvedesfos)y 2 picturesque water- 
falls. Distance by road to Vigelands- 
fos about 16 kil. (1^ hr. drive). 

Strs. also run twice daily (about 3 
hrs. there and back) up the Topdals- 
fjord (a northern prolongation of the 
main fjord) and the Topsdal river to 
Enarestad, where the Bofos is of 
interest on account of the salmon- 
fishing pursued there. They stop at 
2 very pretty places — Bonene and 

[Enterprising explorers of the 
vicinity should apply to the local 
Tourist Association for more exten- 
sive or minute information.] 

Fishmg and Shooting, — Salmon- 
fishing procurable at Vigelandsfos 
on application to the proprietor in 

Route 1. — To Christiania by Sea. 

GhriBtianBand, on payment of 4 kr. 
per rod and day, in addition to about 
2.60 kr. for a boatman. Excellent 
trout-fishing in the mtn. lakes and 
tarns, between the OttercLa r. and 
the ScBtersdal (Mandal) high road. 
Several large lakes in other direc- 
tions afford excellent sport, with per- 
mission, easily obtained of the 
peasant-proprietors, who supply 
boats. Special mention may, how- 
ever, be made of the Aureheck and 
Hogund lakes, near Mosby (1^ hr. 
drive) ; also of OUlsvand (^ hr. 
drive). Permission, without charge 
except for boats, is given by the pro- 
prietor of Emst^s hotel. Sea-fishi/ng 
of every kind is excellent, as is also 
the wild-duck and other shooting. 

At Christiansand the str. is moored 
to a pier for a time more or less vari- 
able, contingent on the quantity of 
cargo to be discharged or loaded. It 
is seldom that passengers are not 
given time for a stroll on shore, where 
there is, however, but little to see, 
especially on a Sunday. Those who 
are bound for the W. coast, for 
Scptersdalen^ or for points on the S.E. 
coast, disembark here. Telegrams^ on 
forms supplied by the steward and 
written in inky can be despatched 
through the str.'s agent. 

Leaving the harbour by the wide E. 
outlet, and skirting the coast at a dis- 
tance of about 6 m., the str. runs nearly 
100 m. about E.N.E. up the Skageraky 
and usually in 9-10 hrs. passes to the 
W. of the rugged rocky islets, on one 
of which the Fcerder iron lighthouse 
is planted. Here, properly speaking, 
begins the Christiania fjord. It 
runs about 60 m. due N. and, after 
gradually narrowing from a width of 
10 m. (on the parallel of Faarder) to 
about 2.^ m. between the small town 
and naval stat. of Horten (Bte. 4) on 
the W., and the town of Moss on the 
E. (Bte. 13), widens out again, and 
sends out a branch on the N.W. which 
terminates at Dra/mmen (Bte. 4), and 
another to the N. that ends at the 
modem capital of Norway. The lat- 
ter is protected from naval attack by 

the fort of Oscarsborg (on Kaholmen 
island), on which several heavy guns 
are mounted behind the earthworks 
which, in deference to modem mili- 
tary requirements, now cover the 
solid and handsome stonework origi- 
nally erected. A barrage, carrying 
less than 6 ft. of water, juts out from 
the S.E. angle of the fort to the rocks 
in front, and thence to the main- 
land on the W., compelling vessels 
to approach Christiania only by the 
easternmost channel, well commanded 
by artillery, and to be strengthened 
in the event of war by torpedo de- 
fences. Just before reaching the fort, 
the str. passes in front of ^e pictu- 
resque little town of 

Drobak. ^ Pop. 2100. Brit. Cons. 

Although, when viewed from the 
str., this town seems to occupy only 
a narrow rocky foreshore, it stretches 
back to some distance in very pretty 
wooded scenery, and its aspect from 
a height to the S. is very picturesque. 
It is encompassed on the E. by con- 
siderable pine-woods of great beauty, 
while beyond the high ridge seen from 
the fjord lies one of the most beauti- 
ful and fertile tracts in S. Norway. 
Connected by an excellent road (13 
kil.) with Aas stat. (Bte. 2), and 
witn frequent daily steamship com- 
munication (about If hr.) with the 
capital, it is certainly destined to be 
the Brighton of Christiania, although 
not yet in fashion. The sea-bathing 
is superior to any in the Christiania 
fjord, the water preserving all its 
saltness by the absence of any con- 
siderable fresh-water streams and by 
the strong current, of which the origin 
is partly tidal, but mainly attributable 
to the narrowness of this part of the 
fjord and to the strategical works 
above mentioned. The air is daily 
refreshed with ozone brought direct 
from the N. Sea by the Sol-vind 
(sun-wind), which blows almost regu- 
larly from the S. until the afternoon, 
when the Sotmd has frequently the 
appearance of a sheet of glass. This 
is the favourite time for a row in 

Route 1. — DrobaJc, 

search of sea-iishing, almost every 
variety of which is found in Drobak 
Sound. The hernng-fisMng with 6 
to 8 bare white hooks on a fine line, 
" jiggered " at a depth of a yard or 
two from the bottom (sometimes 15 
fms.), is very amusing; while the 
sport with set (coal-fish) j which fre- 
quently come up in playful shoals, is 
a delight to sportsmen who do not 
disdain sea-fishing. Codlmg (and 
even cod up to 15 and 20 lbs.), had- 
dock, and whiting are caught in large 
quantities, especially with night-lines. 
In the proper season the sea-trout 
fishing is not bad. Many neighbour- 
ing lakes are stocked with fine trout, 
but special permission to take them 
must be obtained. 

The town is full of shops, in which 
all household requisites are obtain- 
able, and, in ad^tion to the hotels 
mentioned in the Index, apartments 
can be obtained at moderate prices 
{71. to 102. for the season of 4 months). 
It will not be long before the atten- 
tion of British and native capitalists 
will be called to the remunerativeness 
of converting Drobak into a fashion- 
able watering-place. An Aq^tutrium 
and Marine Biological staL are al- 
ready being established. 

Travellers will notice to the rt. of 
the fortress the charmingly situated 
summer residence of Mr. S. Parr, 
a descendant of " Old Parr." He is 
the "Ice King" of Norway, having 
originated that trade, to the great 
advantage of Brdbak, which is the 
centre of it in the upper part of the 
Christiania fjord. The tower of the 
old wooden Ch. of Drdbak will be seen 
rising close to the grounds of Mr. 
Parr's villa. It contains an old 
carved altar-piece of great interest. 
Attached to it is a Cemetery, kept with 
the beautiful neatness so frequently 
seen in Norway. 

Stemming the strong current of 
the Drdbak Sovmd (produced mainly 
by the barrage above-mentiohed), the 
str. enters into a broad expanse of 
water studded with numerous islands. 
Already within a mile of Brobak the 

traveller will have noticed one of the 
ice-houses that are so numerous on 
the E. coast to within a short dis- 
tance from Christiania. Ice that has 
not been shipped direct from lakes 
in winter or early spring is stored in 
those houses, and it is one of the at- 
tractions to passengers on this part 
of the voyage to watoh the shining 
blocks rushing down wooden shoots 
to the deck of a str. or sailing vessel, 
bound in most cases for the shores 
of Great Britain. 

The voyage all the way up the 
fjord is now a moving panorama of 
lake scenery, unique in character and 
of considerable beauty. Those who 
expect savage grandeur and a pictu- 
resque outUne of mtns. and rocks 
will be disappointed, for, beautiful as 
it is, the aspect is tame compared 
with scenery in the fjords of the W. 
coast. Most of the islands and hills 
are too round in form to be very pic- 
turesque; they are of granite and 
gneiss, and for the most part covered 
with fir and pine trees from the 
water's edge to the summit. 

If steaming up the fjord between 
the months of May and July, the 
traveller will be much struck by the 
lightness of the nights, and the gor- 
geous sunset effects, which blend into 
those of sunrise without losing their 
brightness. The course being due N. 
(towards the sun) there is probably 
no place in the whole of Norway 
where sunsets are seen to greater 

On the 1., just before reaching 
Christiania (158 m. and about 12 hrs. 
from Christiansand), will be seen the 
Ladegaardsd penin., thickly covered, 
like the rest of the neighbourhood E. 
and W., with pretty wooden villas. 
The city is now in sight at the foot 
of a hilly amphitheatre. The more 
striking objects on the 1. are the 
palace and the huge block of hand- 
some buildings erected on " Victoria 
Terrace " by Mr. Peter Petersen, one 
of the most enterprising and patriotic 
citizens of Christiania. The slim but 
tall crenellated tower of Osoarshall 
adorns the small bay to the W., while 

Route 1. — To Christiania by Sea. 

straight in front lies the once strong 
castle of AkershtLs. Bounding the 
point on which it stands, the str. is 
soon alongside the rly. quay, nearly 
opposite the Custom-house^ the offi- 
cials of which immediately come 
on board and clear luggage with a 
rapidity and consideration seldom 
exercised elsewhere on the continent. 
Porters and hotel omnibuses will be 
found waiting. 

CHBISTIAKIA, « the capital of 
Norway. Pop. 156,000. Lat. 69° 64' 
N. ; long. 10° 43' E. Time, 43 min. 
in advance of London. BrU. Cons.- 
Oen. and U.S. Cons,^ 

Hbtort. — The city was founded in 1624 
by Christian IV. of Denmark, after the de- 
stmotion by fire, daring the same year, of 
Oslo, a town (now an easterly suburb at the 
foot of Egeberg Hill) of which the estabUsh- 
ment is ascribed to Harald Haardraade 
(about A.D. 1050), who built a oastle and 
other edifices on its site, which is supposed 
to have been occupied long previously by a 
village. Oslo was the seat of a bishopric in 
the middle ages, when it became, after Ber- 
gen, practically the capital of the kingdom 
and the largest town in Norway, although 
not imssessing more than five thousand 
inhabitants. Towards the close of the 14th 
cent, its trade and industry had become 
monopolist by merchants and artisans from 
Bostock and other cities of the Hanseatic 
League. As in other Norwegian towns, 
these established, guilds from which drastic 
and exclusive mercantile regulations con- 
tinued to be issued and enforced until the 
reign of Christian II. (1613-1624). In the 
16th and 17th cent, fires repeatedly de- 
vastated the town. It was burned down 
by its inhabitants in 1667, while besieged by 
the Swedes, who had destroyed it 40 vears 
before. Christiania was several times visited 
by the plague in the 17th cent., and in the 
18th a great fire destroyed a considerable 
part of it. In 1716 it was occupied for a 
month by the army of Charles XII., which, 
laying si^e to Akershus, destroyed many 
buildings. Prosperitv was finally established 
at the middle of that cent., when great 
riches were amassed by merchant princes, of 
whom one (Collett) was of English origin. 
Their trade was mainly in timber, while their 
principal mercantile connections were with 
England, where many of their sons studied. 
In 1807, however, a scories of calamitous events 
interrupted that prosperity, and by the year 

* The names of British and American Con- 
sular officers need not be given, changes 
being frequent. They can be ascertained at 
any hotel, where also the address of the office 
will be given 

1814, when Norway was united with Sweden, 
the great commercial houses had nearly all 
failed. Commerce began to revive in the suc- 
ceeding years, and the pop. of the city to in- 
crease. It is now, after Copenhagen and Stock- 
holm, the most im])ortant city in Scandinavia. 
A considerable manufacturing industry has 
been developed in it along the small Akers elv, 
a stream insignificant in coze, but affording^ 
by its numerous small waterfalls considerable 
motive-power to a large cotton-miU, a flour- 
mill, and many other industrial establish- 
ments. Close to the river are the Yolcan 
mechanical works, owned in great part by 
an Englishman. There are several large 
breweries in the city. The trade, of which 
the value in 1888 amounted to 6,000,000;., 
consists in the exportation chiefiy of timbca:, 
paper pulp, matches, and other Norwegian 
produce, and in the importation of foreigpa 
goods and materials, not only for local con- 
sumption, but also for distribution over a 
considerably part of the country — ^by rail and 
shipping. As in olden days, the trade is 
principally with Great Britain. The shipping 
owned in Christiania amounts to 140,000 tons 
in sailing v&ssels, and about S0,000 in 
strs. : collectively much larger than the 
tonnage of any other Norwegian port, 
although Bergen is superior in steam tonnage 
(70,000 tons). Connected by rail with the con- 
tinental lines, and being the starting-point 
for journeys inland by rly. and for ocean or 
coasting voyages by str., Christiania is 
deriving more and more benefit from the 
tourist traffic, which will undoubtedly in- 
crease when the projected rly. to Bergen 
shall have been built. 

[For further historical references, see de- 
scription of buildings, Ac] 

TopooBAPHY. — Few travellers will 
care to make themselves minutely 
acquainted with a city comparatively 
so modem. Their chief haunt will be 
the main thoroughfare, Carl Johan's 
Oade (street), and its vicinity, where 
the merchants' and government 
offices, the shops, public edifices, 
museums, and monuments, are cen- 
tred. With the aid of the accom- 
panying Plan they will direct their 
steps towards some or all of tiie fol- 

pRiNcrPAii Sights and Places op 

1. The Boyal Palace, from which a 
commanding view is obtained. It 
stands on an eminence, in a park, to 
which Carl Johan st. leads. In front 
is a fine Statue by B» Bergslien of 
King Carl Johan, founder of the pre- 

Route 1. — Ch/nstiania, 

sent dynasty. The motto on it is, 
"My reward is the love of the 

Built 1823-1848, after a design 
by LinstoWy a German architect, its 
exterior is very plain and monotonous. 
When the court is not in residence 
(seldom in summer) the interior can 
be seen daily (2 to 5 p.m. ) on applica- 
tion to the Vagtmester or Porter 
(entrance-door at S.E. comer), to 
whom a fee of 1 to 2 kr. should be 

The Qtieen^s apartments on the 
ground-floor (particularly the White 
Dravwig -room) are pretty. Above 
them are the King's apartments. 
They are entered through a room 
(formerly the audience-chamber), of 
which the walls are, like those of the 
Throne - room and State Drawmg- 
roomy decorated with Norwegian land- 
scapes by Flintoe, In the Private 
Drawvng-room are portraits of the 
first sovereigns of the House of Ber- 
nadotte ; to the 1. of this is the King*s 
Study, The Billiard-room close by 
has been very handsomely fitted up 
by the king. In the private Dining- 
room are pictures by Munchy Arboy 
and BergsUeny representing the coro- 
nations of 1818, 1860, and 1873. 
There is a marble figure of Buth by 
Jacobsen in the adjoining Red Sa- 
loony which leads into the fine and 
lofty State Hall (Festsal)y adorned 
with Corinthian columns. The State 
Dinmg-room alongside is Pompeian 
in style. In the private apartments 
are paintings and sculptures by 
Norwegian artists — " Village Cate- 
chising," by Tiedemand; the "Naval 
Battle of Svolder " (about a.d. 1000), 
by O. Sindingy <fec. — many having 
been presents to Their Majesties on 
their silver-wedding day, 1882. 
Works of art in other parts of the 
palace will be pointed out by the 
custodian. We need now draw atten- 
tion only to the 2 marble reliefSy 
by S. Sindingy that embeUish the 
State staircase; they represent Carl 
Johan laying the foundation-stone 
of the palace, and Oscar 11. unveil- 
ing the equestrian statue to the 

same sovereign. From the roof more 
especially, an uninterrupted and 
splendid view is obtained of the 
city, the fjord, and the surrounding 
country. An equally beautiful, but 
more restricted, view will be had 
from a balcony, to which visitors will 
for that purpose be conducted. 

At the S.E. comer of the pretty 
palace park is a building that con- 
tains a la/rge telescope (by Olsen)y 
which the public are permitted to 

2. The UniTersity (founded 1811), 
with its 4 Ionic pillars and its por- 
tico of hewn granite, is at once recog- 
nisable in Carl Johan st. It consists 
of 3 buildings, designed by Oroschy 
with the assistance of Schinkel of 
Berlin. In front of the central block 
is a Statue (by Middelthtm) to A,M» 
Schweigaardy an eminent jurist and 
politician who died in 1870. 

More than 1000 students attend 
the lectures given by 56 professors 
attached to 6 faculties. 

In the centre building are the 
Zoological, Botanical, Zootomical, 
Mineralogioal, and Ethnographical 

(1) The Zoological Museum (Sun., 
Mon., and Fri. 12-2). This is on the 
first floor, to the 1. Passing through the 
Beadvng-room {hirdBy <ftc.), the visitor 
will find specimens of most of the 
Mammalia. In Boom III. are fishes 
and reptiles; in Boom lY. native 
birds, including some curious hybrids. 
A staircase to the 1. descends to 

(2) The ZooUmUcal Mtiseum (Mon. 
and Fri. 12-2), with skeletons of 
animals and microscopic collec- 

(3) The Ethnographical Museum 
(Sun. 12-2; Mon. and Fri. 1-2) 
is reached from a staircase as- 
cending from the N. door of the W. 
side of the building. In Booms I. and 
III. are costumes, furniture, and 
implements illustrating the life of 


Route 1. — To Christiania fey Sea. 

the Norwegian piuwantry. Boom 11. is 
the Lapliuid section : a tent, rein- 
deer-sledge {pulk),oo]pj of a sorcerer's 
dmm, &c. Boom IV., cariosities 
from Australia, &c. The remaining 
rooms (Y. to IX.) on the second floor 
contain cnrions objects from various 
parts of the New World, and also 
from Greenland. 

(4) The Botanical Museum (Mon. 
10--12) is on the first floor, L of the 
yestibole. Specimens of every plant 
found in Norway will be found here, 
as well as collections of fossils, wood, 

(5) The Mineralogical Museum 
(Fri. 12-1) contains one of the most 
perfect collections of the university. 
Specimens of Norwegian rock, silver, 

In the £. wing {Domus Academica) 
are located : (1) on the ground floor, 
the lecture and other rooms of some 
of the faculties *, the Festsal or Great 
Hall (Aula)t ^ large and handsome 
semicircular chamber, in which the 
English service was performed be- 
fore the present ch. was built. It is 
here that degrees are conferred, <fto. 
(2) The Collection of Northern 
Antiquities (Sun., Mon., Fri. 12-2) 
is on the first floor, and repre- 
sents, in about 12,000 objects, the 
ages, severally, of flint, bronze, 
and iron, as well as partly the Chris- 
tian middle ages. It is richer than 
any other museum in the N. in 
specimens from the early iron (Viking) 
age. Conmiencing witib the flint and 
bronze ages (farthest to rt. of en- 
trance), visitors will find Booms II. 
to rV. appropriated to the earlier and 
later parts of the iron period. 
MedisBval relics (ld. 1000-1500), 
carvings, weapons, &c., are exhibited 
in Boom V. Observe the massive 
gold collar and other gold and silver 
ornaments found (18S4) in Akershus 
parish, and identical with objects in 
the Kertch Museum, St. Petersburg. 
The Runic carvings on wood and 
stone should also be noticed. The 
portals from old Norwegian stav 

(plank) chs. (11th to 14th cents.) are 
curious for the art which they dis- 
play, and which appears to be Irisb, 
Anglo-Saxon, or " Busso-Byzantine " 
in character. In Boom VI. are more 
lintels and portals of the same 
period as that illustrated in Boorti 
v., while Boom Vll. has a store of 
antiquities of the 16th and 17th 

On the same floor is a Numis- 
matical Collection (Mon. and Fri. 
1-2) consisting of 50,000 specimens. 

The W. wing houses a Library 
of 250,000 vols., with an excellent 
Reading-room (11-3, but closed in 
July and Aug.) Books are lent to 
persons who are known. 

8. The Vikuig Ship (Mon. and 
Fri. 12-2, gratis; but admission at 
any other time, in daylight, by ap- 
plication to the Vagtmestefy who will 
be found on the ground floor of 
the main university building, either 
through the corridor entered from 
the planted courtyard with some 
Runic stones at the back (gate in 
Universitets st.), or from a small low 
door in front (rt. hand) of the centre 
edifice, in Carl Johan st. : fee 25 o.- 
1 kr.) Ghristiania, and perhaps Nor- 
way, is worth a visit if only to view 
this remarkable and unique relic of 
the Viking age (9th cent.) It is 
nothing less than one of the ships 
in which the Scandinavian pirates ra- 
vaged the shores of Britain, from the 
Shetland islands to those of Scilly, 
and from the mainland of Scot- 
land to the shores of East Anglia 
and the banks of the Thames, Lon- 
don included. We can assume that 
in similar vessels they made their 
way to Constantinople on the one 
hand, and to the country now known 
as Bussia on the other. (See " Hist. 
Notice.") The bottoms of 2 smaller 
craft had been discovered some time 
previously at Tune, in the valley of 
the Glommen, and are preserved in 
an adjoining shed. The ship in ques- 
tion was discovered in 1880 by a 
peasant proprietor at Gk>kstad, near 
Sandefjord (Christiania fjord), who, 

Route 1. — ChrUtiawia,. 


being on the point of min, dug, as a 
last resource, into a mound on his 
land, traditionally reputed to be the 
burial-place of an ancient chieftain. 
Pieces of worked timber soon came to 
view, and, the university authorities 
having been communicated with, the 
treasure was secured to the State 
by compensation which retrieved 
the fortunes of the finder. The ship 
proved to be a 32 -oared (16 on 
eil^er side) craft, contemporaneously 
known as a sekstensesset preserved to 
an astonishing extent in the clay in 
which it had been embedded, and 
with which (in combination with 
earth) it had been covered when it 
was nauled on shore to receive the 
mortal remains of some great leader 
of Vikings *). In the centre of the 
ship a chamber was found with a 
roof of logs (still m situ)y in which 
were the 2 well-preserved bed- 
steads now exhibited under the vessel. 
Whether the chief was buried with 
his wife cannot be determined from 
the few human bones (mixed with 
those of horses and dogs) that were 
discovered. One of the tibuB, ex- 
hibited with part of a skull in a glass 
case on the wall near the door, shows 
from its enlargement that the Viking 
had suffered from rheumatism. Any 
ornaments of value that may liave 
been buried with him must have 
been abstracted on the occasion of an 
ancient rifling of the tomb through 
one of the sides of the vessel, which 
was found damaged in that direction. 
The ship was cut in two at this part 
in order to admit of its being floated 
on a raft to Christiania. 

The Viking ship is 76 ft. long, 
with a maximum beam of 16 ft., and 
is pointed at both ends on exactly the 
same beautiful lines, the stem being 
distinguished only by the rudder, at- 
tached by a stout rope, not to the stem- 
post, but to the starboard (rt.) side, 

* It has been ezplained in the " Hist. Notice " 
that '* Yiking " was a general term for those 
who took part in the maritime expeditions to 
which reference has been made, and does not 
imply a sovereign,' as the sound of the word 
would seem to convey. 

close to the stem. It is clinker-built, 
with iron rivets, of which the greater 
part look as if they had been only 
recently made. This is all the more 
remarkable since nothing remains of 
the anchor except its wooden stock 
(lying under the ship). Some of the 
bossed shields have been restored to 
their places to show how the gun- 
wales were protected against the 
breaking of the waves. Part of the 
mast lies on an iron rest (new) along 
the middle of the ship, under which, 
on the port (1.) side, lies the very 
gangway by wnich the hardy Norse- 
man ascended and descended. On 
the walls of the shed (which is still 
of wood, instead of corrugated iron, 
and therefore liable at any time to 
destruction, with its invaluable con- 
tents) are ranged remnants of the 
oars (some perfect) of small boats, 
with their rudders and masts (observe 
a finely carved tiller rt. of door), and 
of wooden platters, spades, &c. In 
the bronze cauldron suspended on 
iron links the Vikings cooked their 
food. Under the glass of a case to the 
rt. of the door are seen scraps of the 
gold-threaded cloth which formed the 
tent of the chieftain in the stem of 
the vessel. The wooden supports for 
it, terminating in horses' heads, are 
over the case. This also contains 
some singed feathers of a peacock, 
drinking-cups of wood (much shrank), 
and a variety of other small articles. 
A large model in a case gives an idea 
of the ship in its original condition. 

[A. short description of the ship in English 
(60 9.), and photographs, are sold in the shed. 
A weU-illustrated and exhaustive account of 
the Viking ship, by N. Kicolaysen (in Nor- 
wegian and English), can be purchased (13 kr.) 
at Gammermeyer's, bookseller.] 

4. Art Union (Kunstforening), at 
the comer of Pilestrssde and at the N. 
end of Universitets sts. (daily, except 
Sat. and Sun. 12-2.30; 20 o.) The 
building will be recognised by its 
ornamentation with medallions of 
celebrated artists (by Jacobsen). On 
the ground floor is the Art Industry 
Museum, founded 1877 for the collec- 


Route 1. — To Ch/ristiania by Sea. 

tion of Bpecimens of national artistic 
industry. It contains, however, many 
electrotype reproductions of foreign 
(as well as Norwegian) objects of art. 
The Norwegian section is of most 
interest. It exhibits many fine old 
carved presses and other ancient 
articles of furniture, various Nor- 
wegian antiquities, a fine collection 
of glass, specimens of old Norwegian 
tapestry, &c. 

5. The Xusenm of Sculpture and 
Kational Pictore-Oallery is likewise 
in Universitets st., at the back of the 
university (daily, except Sat. 12-2 ; 
admission free Sun., Tues., and 
Thurs. ; other days, J to 1 kr. to 
porter). The building, which is in 
the Italian Benaissance style, was 
presented to the city by the Christi- 
ania Savings Bank, and is still short 
of the 2 wings contemplated by the 
architect {A. Schirmer). 

On the ground floor will be found 

Soulpture-Oallery (cat. 1 kr.) The first 3 
rooms and the yestlbule contain casts ot 
ancient and modern sculptures ; in the others 
are a few original Norwegian works (bjr Fla- 
dager, Borch^ and Skeibrok). Ascending a 
staircase (with sculptures) the visitor reaches 

Fioture-Oallery (cat 1 kr.) It contains 
about 300 pictures. In^the first (E.) room 
will be found pictures of the Danish and 
StcedUh schools. Of the former, see 198, Jens 
Juel^ '*Bernt Anker," a Norwegian patriot of 
18th cent. ; 202, N. Simonsen^ ** Caravan in a 
Simoom " ; 204, 205, Gr.orOand^ Flowers and 
Fruit ; 206, Sdrensen^ " Oresund," near Kron- 
borg. Among the Swedish pictures may be 
mentioned: 210, Kjdrhoe, "A Fox " ; 214, 216, 
Atnaiie Lindgren^ "Mother and Child," and 
"Grandfather's Lesson"; 217, Fofferlin, 
" Bachelor's Discomforts " ; and 218, E. Bergh, 
« A Birch Wood." 

In S. room (to rt.) are pictures by Norwegian 
artists^ past and present (see Introduction) : 
230, J. a Dahl, " Laurvik," in the Christiania 
fjord ; 236, T.Feamley, "The Labrofos" (near 
Eongsberg); 241, Baade^ "Norwegian Coast 
by Moonlight" ; 24&-ZA%, Adolf Tidemand, "A 
Solitary Couple at Prayers," " Cottage Meet- 
ing of Haugianer Sectarians," and "Adminis- 
tration of Sacrament to a Moribund " ; 253, 
254, Eckersberg^ " Valle,in Saetersdalen " and 
" Mountain Scenery " ; 258-261, H. F. Oude, 
Norwegian Views, and " Christiania Fjord " ; 
267, H. A. Cappelen, "Forest Scene in Lower 
Tdemarken " ; 272, JT. Bergslien, " Portrait of 
Artist's Father " ; 273, 274, Morten MUUer, 
"Scenes in Christiania and Hardanger Fjords"; 
276, E. Bodom, "View in Nordmarken " ; 278, 

279, /». H. Arbo, " The Asgaardsrejn " (Wild 
Huntsman), and *• The Valkyries " (this na- 
tional mythol-picture is a standard work of 
art) ; 287, L. Munthe, « Winter Coast Scene " ; 
289, 289a, E. Petersen^ " Portrait of a Lady " 
and " The Siesta " ; 299, Am. Nielsen, " Scene, 
Hardanger"; 302, E. Werenskjold, "Tele- 
markenGirl" ; 806, Gerh. Munthe, "A Sum- 
mer's Day" ; 308, 0. Sinding^ "Scene in Lo- 
foten Islands." 

(For more modern pictures, constantly 
sidded, see Catalogue.) 

In the W. room are some sketches and 
studies by A. Tidemand^ and out of it open 
the 2 N. rooms, devoted to masters of the 
various schools of the continent (without anv 
English specimens). This collection (for which 
see Catalogue) will not long arrest the atten- 
tion of visitors. 

From the W. room ascent may be made to a 
Collection of Drawings^ EtehingSj and Engrav- 
ings, more than 6000. 

6. SixnoiuieiL's Art CollectioiL (oomer 
of MoUer st., leading to SL Edmund's 
ch.) Few travellers aware of its exist- 
ence f aU to pay a yisit to it. Gourteons 
reception (free), daily (Sun. pre- 
ferred), on application at business 
(grocer's) premises. The small rooms 
are replete with valuable objects of 
art (mostly Scandinavian), although 
the glass collection and most of the 
old silver gathered by Mr. Simonsen 
have been purchased by the State for 
the Art Industry Museum (see above). 

7. Chorehes. — (a) The oldest in or 
about Christiania is QamU (old) 
Ak^rS'Evrke (ch.), at the N. extremity 
of the city, beyond the pretty Vor 
Frelsers (Our Saviour's) Qravhmd 
(cemetery). Erected in the 11th 
oent. of hewn stone, in the Anglo- 
Norman Romanesque style, it was re- 
stored in 1860-61, when the steeple 
was added. The huge old pillars 
inside this basilica are impressive, 
and the interior is further remarkable 
for the openings, connecting the nave, 
transepts, and choir, made in the walls 
that close in the square at the cross- 
ing. A fine view of the Christiania 
vaUey and of the N. and E. suburbs, 
now incorporated with the city, will 
be had from the outside of the semi- 
circular apse. The keys can be had 
in the small yellow house opposite. 

(6) Vor Frelsers Kirke^ in the 
form of a Greek cross, with a massive 
square tower, consecrated 1697, and 

Route 1. — Ghristiania. 


restored 1849-fik6, by Chateauneuf, 
The exterior is as little attractive as 
the Puritanic interiors of most Nor- 
wegian chs. of the same period. 
The altar-piece (" Christ in the Gar- 
den of Gethsemane ") is by E. Steinle 
(Germ.), and the marble font by 

(c) Trefoldigheds (Trinity) Kvrhe^ 
conspicuons in the N. part of Akers 
St. (off Carl Johan st.), is a large and 
heavy-looking Gothic edifice, with 
a dome visible from afar. It was 
buUt partly after designs by Chateau- 
neufy and consecrated 1858. Its in- 
terior forms an architecturally hand- 
some but unattractive octagon, lit up 
only by the altar-piece ("Baptism of 
Christ *') by A, Tidemandy and by a 
marble font (an angel holding a shell) 
by Middelthun, 

(d) The Johannes ch. in the S., 
and the Uranienborg oh. in the W., 
part of the city are elegant modem 
structures. The tall steeple of the 
latter is now one of the landmarks 
for vessels approaching the harbour. 

(e) The Anglican ch. (St. Ed- 
mund's) is in Mdller st., a continua- 
tion of Eongens St., to the N. of Carl 
Johan St. On the way to it, along 
the W. end of the Great Market 
(with statue of Christian IV.), will 
be passed the large police-offices that 
stand on a terrace overlooking the 
Nytorv (New Market place). Service, 
Sun. 11 A.M., and also in the evening. 
(See notices at hotels.) Keys always 
available in comer shop immediately 
beyond the oh. 

Visitors will not fail to be pleased 
with the simple elegance of this small 
but adequate Gothic edifice, which 
was built in the winter of 1883-84, 
opened June 1884, but fully conse- 
crated (after extinction of all debt) only 
in 1890. The interior, with pews and 
seats for 200, has been made strikingly 
bright and pretty by its harmonious 
proportions, varnished-pine woodwork 
of Norwegian design, high-pointed 
arch roof, and quaint gargoyles, from 
which the gas chandeliers are sus- 
pended. The stained windows (by 
Jones & Willis of London) are all 

commemorative, -and presented by 
members and friends of the congrega- 
tion, the resident number of which is 
about 100. By the exertions of these, 
subscriptions in small amounts were 
raised to defray the cost of the build- 
ing and the site (about 25002.) The 
ch. finances are managed by a com- 
mittee, of which the British Con- 
sul-General is chairman and the 
United States Consul a member, both 
ex officio. In order to meet the annual 
expenditure, including the stipend of 
the resident chaplain, the committee 
are greatly dependent, not only on 
the offertories, but also on the dona- 
tionSf which they earnestly solicit 
from travellers, American as well as 
British. It is hoped that the ch. col- 
leci/ion-boxes in the hotels will not 
he neglected. 

(/) St. Olafs (Rom. Cath.) ch. 
stands at the head of Akers st., N. 
of Trinity ch. Erected in red-brick 
and Gothic style, 1853. Services: 
Sun., matins 8 A.if. ; high mass and 
sermon 10 a.m. 

8. Public Edifices, Insti- 
tutions, &o. 

(a) Storthings - Bygning (Parlia- 
ment House). This handsome but 
peculiar semi-Byzantine and partly 
Komanesque building, completed in 
1866 from designs by Langlet (a 
Swedish architect), occupies a promi- 
nent position fronting the Avenue 
(Siudenterlunden), with a terrace 
flanked by 2 lions (by Borck). The 
interior is worth visiting (admission 
when the Storthing is not in session, 
by application to the porter at the 
S. side door ; fee J to 1 kr.) The first 
fioor of the semicircular W. front 
{Storthings sal) forms the chamber 
in which the General Assembly meets 
(from Feb. to June). It can ac- 
commodate about 150 deputies and 
an audience of 200-300 in galleries. 
The Odelsthing (see Introduction: 
"Government, &c.*') also meets in 
this hall, in which (over the throne) 
will be seen a large picture by Oscar 


Route I. — To Gh/ristiama by Sea. 

TTer^ekzfkiirepreaenting the first deli- 
beration over the existing Norwegian 
constitution. The members' seats 
are occupied in alphabetical order, 
according to the constituencies they 
represent, the names of which are 
engraved on brass plates. The Lag- 
thing chamber is smaller, but hand- 
somely fitted, as are also the library 
and a couple of other apartments. 
The Archives (Riksarkivet) (entered 
from £. side) contain rich materials 
for the history of Norway (chiefly 
1600-1814) and the MUnchen Collec- 
tion of charters, &c. 

In the Averme facing the W. front 
of this edifice is a Statue raised 
(1881) to the national poet, Henrik 

(b) AkershuB Castle. This fortress 
stands at the S. end of the promon- 
tory between the 2 harbours, and 
is worth visiting, if only for the 
lovely view from its ramparts, planted 
with limes (not far from the Victoria 
Hotel), of the castle built on its site 
at the end of the 13th cent. Oiily 
some fragments of the foundations 
are left. It was besieged by Duke 
Eric of Sweden in 1310. Between 
1356-80 the works were extended by 
Haakon YI. and again strengthened 
in the 16th and 18th cents. Un- 
successful siege was laid to it by 
Christian II. of Denmark (1531-32) 
and by the Swedes in 1567 and 1716. 
On the latter occasion Charles XU. 
bombarded it from a meadow visible 
on the top of Egeberg Hill and called 
SvenskeSletten {Swedish AelA), Until 
about 1740 Akershus was the royal 
sesidence in Norway, and proclama- 
tion of successive sovereigns was 
made here from 1548 to 1661. In 
Danish times the National Assembly 
met in a chamber of the castle. Its 
present form dates from the reign of 
the founder of the modern capital, 
altiiough much altered by levelling 
since 1815. Within its walls is the 
Arsenalt with an armoury {Artillery 
Musemn), which is shown to visitors 
by a custodian (small fee), by per- 
mission of the Master of the Ord- 
nance, procurable at his office, within 

the fortress. A few muskets and 
swords will be pointed out as relics 
of the Scottish expedition in -1612 (see 
" Hist. Notice " and Rte. 12). The 
usual display of arms and banners is 
not of the same interest. Among 
other objects in its courtyard are 
2 guns presented in 1570 by the 
Elector of Saxony to Duke Adolf of 
Holstein, in acknowledgment of as- 
sistance rendered. 

Approached over a bridge panning 
a moat and through a guarded gate- 
way, are the Qa/rriion ch. with the 
old prisons below it, the Cowoict 
Prison (in which the more severe 
sentences of hard labour are worked 
out), and a small tower (on the S. 
side) that houses the Norwegian 
regalia and important national re- 
cords, and some articles of dress 
worn by sovereigns of the reigning 

(c) The New Hospital (Bigshos- 
pital)i W. of the Trinity ch., is well 
worthy of inspection by medical 
men. Composed of isolated blocks, 
on the same principle as St. Thomas's 
Hospital, London, it is a splendid 
specimen of the newest development 
of medical science in that direction. 
There are altogether 400 beds, about 
three-quarters of which are filled by 
patients unable to pay for medical 
aid or entitled as citizens to accom- 
modation within its walls. Families 
generally subscribe annually for the 
right of sending a servant for treat- 
ment ; for in the absence of such pre- 
caution the law requires them to 
defray the medical expenses of a 
domestic for the period of 1 month. 
In case of need travellers can obtain 
a bed (in a separate room) for 7 kr. 
per day, medical attendance included. 
The charge per diem in a general 
ward is 1.80 kr. Similar excellent 
accommodation is also generally 
available at the Diaconnesse Hospital^ 
near the Bom. Cath. ch. The 
Bigshosjntal is supported princi- 
pally by the State and the munici- 
pality. Admission on application 
to one of the resident medical 




\ b 

1 so 


. lai 



Route 1. — ChristianMi. 


[Obs.— The numberless other medical and 
charitable establishments, asylums, Ac, will 
be inquired for looaUjr by traveUers Interested 
in them, and descnbed by the respective 
ofllcers in charge.] 

{d) The Steam-Kitchen {Damp- 
kjGkken), corner of Torv st. (run- 
ning out of that in which the Angli- 
can ch. is situated). This admirable 
institution should certainly be visited 
during the dinner-hours (12^). 
Founded by a company in 1857, witii 
capital subsequently enlarged to about 
5200Z., its purpose is to supply per- 
sons of small means with a good, 
wholesome dinner at a low price — 
3B d. (about ^d,) and 47 5. (a 
fraction over 6<2.), the latter rate in- 
cluding an extra dish. The food is 
so excellent and inviting that many 
a visitor takes his seat in one of the 
bright and roomy halls, among the 
labouring-men, oabdrivers, office- 
clerks, ^op-girls, and governesses, 
who mingle at the scrupcdously clean 
table in democratic equality. Fami- 
lies in poor circumstances send for 
their meals or" portions," the charge 
in such a case being only 28 and 42 6. 
(about Sid,'-5\d.) Between 1884- 
1888, the daily number of meals 
supplied was 1856. In 1890, this 
had increased to 2260. One of the 
satisfactory, and almost exceptional, 
features of the institution is, that it 
now actually yields 6 per cent, to 
the shareholders, thanks to a sub- 
sidiary income derived from the sale, 
in a shop alongside, of forced meat, 
sausages, fruit syrups, &o, A boiler 
(25 h.p.) supplies the necessary steam 
for the Kitchen and laundry, for the 
heating of the rooms, and the work- 
ing of tiie sausage-machines, &c. An 
annual report (in English) is sup- 
plied on application at the office. 

(e) Summary of other Public 

The Post and Telegraph Offices 

form the corner of Oarl Johan and 
Kirke sts. The Bazaar (princi- 
pally butchers* shops) and the Fire- 
brigade stat. are almost opposite. 
At the end of Carl Johan st. is the 

Central (£.) Bly. Stat, for Sweden 
and Trondhjem, the Western Ely. 
Stat, being at the head of Pepervik 
bay, S. of the main thoroughfare. In 
the same street as the Victoria Hotel 
is the mean-looking Government 
House {8tiftsgaard)f the official resi- 
dence of the prime minister. On the 
way to Akershus Castle is passed the 
old Theatre^ to be replaced by one 
now in construction in the Studenter- 
lunden, off Carl Johan st. 

The Ba/nk ofNortvay and the War 
Offices are in the vicinity of the castle 
and arsenal. 

At the back of the Storthing will 
be seen the imposing new Free- 
masons' Hall, In Dronningen st. is 
an old building in which the Finance 
and Customs Departments are lo- 
cated ; the Home Offi^ce^ occupying a 
building in Carl Johan st., and the 
Public Works Department^ and other 
administrative branches, flats on 
Victoria Terrace. The unpretending- 
looking Exchange and the Fish 
MarkU, are to the rt. of the quay at 
which the Hull strs. are moored. 

9. Walks, Drives, <fto. 

A. Travellers are always recom- 
mended to make St. Hanshaogen (St. 
John's HUl) the object of their first 
walk, a distance of about 1} m. in a 
N.W. direction from the great market 
sq. This prettily laid-out eminence 
(280 ft. above the sea) is the site of 
the reservoir of the city waterworks 
(the water being supplied from the 
lake system of the neighbouring dis- 
trict of Nordm>a/rken)t and affords a 
beautiful panoramic view of Christi- 
ania and its environs. 

[It may be included in a drive to Holmen- 
kollen and Frognertceter; See 0.] 

B. Oscarshall and Bygdo (Lade- 
gawrdsG) penin. If walking, the city 
is left by the Dramm^ns-vei (road), 
skirting the palace park on the rt. 
and passing through part of tie most 
fashionable, or W. end, quartier, 
adorned with many handsome houses 
and villas, having pretty gardens in 
front. Close to Skarpsno rly. stat. 


Route 1. — To Chriatiania by Sea. 

(less than 1 m. from the Grand Hotel) 
is a ferry across the Frognerkilen 
creek to BygdD (about 7 m.: 10 6.) 
Nearly ^ an hr. more would be con- 
sumed by keeping to the road and 
turning to the 1. along the tongue of 
land which prevents Bygdb from 
being called an island. 

[Obs. — OsearshdU may be reached more 
quickly by str. from Pipervik quay (hourly 
between 7 and 9 A.H., and from 1.30 to 
9.30 P.M. ; 20 and 10 b. to FrederUttborg 
or Bygdff). The direct sfcr. to OscarthaU 
(BygdS) takes only 15 m., while from Fre- 
deriktborg (where there is a second-rate 
TiYoli) the walk, keeping to the rt., is about 
^ hr. Failing a conyeuient str., a boat can 
be engaged at the same quay for 3 kr. there 
and back. To those who prefer to drive the 
whole way and visit the places here described 
in a carriage, the expense will be about 6-8 kr. 
and the time occupied 2 to 3 hrs., if the 
round of the penin. be made.] 

History op Btqd6.— Anciently known as 
"Bygdey" (or the "cultivated island *'), the 
name first occurs in a charter of 1306, when 
Haakon Y . informed the bishops and nobility 
of his kingdom assembled at Bergen that he 
had received the dowry (3000 marks of fine 
silver) of his queen, Euphemia, daughter of 
Yitslaf, prince of BUgen (in the Baltic), and, 
with their concurrence, settled "Bygdey, 
near Oslo," upon her. She died in 1312, 
before her husband, and the royal demesne 
was inherited by her daughter Ingeborg, 
who married, first, Duke Eric Magnusson of 
Sweden, and afterwards Eiiut Pors, a Banish 
baron, subsequently created Duke of Halland 
and Sams<$e. Moved, however, by piety, she 
granted, in 1362, Bygd<5 and several islands 
near Oslo to the monastery of the Holy Virgin 
and St. Edmund on Hovedif (island), on condi- 
tion of the abbot saying masses, on a new altar 
to be then built for the commemoration of her- 
self and her relatives, the monks to be requited 
with a tub of ale and the altar enriched by a 
mark of silver and a wax-taper on each anni- 
versary of her death. All the possessions of 
the monastery (for the description of which 
see ** Excursions ")having been confiscated at 
the Reformation, BjgOUd reverted, with other 
monastic property, to the Crown, and was 
henceforth called " LadegaardsSen^* after the 
Ladegaardf or home-farm, at Oslo, that had 
equally bdonged to " the Holy Virgin and 
St. Edmund." 

OscarBhall is a chdteau de plai- 
sance (not used as a dwelling), erected 
by King Oscar I. in 1852, after 
designs (English -Gothic) by Nebe- 
long. It occupies a commanding 
position (80 ft. above the sea), and 
the summit of its white polygon 
tower (160 ft.) affords a view of 
which the charm is recorded by every 

traveller who has had recourse to 
the printing-press. A visit to it is in 
reality indispensable. Admission on 
application to the gardener in a con- 
tiguous building (fee, ^ to 1 kr.) 

Visitors are conducted first to the 
Gothic dining-room in a smaller semi- 
detached edifice. Its attraction con- 
sists in the 6 Norwegian landscapes 
by J, Frich (those of the Ea/ungiuv 
precipice in Telemarken, the Eoms- 
dalshomy and the Norangsfjord being 
the most striking), but chiefly in the 
10 celebrated pictures by^. Ttdeniandj 
illustrating Norwegian peasant life 
" from cradle to grave." Being hung 
over the landscapes, immediately 
under the ceiling, they can be viewed 
with satisfaction only on a bright day. 

In the main building, the oak- 
panelled Drawing -roomy on the 
ground floor, contains statues in 
zinc (on consoles) of the 4 greatest 
kings of ancient Norway, by 
Michelsen, a pupil of Thorwaldsen ; 
while the uppermost frieze is de- 
corated with zinc medallions, in high 
relief, of the most remarkable war- 
riors, statesmen, and prelates of Nor- 
way in the middle ages (by Batch) . A 
room on the first floor has 9 basrelief s 
of Fridthjof 's Saga, in marble (Borch), 
and 4 landscapes (localities connec- 
ted with the same saga) by Qxide, 

The apartments above are diminu- 
tive museums of Norwegian art, in 
many of its varieties. In a small 
closet are shown the Coronation 
Robes, &c., of the reigning dynasty. 
A winding staircase (71 steps) leads 
to the roof of the tower, where 
visitors will long tarry, although the 
views from the crenellated battle- 
ments will have previously arrested 
their attention. 

Within 5 min. drive is a gateway 
of Scandinavian form (once the en- 
trance to an artists' fair, at Chris - 
tiania). It leads to 5 buildings set 
up by King Oscar II. to perpetuate 
the peculiar features of ancient Nor- 
wegian architecture : * 

* Will be opened by an attendant residing 
in the immediate vicinity. Small fee. Open 
on Sundays. 

Route 1, — Oscarshatl; Holmenhotlen ; FrognerscBier. 17 

1. The Ool Chnreh {Stav kirket or 
ch. built of timbera raised on end, 
not laid horizontally). It stood at 
Gol, in Hallingdal, until 1884, when, 
being too small for modern require- 
ments, it was pulled down and re- 
moved to its present site at the cost 
of the king, who purchased it with 
the object of preserving so remarkable 
a specimen of 12th or 18th cent, eccles. 
architecture. The date is thus fixed 
from the beautiful carvings (partly 
restored) within the S. porch. In 
front of the altar is noticeable an 
ancient painting on panel, represent- 
ing the Saviour within an oval centre, 
and the 12 Apostles in groups of 3 on 
either side. Equally curious is the 
"Bride's seat " (fromHitterdal), with 
its interlaced ornamentation and its 
carvings of grotesque animals. 

2. The Hovedstaen, or house of a 
peasant proprietor, built in 1788 and 
presented to the king in 1881, when 
it was removed from Lilleherred, in 
Telemarken, and furnished in con- 
temporaneous style. 

3. The Stabar, or " Store-house," 
also comes from Telemarken, and, 
judging from an inscription on the 
hinges of the door, it is about 140 
yrs. old. The carving of the door- 
way, traditionally ascribed to the 
original proprietor of the building, 
is in the best style of ancient 
Norwegian art. 

4. The EbgBtue, or *• Smoke-hut," 
a rare and very ancient form of 
dwelling still found in parts of Russia 
as a survival of the primaBval hut or 
the tent of wandering tribes, with an 
opening in the roof for the egress 
of smoke and the ingress of Hght. 
This is from Sffitersdalen. 

6. The Loft, or "Barn," is from 
Gudbrandsdalen and of considerable 
age. This drive or walk should be 
continued to BygcU) SQhad (sea- 
bathing establishment), at the S.W. 
extremity of the penin. A restaurant 
(and a band) close by. Special 
strs. to and from Ghristiania fre- 
quent. Charge for a bath 25 o. 
Pretty woodland scenery and nume- 
rous villas will be seen on a drive 

{Norway— yi. 92.] 

round the penin. On a small emi- 
nence close to Osoarshall wiU be seen 
a granite pedestal holding the Btist 
of Count Herman WedeUJa/rlsherg, 
an eminent Norwegian statesman, 
who warmly advocated the union 
with Sweden. It was set up by King 
Carl Johan (Bemadotte). Close to 
the road, on the S.W. side of Bygdo, 
is another simple Monument in the 
form of an iron column, erected in 
1814 by King Christian Frederick of 
Denmark and Norway to the memory 
of Prince Christian Augustus, who 
governed and defended Norway at 
the head of a special commission 
(1807-1809). A pretty little wooden 
Ch, will be passed at about the centre 
of the penin. Small strs. touch at 
Huki its S. point. 

C. Holmenkollen and Frogner- 
ssBter. — No traveller should fail to 
drive (or, if robust, to walk) to these 
delightful spots, N.W. of the city, 
and affording in clear weather a 
splendid prospect of the country and 
the fjord for many miles around, as 
well as a distant view of snow-capped 
mtns. Arrangements can, if time 
be an object, be made by telephone 
for luncheon or dinner at 

1. Holmenkollen Sanatorium and 
Tourist Hotel, a drive of about If hr. 
back. Carriage and pair, 10 kr. 
(12 kr. if by way of FrognerssBter) ; 
1 horse conveyance, 6 kr., or a car- 
riole (from Bennett) cheaper. Dil. 
service 3 times a day (1 kr. each). 

This extensive establishment, com- 
posed of several large wooden build- 
ings (including a " Sport-house," for 
cyclists in summer, and snow-shoe 
runners, skaters, and tobogganers in 
winter), all in Norwegian style with 
corresponding internal decorations 
and arrangements, stands nearly at 
the summit of a hill, about 1000 ft. 
above the sea-level. The dining- 
room in the main structure is attrac- 
tive, not only on account of the ex- 
cellent viands provided (wine and ale, 
but no spirits) at a moderate charge 
(2 kr. for dinner — boarders, about 
8Z. 7«. per month), but also owing to 


Route 1. — To Christiama hy Sea. 

the view from its windows, and the 
elegant, rustic, and national character 
of its adornments. In the upper 
floor are bed and sitting rooms, with 
balconies affording bewitching views. 
The walls of the drawing-room (below) 
have been decorated by Skrainstad, 
the noted Norwegian landscape 
painter ; and many objects of Scan- 
dinavian art are gradually being 
added to the other fascinations of 
this resort, which is as charming in 
winter as it is in summer. 

The large building beyond the 
hotel is the Sanatorium^ open all 
the year round, under the superin- 
tendence of Dr. J. C. Holniy to whom 
is due much of the initiative in con- 
nection with the establishments at 
Holmenkollen. Its height above the 
sea gives it the advantage of a dry 
atmosphere, rendered still more 
healthy and invigorating by the ex- 
halations of thick pine-woods ; and 
usually, when the city is enveloped 
in fog (which in winter is assuming 
more and more a London character, 
from the increasing use of coal fuel), 
Holmenkollen basks in sunshine. Its 
hygienic properties are more es- 
pecially favourable in cases of con- 
valescence, nervousness, sleeplessness, 
colds, and their after-effects, bron- 
chitis, asthma, ajid heart-affections. 
(Further information obtainable from 
Dr. Holm, Christiania.) 

In a large separate building is the 
Cafij where an hour can well be 
spent in enjoyment of the bracing 
and pure air and the landscape that 
opens through and over the forest in 
front. Coffee can also be taken at 

Peisestue (" Hearth-hut ") erected 
in old Norwegian style at the head of 
a pretty artificial lake, not more than 
10 min. walk from the hotel. Above 
the latter (15 to 20 min. walk) is also a 
wooden scaffolding, from the summit 
of which a fine extensive view is ob- 
tained. Another footpath leads to 
Voxenkollen (about 1 hr. walk), 
whence the mtns. mentioned below 
are discernible. This walk can be 
continued to 

2. Frognereseter, connected with 
Holmenkollen by a splendid road 
opened in 1890 by the king and the 
Emperor Wilhehn II., after the latter 
of whom it has been named. In 
1889 this fine property, once the 
only show-place in the neighbour- 
hood of Christiania, was purchased 
by the municipality from the heirs 
of the late Mr. Thos. Heftye, the 
well-known banker, to whose memory 
a granite ObeUsk was erected (1887) 
in the vicinity. The main Chdlet is 
1380 ft. above the sea-level, the ap- 
proximate distance to it from the 
city being 9^ kil. It has been con- 
verted into a museum, illustrative of 
old Norwegian domestic life and its 
surroundings. In one of the rustic 
bunks the late Prince Imperial of 
France passed a night. Additions 
vbeing made year by year to the 
specimens of household utensils, 
furniture, &c., visitors must consult 
the catalogue sold on the spot at 
26 6. The view from the balcony 
is magnificent. Contiguous to the 
ch&let are — a Peasant's cottage from 
Hallingdal, a Rdgstue and a large 
new Peisettuet in which milk, coffee, 
tea, sandwiches, (&c., are served. 
About i an hr. walk will bring 
the visitor to the Tryvandshoiden 
(1800 ft.), on which is a high, solid 
Tower of wooden framework. This 
affords a view superior in extent to 
that which has been made available 
at HolmenkoUen, a considerable part 
of S. Norway being exposed to the 
eye and the field-glass. On the S. 
the view extends to the Kattegat ; on 
the E. towards the boundary of 
Sweden ; on the N. it ranges over 
the extensive forest tracts of Nord- 
marken (see description farther on) 
and its principal elevations, such as 
Opkuven and Kikut; while to the 
W. stand out prominently the snow- 
tipped fjelds of Hallingdal (the Nore- 
fjeldt 4950 ft.) and of Telemarken 
{Oausta, 6170 ft.), about 128 kil. dis- 
tant. Scarcely less interesting is the 
glimpse of the city below, skirted by 
green fields and pine- woods, and of the 
blue waters of the Christiania fjord, 

Route 1. — Swnd/volden. 


dotted with innumerable, bright-look- 
ing islets. 

Halfway between Holmenkollen 
and FrognerssBter is another fine 
Hotel, from which a beautiful road 
branches off to the 1. to YokienkoUen 
(1500 ft.), whence from a staging is a 
magnificent view of Siyrkedalen, 
Bogstad/oand^ the Norefjeld and Li- 
fjeld {Gausta)j &c., with a foreground 
of yast forests. 

D. Sundvoldeii {Bmgerike),¥^ — 
This drive may be the object of an 
excursion from Christiania by those 
who have a day or two to spare, or 
it may enter into the general plan 
of a journey to Bergen over the Fille- 
fjeld. Travellers who have not the 
leisure to go far afield should certainly 
take this drive, which is easily ac- 
complished in a day, the distance to 
Sundvolden and back being about 
90 kil. A stay of some days is very 
enjoyable. Before other parts of 
Norway were more accessible, the 
Ringerike excursion was unavoidable, 
as affording with facility an excellent 
impression of the beauties of Nor- 
wegian lake and woodland scenery. 
A carriage and pair can be hired 
there and back for about 40 kr., and 
a carriole for 15 kr. ; or a vehicle 
(carriage, carriole, <&c.) can be ordered 
by telephone to await a train at Sand- 
viken, 14 kil. from Christiania (see 
Rte. 4). 

From Sandviken rly. stat. the 
road branches off, with a gradual as- 
cent to the rt., from the Drammen 
highway along the Sandvik r., and 
attains an altitude of nearly 1100 ft., 
after which it runs through the 
Krokskogy a pine-forest of much 
beauty. The pretty rounded tops of 
Kolsaas (1250 ft.) rise to the rt. from 
a range of hills of porphyry. A 
glimpse of the lovely HoUfjord 
branch of the picturesque Tyrifjord 
is obtained before beginning the de- 
scent from the Erokskog plateau, the 
road running down in long curves 
until it joins the Svangstrands-vei 
(rd.), the highway from Drammen. 
Soon the Skaret, or "Gate," hewn 

out of the rock, opens out a vista 
equal perhaps in beauty to that 
afforded by the **Baidar Gate" or 
"Pass of Phoros" in the Crimea, 
lake scenery of a somewhat sombre 
character replacing the wide, blue 
expanse of tiie Black Sea. A seat 
with benches is provided — Princess 
(now Queen) Sophie's view — as in 
the Crimea, for a quiet enjoyment 
of the scene. A short halt will 
next be made at HumUdal (16 kil. 
from Sandviken ; pay for 22 kil. if 
posting). Good dinner procurable! at 
this comfortable stat., which lies 
high above the HoUfjord, Here also 
the panorama is moet pleasing, one 
of the most striking features in it, 
on the K., being the summits of 
the Norefjeldy snow-dad in June, and 
sometimes in July. 

IFishing.—TheTe is no lack of large salmo 
ferox in this part of the great lake, and a 
oonple of days may well be spent by the 
angler at Humledal in trying his luck in hot, 
but not too calm, weather, when the fish rise 
from their great depths. Minnow best.] 

Descending by a splendid road cut 
in the face of the rock with numerous 
zigzags, the traveller is whirled down 
to the E. shore of the Tyrifjord^ a 
lake (230 ft. above sea-level) of 
greater breadth than most of the 
other inland waters of Norway, for 
it is IB kil. wide at its centre. The 
country around, especially on the N. 
and W., is rightly classed amongst 
the most charming and fruitful, and 
the best cultivated, regions in the 
kingdom. On the 1. the lake will be 
seen dotted with pretty islands ( UWen, 
Qjeitden, Frognden, SkudStoroen), and 
arrested in its broad expansion north- 
wards by the Holelandet penin., on 
the S. point of which stands the 
old chapel of B&nsncBS. The objec- 
tive point is then reached at Sund- 
volden (13 kil. ; if posting, pay for 15 
kil. in reverse direction). 

IFUhing, — ^Perch plentiful in immediate 
vicinity, as well as«it (gwiniadjOr fresh-water 
herring), which are persistently served to th* 
uninitiated as " grayling." These fish, rery 
good for the table, aflford excellent sport In 
hot weather, when they will rise to a white- 
bodied fly with red wings. They run to a 
size of 2 lbs. and more.] 

c 2 


Route 1. — To Christiania by Sea. 


Saddle-horses procurable (2.40 kr.), 
but visitors generally walk (I5 hr.) by 
a rough but romantio path through 
a gorge, first (in } hr.) to Klevstue, 
at the top of the Erokkleven (cliff). 
Sleeping accommodation, if desired, 
and good dinner at an Inn, where 
guides are also procurable, although 
white crosses painted on the trees 
indicate sufficiently the path that 
leads (20-80 min.) to the Kongen^s 
Udaigt, or "King's View" (1455 ft. 
above the sea and 1243 ft. above the 
fjord). In clear weather the panorama 
(somewhat of a bird's-eye view) is 
superb. Water, fields, woods, and 
mtns. diversify the wondrous pro- 
spect, the background in the N.W. 
and W. being formed by the mtns. 
of Telemarken and Hallingdal. The 
GaiMtaj the Norefjeld^ and some- 
times even the Hallingskarv (about 
6400 ft.) are visible, as well as the 
Jonslinut (2978 ft.), near Eongsberg. 
Inferior in beauty is the view from 
iheDronningen's Udsigt, or "Queen's 
View," to which the visitor will be 
recommended at the Klevstue inn, 
on account of its proximity (5 min. 
descent). ] 

Alternative Eoutes back to 

1. A str. plies between Sund- 
volden and Skjeerdalen rly. stat. on 
the Christiania-Drammenline (Rte.4). 
(Consult time-tables.) 

2. Return vid Honefos. Time per- 
mitting, a drive to Honefos and back 
will be found very enjoyable, but it is 
frequently undertaken as a means of 
returning to the city by a different 
route. Carrioles, &c., have to be 
fetched from Vik stat. (3 kil. beyond 
Sundvolden ; pay for 17 kil. : 3.23 
kr. per horse, with postboy). If re- 
turning to Sundvolden, engage the 
carriole for the whole way, without 
stopping at Vik. (Total of posting, 
2.85 kr. per horse, Ac.) 

Passing over the Kroksund hj a 
long bridge connecting the Tyrif jord 

with the Stensfjord, the traveller is 
soon driven past Vik and the Sten- 
gaa/rd (farm), close to which are the 
ruins of an old chapel. To the rt. of 
the flat road (Stensgaden) then taken 
wiU be seen the Halfdans-hatcgen 
(tumulus) supposed to contain some 
of the remains of Half dan the Black 
(king of a S. part of Norway, 9th 
cent.) A bye-road then branches 
off (1.) to Hole ch., soon after which 
Norderkov oh. and manse are passed. 
On application at the latter, travel- 
lers win be allowed to see the Sven- 
skettie (Swedes' room), the scene of 
the following episode : 

In 1716, whilst bedeging Akershus Oastle 
COhristiania), Charles XII. sent 600 dragoons 
to plunder the Kongsbergsilyer-mines. They 
took up their quarters at the manse and in 
adjacent buildings, and, the pastor being ill 
in bed, his wife, Anna Kolbjbrnsen, received 
the Swedes, and, while supplying them with 
food and drink, contrived to send a message 
to an officer in command of a small Nor- 
wegian force not very far off, and which pro- 
ceeded to capture or kill the invaders almost 
to a man. 

The embalmed remains of Anna 
Kolbjornsen are preserved in the 
vault, which is shown. 

Honen farm and the " Middle 
School " house of the Ringerike dis- 
trict will be next passed, the road 
diverging to the 1. under the Tanherg, 
affording a view of Lake Jueren and 
the BUfjeld (4494 ft.) The SUyr-elv 
and the 3 branches of the Hone- 
fos (falls) being crossed, the traveller 
arrives at 

Honefos. (See Rte. 7.) 

E. Drive (or FaZA;) to Egeberg Hill, 
th/roughOnlo. — Tramcars run from the 
Great Market-place in about \ hr. to 
St Halva/rd^s Plods, in the suburb of 
OalOi the original site of the city, and 
worthy on that account of cursory 
inspection. After reaching the large 
Prison, they turn to the rt., and, after 
crossing the small Akers r., pass 
through the QrGnland suburb, in 
which will be noticed the new Ch. and 
Sckool-hotise. In a few minutes more 
the terminus of the cars is reached 
in St. Halvard's Plads, on which 
stands the modern Episcopal Palace 

Route 1. — Oslo. 


{Bispegaard)f of no architectural 
interest, although the remains of an 
old Dominican monastery were incor- 
porated with it (1883). 

[Carriages and pedestrians get to 
this point by bearing N. from the 
same market-place, and skirting the 
rly. stat. and the harbour quays until 
they get to Bispegade and the Epis- 
copal Palace.] 

Hence a street leads (S.) to the 
ancient Oslo (St, Ma/ry^s) ch., and to 
the remains of the original Episcopal 
Palace (Ladegaard)^ at the comer 
of Bispe st. In this residence 
James VI. of Scotland was married 
to Anne, sister of Christian lY. of 

The princess left Copenhagen (Sept. 6, 
1689) for Scotland, with a convoy of 12 war- 
ships well equipped; but contrary winds, 
stormy weather, and the leaking of the 
royal flagship, compelled her, with 3 ships 
of the squadron, to make for the fjord that 
led to Oslo, then the capital of Norway, 
which was reached only on Oct. 25. Here she 
was accommodated, togeth^ with her numer- 
ous retinue, in the old Bom. Gath. Episco- 
pal Palace, the Earl Mareschal Keith, King 
James* ambassador, being lodged in a neigh- 
bouring house. When on the point of re- 
turning to Denmark, after a stay of 6 days, 
Princess Anne received the gratifying intel- 
ligence that King James, in his anxiety and 
gallant impatience, had sailed over to Nor- 
way with a fleet of 5 vessels, from which he 
landed at Tbnsberg, whence he travelled over- 
land to Oslo, arriving there Nov. 19. The 
marriage was celebrated Nov. 23, in the 
principal room of the old BUpegaard^ decor- 
ated for the purpose with costly tapestry, 
2 chairs of ^ate, covered with crimson 
damask, being placed at the upper end of it, 
on a red carpet, for the royal pair. Nor- 
wegian annals describe the king as being 
tall, but thin, and dressed in a red velvet 
doublet, studded with gold coins, and a black 
velvet mantlet lined with sable. His chap- 
lain, David Lindsay, performed the ceremony, 
which included an oration In French, and 
lasted an hour. After a stay of about a 
month at Oslo, the king and queen left in 
sledges, by way of Swedea, for Denmark, 
where they passed the winter, reaching 
Leith only on Mayl, 1590. 

Oslo Churchy next to this interest- 
ing building, has been much modern- 
ised. Connected architecturally with 
it since the Bef ormation is an Asylum 
for aged people^ some parts of which 
exhibit traces of the old Franciscan 
monastery, which it absorbed. At 

the back of it again is the local 
Lunatic asylum, Haakon V. (1299- 
1319), who was the first to establish 
the royal residence at Oslo, rebuilt 
the (11th cent.) ch. of St. Mary in 
the immediate vicinity, and made 
it a place of sepulture for the royal 
line. It fell into ruins after the Be- 
formation. Prince William of Biigen, 
the maternal grandfather of Euphe- 
mia, consort of Haakon, was buried 
in it (1302), and subsequently 
Haakon V. and Euphemia were both 
entombed there; also Haakon VI. 
(1380), and many other members of 
the old royal house. 

In theOem^^^r^ opposite the edifices 
aboye described is buried Mr. Brad- 
shaw, the founder of the Eailwa/y 

Continuing the driye or walk past 
Oslo ch., the new road to Egeberg Hill 
is soon reached, and a pretty glimpse 
at once obtained over the entire city. 
At the first bend, the view becomes 
charming, the fjord, the city, and its 
pleasant environs being opened out. 
Beyond, it rises in gentle curves 
through woodland of bewitching 
effect, past a small fenced-in basin, 
erected by the  municipality at the 
junction of the old road to Ca/rlshorg, 
Views of the fjord, only occasionally 
obstructed by trees, are again ob- 
tained, and at last, on reaching the 
parallel of Bsekkelaget rly. stat. (on 
the Liabro rd. — see Bte. 2) below, 
the panorama of the fjord and of the 
western part of Christiania becomes 
so grand and entrancing that travel- 
lers must not, without later regret, 
fail to take the trouble of observing 
it. Here end the Jomfrubraaten 
woods, and the top of the Egeberg 
Hill is reached at an altitude of about 
450 ft. The new road terminates at 
BemhuSt a few hundred yards N. of 
a private residence named Castellett 
whence Nordstrand rly. stat. and 
hotel (Bte. 2) can be reached on foot 
I in 10 or 12 min., the distance to 
BcBkkelaget stat., nearer to the city, 
I being, however, only a few min. far- 
. ther if »ought from the beginning 
' of the plateau. 


Route 1. — To Christiania hy Sea. 

[Small sirs, ply to these stats, from 
the Custom-house floating piers, 
close to the Central rly. stat.] 

F. Drive to Sarabraaten (11 kil.) — 
This will occupy 4 hrs. and is well 
worth undertaking, although many 
other good yiews are obtainable E. of 
the city — ^from dstre Aker^a ch., and 
from the old Trcmdhjem rd. by which 
Sinseny the mansion of the Sohou 
family, and a large farm called lAn- 
dsrudj are reached. From the oh. just 
mentioned the road turns to the L to 
Bryn rly. stat. (frequent trains), and 
thence through a woodland over a 
brook until ti^e small OsteMJGvand 
(la^e) is reached. After some gentle 
ascents and descents, partly through 
woods, a bridge spans the Noklevand 
(lake>, and the road winds up to 
Sarabraaten, where milk and lemon- 
ade can be obtained at a farm. The 
view is still more splendid from 
Haukaasen (nearly 1100 ft.), about ^ 
hr. walk. The snow-capped Oausta 
in Telemarken is visible. 

A short distance N.E. of the 
Trondhjem rd. are the Botanical 
Qa/rdens, tastefully laid out and 
affording a fine view. The collection 
of indigenous plants is very good. 
Open daily. 

G. Drive or Walk to Grefsen Bad 
(Hydropathic Sanatorium), 5 kil. N. 
of city. 

[DiL run frequently from the prin- 
cipal market place.] 

This establishment was founded in 
1858 and continues to be fashionably 
frequented. It lies 560 ft. above sea- 
level, at the foot of Orefsen-aas 
(bluff), 1195 ft. high, which shelters 
it against N. winds. A beautiful 
view is obtained here of the fertile 
Christiania valley and of the pleasant 
green islands by which this city is 
encompassed on the W. A beauti- 
fully laid-out park of pine-forest is one 
of the great attractions of the place, 
from which many pleasant and ro- 
mantic excursions may also be made. 

NeiTOTU oomplaintB, rheumatism, chronic 
catarrhs, sleeplessuess, &<f, are successfully 

treated. Season from June 1 to Aug. 31. 
Rooms, 1 to 3 kr. ; board, 3.20 kr., or 15 kr. 
per week. Reduction for families. Medicsd 
and other charges from 23 kr. to 16 kr. per 
week, according to length of stay. Highly 
recommended for a fortnight's repose, or for 
a period of conralesoence. 

H. Walk thnmgh Nordmarkeii. — 
Inveterate pedestrians and lovers 
of wild, sylvan, and mountainous 
scenery (peaks 2000 to 3000 ft.) will 
be delighted with the exploration of 
this charming tract of country, so 
dose to the city, and 80 Ml. in length 
by 20 to 40 kil. in breadth, with 
numerous small lakes at an elevation 
of 1150 to 1800 ft. It is approach- 
able from 2 sides : on the E. from 
the Ma/ridalsvandt a lake (500 ft.) N. 
of Christiania, which draws its water- 
supply from it ; and on the W. from 
Bogsiad and SOrkedaL No roads in- 
tersect it, and the explorer has there- 
fore to find his way by footpaths, 
with the aid of a detailed map or of 
a local guide. At 2 or 3 farms a 
night's lodging may be obtained, 
the few remaining habitations being 
occupied by lumbermen and other 

Xaridalen is about 8 kil. N.E. 
of the city by an excellent road. 
Carriages cannot proceed farther 
than the farm of MaridaUhammer 
(13 kil.), where the Aker river takes 
its rise. At Ewkehy, to the rt., are 
seen the ruins of the old St, Mary*s 
ch. Skars powder-ndlls are in the 
vicinity. The first lake reached in 
Nordmarken is the SkJcBrsjOen^ which 
is ruthlessly poached for trout by 
mill-hands from the factories in the 
Aker valley. Kamphaug gaard, on 
a considerable eminence, will be 
reached thence by following the tele- 
phone-wire. A path leads N. of the 
farm to BjOmhott, and to a dam from 
which the long BjdmsH lake is visible, 
with Kikut mtn. (1025 ft.) in the 
background. From Bonna farm 
below (to be reached also by boat 
from the Bjdmsd dam) the mtn. 
can be ascended. A walk of about 
1^ hr. due W. from Bonna will 
bring the tourist to FylUngen lake, 
wh^nc^ ^ pretty path lei^ds in i^l^Qut 

Route 1. — Nordmva/rken s Hovedoen. 


3 hrs. to SvartorscBter, Thence, walk- 
ing becomes again difficult as far as 
Aamott whence, after crossing a 
stream, the SsBrkedals rd. (1 hr. 
walk from Bogstad) is gained on the 
way back to Ghristiania. Hakloa 
(22 kU. from the city) is another lake, 
a little more than 1 hr. walk, with 
a Farm connected by telephone with 
the capital. A dStour may be made 
hence to Sandungen lake (about 7 hrs. 
walk either from Bonna or from 
Maridalshammer). The farmhouses 
on these 2 lakes are specially recom- 
mended for good quarters. Permis- 
sion to fish (trout) and to shoot over a 
dog may be procured as a favour from 
Baron H. Wedel- Jarlsberg, through a 
banker or friend. The proprietor re- 
serves the best lakes for members of 
his family. 

The other approach, from Bogstady 
involves a drive of nearly 2 hrs., 
after which the forest is entered and 
the track above sketched taken in a 
reverse direction. 

[More detailed information respect- 
ing walking tours through Nord- 
marken and adjacent districts will 
be found in Dr. Yngvar Nielsen's 
** Reisehaandbog over Norge." A 
day and night can well be spent on 
this excursion.] 

I. Ezcnrsions by Water. — In- 
numerable small strs. ply between 
the city and adjacent islands on the 
fjord. These will, however, not be 
visited except for the purpose of 
seeing friends in summer, when even 
the least affluent residents whose busi- 
ness occupations prevent them from 
seeking health and recreation in higher 
and more distant resorts, repair to sea- 
side villas and watering-places, such 
as Hank'd (Rte. 2), Holmestrand (Rte. 
4), Sandefjord and Laurvik, &g, 
(Rte. 4). But even without the 
object of visiting these, pleasurable 
trips can be taken up the Bundefjordy 
from the head of which is a pleasant 
drive to Dr'Ohak (Rte. 1), whence 
there are frequent opportunities for 
re£iching Ghristiania. Part of a day 
pan agreeably be spent in taking the 

str. that runs from Peperviken 
quay to Sa/ndviken and Slebcmde, 
whence frequent trains to the city 
(see Rte. 4). Travellers interested in 
Yacht and Bowing clubs will be 
pleased with the progress made in 
that direction by visiting the estab- 
lishments close to the Western rly. 
stat. Sailing boats are available at 
the Custom-house quay, and par- 
ticularly at the head of Peperv&en 
bay, for the purpose either of sea- 
fishmg, or of visiting Oscarshall or 
some of the islands in the fjord. 
British travellers should make a 
point of rowing or sailing out to 

Hovedoen, an island a short dis- 
tance S. of Akershus castle, after 
getting permission to that effect from 
the Master of the Ordnance (imme- 
diately obtained in the castle). Its 
interest consists in the ruins of a 
Monastery, built by Cistercian monks 
from Eirkstead, Lincoln, in 1147, 
and dedicated by them to the Virgin 
Mary and St. Edmund, the king of 
E. Anglia, whom the " Danes " put 
to death by arrows for refusing to 
abjure the Christian faith. Those 
monks were the first to plant Chris- 
tianity in the S. of Norway ; and, as a 
matter of fact, the whole of Norway 
was first Christianised by English 
bishops and priests. The Anglican 
ch. at Ghristiania has been named 
after the martyred saint in comme- 
moration of this origin of Christianity 
in the land of the Vikings. At the 
Reformation the monastery became 
secularised, and, falling into decay, 
its materials were used to repair the 
castle, which faces it from the main- 
land. The ruins have been carefully 
excavated and preserved, and give an 
excellent idea of the imposing cha- 
racter of the building and of the 
affluence of its owners when the 
Bygdo penin. and much other land 
was held by them. 

J. EzeursionB by Sail. — Sa/nd- 
viken, Askery Drammen, Kongsbergy 
TQnsbergy Sandefjordy Laurviky and 
many other places within easy reach, 
can be visited by the Western Hne, 

24 Route 2. — To GhrisUa/aia from Copenhagen. 

while trips can be made to Moss^ 
Sarpsborg (the Falls of the Olom- 
men), Frederikshald, and other in- 
teresting places by the rly. that runs 
to Sweden. 

(For description and particulars, 
consult some of the Boutes immedi- 
ately following.) 


Id^ord. Originally a small shipping placd 
known as Balden, it obtained under Friderick 
IIL monioipal and other privil^^ea, as well as 
its present name, as a reward for the sturdy 
stand made by its citizens (1658-60) against 
the Swedes. During the reign of that 
monarch (1648-70), after the cession of Bohus 
to Sweden, the frontier-fortress of Frederiks- 
sten^ with its detached forts, Opldentdve^ Over- 
bjergety and Stortaarnet^ was raised (1661-86) 
on a contiguous perpendicular rock (376 ft.) 
It is celebrated not only for the numerous 
sieges it has stood, but as the place where 
Charles XII. of Sweden was killed. Haying 
failed in carrying Frederikshald when he 
marched upon Christiania, in 1716, he devoted 
nearly 2 yrs. to raising another army for the 
conquest of Norway. Gleneral Armfelt, with 
a division of 7000 men, in Sept. 1718, marched 
through the mtns. to attadc Trondhjem, 
but abandoned the attempt, and on the re- 
treat nearly his whole force perished in a 
snowstorm, which literally overwhelmed it. 
Charles himself moved upon Frederikshald, 
and directed the operations of the siege. 



(By rail.) 

Dis- Fare 

Kil. Kr. 
Copenhagen to Christiania 650 52.10 22 
Gothenburg to Christiania 357 21.90 12 

[Frequent strs. between Copenhagen, (Goth- 
enburg, and Christiania. Time, in summer, 
approximately, 23-25 and 13-15 hrs. Fares re- 
spectively 28 kr. and 16-18 kr. 

N.B. — See also Introduction.'] 

The train enters Norwegian terri- 
tory at KomsjO stat. Travellers are 
subjected to Customs examination ^ 
(no passports), 32 kil. farther, at 

Frederikshald ^ (136 kil. from 
Christiania). Buff. Pop. 12,000. Brit. 
Vice- Consul, 

HiSTORT.— The town lies prettily on both 
sides of the Tista river, at its mouth in the 

^ On the reverse way, luggage is examined 
at Mon stat., fifth from Frederikshald. Tra- 
vellers proceeding through the night to 
Christiania can elect to have their luggage 
searched on arrival. Swedish time, 18 min. 
in advance of Norwegian, is kept from Mon, 
on the way to Gothenburg or Copenhagen. 
(N.B.— Best view from 1. side of carriage from 

TopoGBAPHY. — Many disastrous 
fires resulted in the reconstruction 
of the town, partly in brick, and a 
considerable manufacturing industry 
has since been developed in it, as 
well as a trade in timber and paving- 
stones. The best buildings are those 
of the PuhUc schools. There are 2 
Public gardensj in one of which is a 
bust of Peder Colbjomsen, who, with 
hiEiJbrother Hans, repelled the Swedish 
attack in 1716. A granite Obelisk to 
the brothers and their coadjutor, 
Peder Normand, stands in the market- 
place, close to the harbour. The chief 
attraction is the Fortress, although 
no longer of military importance. No 
permission is required for inspecting 
it, which can be done in an hour, 
there and back. Near the spot (a 
trench since levelled) where Charles 
XII. fell (1718) the Swedish army 
raised in 1860 a handsome pyramids^ 
Mormmentt of Gothic style, in cast- 
iron. The inscription on it is to the 
effect that "both in adversity and 
prosperity he ruled his own destiny, 
and, unable to flinch, could only fall.'* 
Modem Scandinavian historians deny 
that he was treacherously shot, 
although there exists aji apparently 
well-authenticated story of a French- 
man, secretary to Charles XII., having 
fled to one of the Bussian Baltic pro- 
viiiQes, and of his dying there in ^e{^t 

Route 2. — Frederikthald. 


remorse, after eonf essing that he had 
shot his royal master m the trenches 
with a rifled musket, still preserved 
in a German baronial mansion. The 
exact spot where Charles XII. fell 
was discovered in 1892, and is marked 
by a large Granite ball, placed by 
Gen. Boeder on the old foundations 
of a marble monument set up by the 
Danes in lieu of a cross which origi- 
nally stood there. The marble monu- 
ment was removed in deference to the 
susceptibilities of the King of Sweden, 
and remnants of it will be seen walled 
in over the arches of the gateways of 
the fortress. A pleasant view of the 
town and shipping, <&c., will be ob- 
tained from the Battery (with a flag- 
staff) to the 1., after passing through 
the entrance-gate. The forts above 
mentioned lie to the S. and S.E. The 
Cotnmandant*s park and the monu- 
ment are reached by turning to the 1. 
after issuing by the E. gate. 

It is best, however, to combine a 
view of this historical fastness with a 
drive up the pretty Tistedal valley, a 
couple of hours being more than 
sufficient for the purpose. The drive 
should extend to Veden Qaa/rd^ an 
old oountiy seat situated on an 
eminence between Tiatedalen and 
FemsjOen, a pretty lake (275 ft.) about 
4 m. long. It is connected with the 
Aspem and several other elevated 
lakes by canals, which bring down 
the masses of timber that will be 
seen floating in rafts on the deep blue 
waters of the Femsjo. At the foot 
of the eminence in question are 
grouped several large Saw and Cotton 
tniUSf IronvxyrkSt Wood-pulp fac- 
torieSf <&c., worked by the abundant 
water-power of the falls which give 
rise to the Tista river, the pretty, fertile 
scenery of which (and especially the 
picturesque waterfalls) the traveller 
will have admired on his way up. The 
S. bank of the river should be taken 
on the way back, by way of Frederiks- 

A very enjoyable drive may also 
be taken (in 1^ hr.) past Berg rly. 
stat., and round the large farm of 
Torpum. Th^ historipal mansion of 

Biidf on the W. side of the town, in 
a fine park open to the public, is 
worth visiting. Its original owner, 
at the beginning of the present cent., 
was a wealthy merchant, Statsraad 
(cabinet minister) G. Tanck, who 
took an important part in the 
private deliberations that preceded 
the union of Norway with Sweden. It 
now belongs to the ancient Anker 
family. Prince Christian August 
took leave of the Frederikshald 
citizens in this mansion when, as 
elected Crown Prince of Sweden, he 
repaired to Stockholm. The words 
he vnrote on the face of a rock in the 
park have since been cut in : " C. A. 
The friend of Norway." 

Id Church is also worthy of being 
the object of a drive (6 kil.) The road 
passes over the Store (great) Ide- 
slette (plain), which is thickly dotted 
with prosperous-looking farms. 

Before the rly. was built, travellers 
in this part of the country .made use, 
on a journey into Sweden, of the 
Frederikshald Canal, the longest in 
Norway, and offering picturesque 
views of woodland, streams, and lakes. 
Numerous locks, alongside of water- 
falls, also render the tour almost as 
enchanting as that along the Goteborg 
canal, minus the Trollhattan, which 
no traveller from Gothenburg will fail 
to visit {see Handbook for Sweden), A 
small str. ascends and descends the 
Frederikshald canal 3 times a week 
from Tistedal rly. stat. to Skulerud, 
If it be desired to return to Frederiks- 
hald, or to proceed to Christiania by 
rail, the canal can be left at Orje or 
some other neighbouring stopping- 
place, where a night's lodging is 
procurable, and the chaussie taken 
(18 kil.) to Mysen stat., on the E. 
side of the loop or parallel line of 
the Smaalens rly. Travellers con- 
tinuing the canal route to Btidences 
ch. or Shiderud can reach (Heren 
lake by a good road and take the 
str. from Sandstam^/en to LillestrOm, 
whence the run by rail to Christiania 
is short. This excursion can be much, 
andpleasurably, varied ; but the com- 
paratively small number pf travellers 

26 Route 2. — To Christiama from Copenhagen. 

who will undertake it mnst be re- 
ferred to local help and information. 
The district is but little known to 
tourists, and is well worth exploring. 

There are opportunities several 
times a week from Frederikshald 
(and daily from CSiristiania) for 
visiting by str. the pretty wooded 
HvalDeme archipelago, washed on 
the S. by the waters of the Skagerak. 
Excellent seaflshmg to be obtained 
and tolerable lodgings. 

[Strs. ply daily (7-10 hrs.) between 
Frederikshald and Christiania.] 

Beyond Frederikshald the train 
ascends from the level of the fjord 
and passes through short tunnels 
and a smiling landscape. Before 
reaching Slgeberg stat. a level run 
opens out a glimpse of the head of 
the Singlejjordy and on the 1. will be 
seen Ingedal church. Then, leaving 
Skjeherg chv/rch to the rt., the train 
crosses a bridge over the Sarpsfos 
{Falls ofihe Glommenrvr&t) and runs 

Sarpiborg^ (109 kU.) Buff. On 
rt. bank of Glommen; junction of 
loop line. 

History, Ac— The town (pop. 2978) dates 
from the 11th cent., its ancient fortifi- 
cations— .Sf. Olafs Void, or Wall, being still 
plainly traceable. Destroyed by the Swedes 
1587, it was rebuilt 1839, after the site had 
been purchased with the Borregaard estate 
by Sir J. H. Pelly, Bart, G^overnor of the 
Bank of England, the Storthing haying given 
permission to that effect. The estate was 
subsequently long in the hands of Messrs. 
Sewell Bros, and Percy Gk)^man, but is now 
owned, together with Borregaard house, a 
fine old structure close to the town, by the 
English « Partington Paper-mill Co." In 1702 
the more ancient outbuildings of Borregaard 
were undermined by the G-lommen, into which 
they sank, together with 14 of the inmates 
and about 200 head of cattle. Another Eng- 
lish company has had a similar experience, 
while completing the construction of a huge 
milk-condensing factory, a little farther 
down the river, and now removed to a more 
solid foundation. A. short line (2^ kil.) runs 
to Borr^aard. 

The trade of the place in timber 
(still shipped at Sannesundy 2 kil. 
lower down) has been in great part 
absorbed by the merchants of Frede- 
rikstad, and the only interest to tra- 
yellers now consists in the 

BarpifoB. The finest views of this 
splendid fall, about 1 m. above the 
town, are from a pavilion attached 
to the now decayed mansion of 
Hafalund. Its height is about 65 ft. 
The principal of the 2 branches of 
the majestic Olommen is much con- 
tracted immediately before it arrives 
at the fall. On the brink a project- 
ing mass of granite divides the 
stream, which falls almost vertically 
and unbroken. The body of water is 
very great when the river is full, and 
there are large masses of granite 
through and over which the foaming 
water rushes for a short distance, and 
then flows gently onwards to the sea. 
The numerous saw-mills and build- 
ings close to the fall on both sides 
detract from the picturesque grandeur 
of this Schaffhausen of the North. 
The volume of water may be judged 
from the fact that in summer, upon 
the brink of the fall, the stream 
measures nearly 120 ft. in width, 
the deepest part being over 25 ft. ; 
while in spring, after the melting of 
the snow, the breadth is increased 
by as much as 30 ft. 

The Glommen is the largest river 
in Scandinavia. It rises in the 
Vigelmp tarn in the prefect, of S. 
Trondhjem, S. of Roros (see Rte. 14). 
It receives the waters of many minor 
rivers and attains a total length of 
nearly 600 kil. 

Leaving Sarpsborg, the train passes 
the Olengsholj a bend of the Glom- 
men, the old Ch. of Tune (rt.^, and 
the port of Scmnesundt the highest 
point to which the river is navi- 
gable by large vessels. Beyond 
Oreaker stat., a thickly populated 
district is passed while still skirting 
the river bank, until the train reaches 

Frederikstad * (94 kil.) Buff, BrU. 
Vice-Consul. Pop. 12,500. Originally 
a place of trade, and later a 
fortress at the E. mouth of the 
Glommen, the town was founded by 
Frederick II., 1570, in the place of 
Sarpsborg, destroyed during the Seven 
Years' War. The river, crossed by a 
§team-ferry, divides it int<? E. Fredf , 

Route 2. — Frederikstad ; Moss. 


rikstad, which includes the fortifica- 
tions (the outlying forts having no 
longer any military importance), and 
W. Frederikstad, on Bolfsden (island). 
It is now an important timber- 
shipping place, with a considerable 
mercantile fleet belonging to it, and 
many steam Sa/u) and Flawing mUls, 
Brick-works^ &o. A trip up the river 
is recommended for a view of the in- 
dustrial activity of the town. The 
Theatre^ RVy, Stat., Art Association, 
Park, Ac, are on the W. side of the 

[Daily communication by local str., not 
only with Christiania (about 7 hrs.), but also 
with the neighbouring Haxko Baths* (about 
1 hr.)i a much frequented and very healthful 
resort in summer.] 

After passing W. Frederikstad and 
Olemminge chs., the train enters a 
tunnel, after which views open of the 
W. embouchure of the Glommen, 
with large Planinff-mills on its banks. 
The KjOlberg-elv, spanned by a bridge, 
is crossed after leaving the Rolf sO lake. 
To the rt., near the river bank, stands 
the old Kjalberg mansion. The bridge 
of the same name is celebrated in the 
annals of the war of 1814. 

Onso (87 kil.), and 3 other small 
stats, are not stopped at by the 
express train, which continues to run 
through scenery alternately hilly, 
flat, and wooded, until it draws up at 

Moss ^ (60 kil.) Buff. BHt. Vice- 
Consul. Pop. 8000. It was here that 
(Aug. 14, 1814) Prince Christian Fred- 
erick signed the Convention which led 
to the union of Norway with Sweden 
on Nov. 4 following. Of ancient origin 
as a mart, and situated at the mouth 
of the Mosse-elv (rising in the VansjO)t 
in the Mossesunid, the town has con- 
siderable water-power for driving the 
large Flour and Wood-puJ^ mills and 
the machinery of other industrial 
establishments that will be seen. The 
meats, game, fish, &o., of the *' Moss 
Preserving Co.'* are of great excel- 
lence and repute. There is also a 
considerable trade in timber, corn, 
<&c. Local strs. pass through a canal 
on th^ir waj^ S. or vice ver^d, 

[Dally stn. to ChriBtiania and aoross the 
fjord to Horten nayal stat., dbo.] 

Crossing the Mosse-elv, the train 
soon has, on the 1., the Mossestmd, 
an arm of the vast Christiania fjord, 
here visible. The landscape assumes 
a tame character, which is preserved 
until the vicinity of the capital is 

Yestby stat. (89 kil.) is next arrived 
at. N. of it is a Ch, and Manse of 
that name, and a small lake on the 1. 
Through an undulating country the 
express proceeds (without stopping) 

Aas stat. (32 kil.) Not far from 
it, on the road to Drdbak (13 kil.; 
see Bte. 1), is a large Government 
Agricultural school and Model farm, 
with Aas ch. close by, but not visible 
from the rly. The loop line of which 
mention has been made unites at 

Ski stat. (24 kil.) Buff. Only a 
few farms break the monotony of the 
forest from this point until a splendid 
viaduct over the Lionja-dal gives a 
charming view both of the valley 
below and of the Bundefjord in the 

Oppegaard (18 kil.) and Ijan (8 kil.) 
having been passed, attention is drawn 
to the stat. at 

BsBkkelaget (4 kil.), where, how- 
ever, the express does not stop. 
Numerous pretty viUas will be seen on 
the mainland as well as on the islands 
opposite, one of which — Chmd — is 
connected by a bridge. Above, on 
the rt., is the Egeherg Hill (see Bte. 
1, " Drives," &o.) Below are numerous 
bathing-houses and the landing-stages 
of the Christiania strs. plying to the 
islands and to places in the Bunde- 
fjord (6 kil. long), an offshoot of the 
Christiania fjord. This is also the 
stat. for the Nordstrand Sea-bathing 
EstaJbHshment and Bestaurant, to 
which an enjoyable trip can be made 
later from the city, either by rail or 

In a very few minutes the charm- 
ingly situated capital of Norway, with 
its busy harbour, well-grouped build- 
ings, and its semicircular background 
pf lofty wopd-Qlad hills, opens to the 


Route 3. — Stockholm to Christiania. 

yiew as the train runs along the road 
that has been cat for it in the face 
of the rocky base of Egeberg Hill, 
and soon deposits its passengers at 

CHSI8TIAKIA. ^ (See Bte. 1.) 



(By raU.) 

[Distance, 675 kiL ; fare (1st cl.)) 48.50 kr. ; 
time, about 25 hrs. Express through trains 
in summer in 17^ hrs. In winter the train 
stops at night for 4 hrs. at Gharlottenberg 
when going S. and at LaxG in the reverse di- 
rection. (Consult time-tables.) 

Str. once a week in about 4 days ; fare, 
40 kr.] 

After leaving Gharlottenberg (432 
kil. from StocMiobn), where carriages 
are changed (Buff.), the Norwegian 
frontier is crossed near Hagnor stat. 
(133 kil. from Christiania). [Luggage 
examined at Eongsvinger or Christi- 
ania.] One of the stone heaps mark- 
ing the boundary with Sweden will 
be seen to the 1. of the line, a short 
distance from Gharlottenberg. The 
next stats, are 

Skottemd (127 kil.) 

Eidskog (122 kil.) 

Aabogen (112 kil.) 

Following the bwik of the Glom- 
men, part of the waters of which find 
their way hence into Sweden by the 
valleys of the Vrangs-elVi the train 
next runs along the bank of the great 
Vingersjden, or basin, regulating the 
floods of the Glommen, the valley 
of which is then left until the train 
4raws up at 

Kongsvinger (100 kil.) Buff. 

This small town (pop. 1300), situated on 
the G-lommen, receired municipal priyile^es 
in 1854, and has a Custom-house on account 
of its proximity to the Swedish frontier, over 
which Norwegian goods (and vice vend) pass 
under a special inter-state tariff. It is con- 
nected 1^ a long bridge with the stat. 

The Fortress on the height (800 ft.) was 
built in the middle of the 17th cent., and 
once formed an important link in the chain 
of fortifications by which the passage of the 
river was defended before the union with 
Sweden. It remains in charge of a com- 
mandant. There is a fine view from it. In 
the neighbourhood, at Vingery and in N. and 
S. Odaieny are Sau>^ Planing^ and Flour millSy 
and seyeral other industrial establishments. 

[A rly. {Soldr line) is in construction 
northwards to Fldbergy on the Flisen river.] 

From Kongsvinger the line turns 
off to the N.W., and soon passes 2 
small stats., over bridges thrown 
across the Glommen. It takes an 
almost direct southerly direction at 

Skani»8 stat. (79 kil.), in Hede- 
marken prefect., and then makes a 
further southerly decline towards 

SsBtentden stat. (67 kil.) Still with 
the Glommen on the rt., the train 
generally draws up at 

Aarnes stat. (58 kil.) Buff, The 
stat. beyond is 

Haga (49 kil.) After 

Bla^'er stat. (42 kil.), near which 
is a now abandoned earthwork, 
thrown up in 1683, the train passes 
over an iron bridge (1510 ft.) that 
spans the Glommen, which, a little 

Fetsund stat. (29 kil.), falls into 
the long (94 kil.) Oieren lake before 
continuing its course again as a river 
to Sarpsborg (see Rte. 2). Turning 
N.W. from the head of that lake, the 
train runs on to 

Lillestrom (21 kil.) Buff. Junction 
with the Trunk rly. between Chris- 
tiania and Trondhjem. See Bte. 14 
for description and remainder of 
journey to 

CHBI8TIAKIA. ^ (See Bte. 1.) 

Route 4. — Christicmia to Skien,, 




(By rail.) 

Dis- Fare •jx-.a 

KiL Kr. 

Ghristiania to Drammen . 63 2.90 2 

„ „ Holmestrand 86 4.40 3 

„ Tdnsberg . Ii5 6.70 4 

„ Sandefjord . 139 6.80 6 

„ Laurrik . 168 7.60 5i 

„ Porsgrund . 195 9.30 711 

Skien . .204 9.70 7| 





107 5.30 4 

[Nightly mail steamsliip service to Laurvik 
in 7^ hrs.— fare, 6.80 kr. (see Rte. 15)— and 
several other strs. run to. the places above- 
mentioned. (Consult time-tables and hotel 

The journey to Skien will be under- 
taken by travellers who intend to visit 
Telemarken, or to proceed towards 
fjords on the W. coast. The trains 
start from the Western rly. (Vest 
Jembane) stat., at the head of 
Pipervik bay. Owing to the narrow- 
ness of the gauge, the carriages are 
small and " stuffy " : in summer from 
the heat, and in winter from the ob- 
jections made by native passengers 
to the opening of a window. A re- 
latively commodious saloon carriage 
is, however, attached to the train 
and seats (1. hand) should be 
secured in it. 

Soon emerging on the Frogner- 
kilen (inlet of the fjord), which it 
skirts, affording a fine view of Oscars- 
hall and the Bygdo penin. across 
the water, the train reaches 

^ No 1st class on this line. 
» By express, approximately. 

BygdS (8 kil.) This is the stat. at 
which passengers alight for a walk 
over the penin. (see Rte. 1, "Drives," 
(fee.) Pretty landscape to 

Lysaker stat. (6 kil.), approached 
by a bridge over a small river of the 
same name. Several Factories here. 
Two stats, beyond is 

Sandviken (18 kil.) Buff. ; but ex- 
press does not stop. This is a favour- 
ite place for an excursion in summer 
or winter, either driving or by rail. 
An excellent Bestawrant close to the 
stat. Carriages and posting-horses 
procurable for the " Drive to Sund- 
volden '* (Rte. 1). Crossing an iron 
bridge over a river with wooded 
banks (strictly preserved for trout), 
the train ascends through pretty 
scenery (including a peep, at Slcebendey 
of the charmingly situated Jtisistad 
House and Park, well adapted for the 
residence of an English family), and, 
passing several cuttings and a short 
tunnel, draws up, in about 40 min. 
from the city, at 

Hvalstad stat.. (dO kil.), 220 ft., 
whence a charming view of Chris- 
tiania in the distance will be obtained. 
Within 5 min. walk is a large Sana- 
torium and Hotels on an eminence 
between the stat. and Skougumgaard, 
about 330 ft. above sea-level. Sur- 
rounded by pine-woods, it neverthe- 
less offers an enchanting view of the 
Christiania fjord and its islands, as 
far as Drobak. The situation is 
highly salubrious, and the sanator- 
ium so well managed that travellers 
in search of health and repose can 
advantageously pass some time there 
at very moderate expense. 

The bluff (Shmgumsaasen) that 
frowns down upon the sanatorium is 
about 1150 ft. high, and therefore 
affords a more splendid prospect 
than the one just mentioned. It can 
be ascended (in 3 or 4 hrs. both 
ways), with some scrambling, from 
the E., and is often the object of an 
excursion from Christiania and Sand- 
viken. From the latter point, a road 
leads close by the old Ch. of Tanum, 
The more enticing ascent is, however, 
from Skougumgaard, equally access* 


Route Ai.^^Christiania to Skieri. 

ible either from Hvalstad or from the 
next Btat. of 

ABker (23 kU.), 340 ft. On the rt. 
will be Been Va/rdekollent a granitic 
mass rising to about 1150 ft. Many 
small roads lead hence to romantic 
spots. The one leading to Kong- 
Itmgen affords the possibility of reach- 
ing Ghristiania or Drobak by a local 
str. An altitude of 380 ft. is attained 

Bbken stat. (34 kil.), but the highest 
point of the line is reached at 

Spikestad stat. ^37 kil.), 462 ft. 
On emerging from ue second tunnel 
after the stat. a picturesque panorama 
of the Lier-dal is obtained, and soon 
after, when winding along the pre- 
cipitous hillside, the Fjord of Dram- 
meUy the town itself, and a wide ex- 
panse of fertile, well-cultivated land 
burst into view, to the 1. By the 
time the train has reached Lier stat. 
(46 kil.) the altitude has fallen to 75 ft. 
above sea-level. 

The train then runs along the 
bottom of the Lier valley, and passes 

Brageroen stat. (151 kil.) in an out- 
lying part of Drammen. Crossing by 
a wooden bridge a broad branch of 
th(B Drammen river, to the island of 
Hohnen (only a place of execution in 
olden days), through its busy timber- 
yards, and thence curving by another 
bridge over a parallel branch of the 
river, and affording to the traveller 
striking panoramic views of the fjord, 
the river (about 3300 ft. broad where 
crossed by the rly,), and the town, the 
train draws up at 

Drammen^ (53 kil.) Good Buff, 
Time for light refreshments. BriL 

[Junction with rlya. to Kongsberg, Hdne- 
fot (RingerUe), and Bandifjord. (SeeBtes. 
6 and 7.)] 

[Strs. daily to Christiania, Srelvig, Holme- 
strand, and Horten ; weekly to Grangemouth ; 
and occasionaJly to London and Hull. Also a 
posting-road (33 Ml.) to the shore of the 
Christiania i^ord, opposite Drobak, reached 
in a ferry-boat.] 

History. — Drammen has no ancient his- 
tory, for even the date and the circnmstances 

of the peopling of the mouth of the great 
Drammen river are unknown. In the middle 
of the 16th cent., howerer, it was the most 
frequented harbour in Norway, having been 
annually visited then by more tluan 50 
vessels from Holland, N. Grermany, and Ham- 
burg. The first ch. was built in 1620 at 
Bragernces^ the citizens of which were in- 
scribed as burghers of Ghristiania, after the 
foundation of that city in 1624. In 1632 and 
1636 those burghers were ordered to remove 
to the city within a period of 3 months, with 
a view to its being peopled. Nevertheless, 
the edict being much opiwsed and evaded, 
BragemsBS became already in 1656 a celebrated 
port of shipment. Its incorporation with 
Christiania was replaced in 1800 by indepen- 
dent municipal privileges, extended to the 2 
previously distinct communes of Bragernses 
and StromsS, and Tangen. The Swedes were 
in occupation of the port in 1716, which then 
began to be called Drammen, and its 
trade (principally in timber) and its ship- 
ping suffered much from the invasion of 
Charles Xn. (1716 and 1718) and from 
Swedish privateers. From such small and 
precarious b^nnings the port (now open in 
the coldest weather, thanks to an ice-breaking 
str.) exported in 1890 nearly 200,000 tons 
of goods (more than half timber, the re- 
mainder consisting of wood-pulp, ipe, &c.), 
shipped in 764 vessels (aggr^ate tonnage 
251,326). The imports^ on the other hand, 
were only 38,340 tons of coal and a sonall 
quantity of iron and machinery. The ship- 
ping belonging to the port rivals that of 
Christiania and ArendaL This is also a place 
of considerable industrial activity, especially 
on the banks of the river, above the town. 

Topography. — This thriving town 
of 23,680 inhabitants (almost entirely 
rebuilt after fires in 1866 and 1870) 
is beautifully and even grandly situ- 
ated between the wooded heights of 
Bragemcesaascn and the estuary of 
the noble Drammen river, at its junc- 
tion with a fjord connected with that 
of Christiania. It is composed of the 
3 ancient settlements of Bragerruss, 
lining the N.E., and Stromal) and 
Tangen the S.W. bank of the river. 

A long bridge close to the rly. 
stat. connects the Stromso quarter 
with that of Bragernses. It is the 
favourite promenade of the citizens, 
who there enjoy not only the cool 
breeze that comes down the valley, 
but also a view of the Blefjeld 
(4494 ft.) in Telemarken. Brager- 
naBS is the most important part of the 
city, and where its principal buildings 
are grouped. In a handsome wide 
square is the Bragemcsstorv (market 
place). On the rt. of this is the Ex- 

Route 4!.-^Dtammen ; Hohnestrand; Horten, 31 

chang^t and at the upper end the 
Town hall and Covrt h<mse. Beyond 
these buildings the Kirke st. termi- 
nates at the pretty Gothic Brag&mms 
oh., completed in 1871 by Nordgren. 
Its altar-piece (the "Resurrection") 
is by Tidemandf and the sculptured 
Angel over the font is by Borch. (In- 
terior shown by the sacristan, who 
lives in a house opposite.) To the 
rt. of the ch. a road leads to the 
Brand^st (fire stat.), from which 
a view superior to any other is ob- 
tained of the city and its beauti- 
ful surroundings. Ardent explorers 
can reach hence, in less than an 
hour, the KLoptjcBm^ a lake that sup- 
plies the city with water. (Befresh- 
ments obtainable in a cottage close 
by.) From Prinds Oscar^s Udsigt 
(view), an ascent of 5 min. more, a 
good panorama of the Lierdalj d^c, is 
obtained. They should also take the 
zigzag road that ascends from the 
back of Bragemads oh. to Brager- 
nsesaasen (bluff) (J hr.) Both the 
Blefjeld and the Jonsknuten (2985 
ft.) are included in the extensive view 
from this eminence. The Osca/rssti&n 
promeiiade in the same locality can- 
not fail to be admired. To the 1. 
from BragemsBS market place is the 
prettily laid-out Town park, 

[Fishing. — Considerable quantities 
of salmon are netted in the Drammen 
fjord, and anglers may possibly meet 
with success in June, the river being 
an early one.] 

After leaving Brammen the train 
ascends, at a gradient of 1 in 80, the 
Kobberviksdal, the highest point of 
which (262 ft.) is reached at 

GnndeBO stat. (62 kil.) A short 
stoppage is made at the next stat. 

Skouger (63 kil.), whence the de- 
scent becomes rapid, for 

Galleberg stat. (69 kil.) is 115 ft., 
and that of 

Sande (73 kil.) only 62 ft. above 
sea-level. Bunning past the Ch, of 
that name, the train emerges on the 
Sandebtigtf an inlet of the Ghristiania 
fjord (fine view), the shore of which 
is then followed to 

Holmestrand^ (86kil.) Buff. A 
very prettily situated, much frequented 
sea-bathing place (pop. 2360) at the 
base of an almost perpendicular cliff 
of porphyry. The bathing season is 
between June 15 and Sept. 1. [Cold 
and hot salt-water and Oytje baths — 
mud of decomposed sheU-fish and 
seaweed, effectual in cases of rheu- 
matism.] Visitors will obtain a 
beautiful view from the top of Solum- 
saasen^ 3 kil. from the town (incor- 
porated 1744). Good sea-fishmg. 

After a short run the fjord is left, 
near Nykirke stat. (96 kil.), after 
which the train stops at 

Skopum (100 kil.) Buff. The lake 
to the 1. is called Borrevand. Junction 
here with rly. to Horten. 

[Branch line to Horten (7 kil.)] 

Horten.^ Pop. 6800. This is the 
chief stat. of the Norwegian navy, 
the ships of which are moored in a 
capacious inner harbour, safely en- 
closed by the islands of L&vden (with 
ruins of St. Halvard\s ch. on the 
S.W.), Melletndenj and OsWen. Its en- 
trance is defended by a Fort on Veal(5s 
island, and a small Citadel on Kylling- 
hoved protects the Building-sheds 
and Engine-factories t which are on 
the E. side of the harbour, together 
with the Dockf Na/oal museum, 
Chwrchy Barracks, &g. On the W. 
side of the town, which is unpaved 
and uninviting, is the large, thickly 
wooded Keisennark property. To 
the N.W. is the extensive and an- 
cient .estate of Falkenstein. A charm- 
ing walk, mostly through forest, can 
be taken in a S. direction to Aas- 
gaardstrand (pop. 400), a pretty 
bathing-place on the fjord, past 
Borre ch., neaj which, in a wood 
close to the shore. Tumuli of the 
Saga age can be seen. [Strs. run 
daily between Christiania, Horten, 
and Aasgaardstrand ; also from and 
to Horten and Moss, on the opposite 
side of this narrow part of the fjord. 
(See Bte. 2.)] 


Route 4. — GhrUtiania to 8hien» 

Continuation op Journey to Skien. 

Two stats, beyond Holmestrand, at 
the second of which, 

Barkaker (109 kil.), will be seen 
(to the rt.) the Mansion and Parks of 
the noble Wedel-Jarlsherg family, to 
which belongs a very considerable 
part of the fertile district now being 
passed by the traveller. Close to 
the mansion is Sem ch.t in which 
Harald GiUe (1130) performed the 
penance of carrying hot iron. The 
Mortuary chapel of the Wedel family, 
with an Altar-piece by Eckersherg 
(Norwegian painter), stands behind 
the ch. The train is now shunted 
back through a tunnel to 

Tonsberg^ (116 kil.) Buff, Brit 
Cons. Agent. [Strs. daily to and from 
Christiama ; twice a week to Skien 
and Frederikshald \ and weekly to 
Orangemouth. The canal, in course 
of construction, will enable all the 
Norwegian coasting strs. to call at 

History. — This is the oldest town (7260 
inhabitants) in the kingdom, since it dates 
from the 8th cent., and was a populous place 
in the days of Harald Haarfager (860-933). 
In the reign of "Saint" Olaf (1015-1030) 
trade flourished at Tbnsberg, then visited, at 
the annual fair, by numerous Saxon and 
Danish merchants, whom the king delighted 
to meet. In much later days G^man mer- 
chants, from Rostock, &c., monopolised the 
trade. It was at Tbnsberg that St. Olaf re- 
ceived the envoys of King Canute, who 
demanded, as a condition of his retention of 
the Mngship over the S. part of Norway, 
that he shoi^d pay tribute to England. His 
reply was that he would defend his patrimony 
to the uttermost rather than submit to the 
suzerainty of Canute. Notwithstanding 
much internecine warfare, the city was 
wealthy and important in the reign of Mag- 
nus Erlingsbn (1161-1177), who defeated the 
" Birch-legs." Haakon Haakonsbn (1217-1263 ) 
held his court frequently here. Haakon V. 
Magnuson confirmed the municipal privi- 
leges of Tbnsberg in 1318. Its prosperity 
was maintained until the 16th cent., when 
(1536) it was burnt down, with its clois- 
ters and chs., by the Swedes. In 1659, how- 
ever, Frederick II. of Denmark granted a 
new charter, confirmed 1696 and extended 
1653. The special privileges of the citizens 
were withdrawn in 1662. Their prosperity 
consequently decreased, and in 1673 the 
province and city of Tbnsberg were incor- 
porated in the earldom of GriJBfenf eld created 
by Christian V. After the fall of the first 

I earl (a man of learning), the old mansiotl 
of Saeihem (then **GrifCenf eld's gaard") was 
bestowed, with the earldom (excluding the 
town), on TJlric F. Gyldenlbve, who sold it 
(1683) to Baron Wedel, created (1684) Earl 
of Jarlsberg, and whose Uneal desoendant 
still holds the property, as well as the title, 
which, however, under the Norw^^ian con- 
stitution, dies with him. 

Tbadb.— A large amount of shipping, 
principally sailing vessels, is owned at Tons- 
berg, which is the centre of the Norwegian 
whaling and sealing industries in the Arctic 
Ocean. In 1890, 35 strs. (6343 tons) 
brought home the product of 50,000 seals, 
50 polar bears, and nearly 900 bottle-nose 
whales, while the whaling strs., owned 
chiefly by Mr. Svend Foyn, prince of 
Norwegian whalers, took on the coast of 
Finmarken 627 whales. Seven whaling 
strs. from Tbnsberg caught on the coast 
of Iceland (with harpoons fired from guns) 
nearly 200 similar monsters of the deep, 
7 being of the large and now rare "N. Cape '* 
species. Nearly 2000 bottle-nose whales were 
taken in the same year by a fieet of 39 smsJl 
sailing vessels and strs. The sealskins are 
exported exclusively to London, where they 
fetch, before being dressed, 6s. Sd. each. 
Other produce of the fisheries is sent to Ger- 
many and France as well as to Great Britain. 
The imports are mostly confined to coal and 

Topography. — After fires in 1822, 
1889, and 1842, the town lost much 
of its ancient aspect, and was iu great 
part reconstructed with regularity. 
It has only one Ch.j built 1857, the 
Town hall now st£uiding on the site 
of a ch. of the 11th cent., demolished 
1862. In a Cemetery a short dis- 
tance from the centre of the town 
some old Tombstones (17th cent.) have 
been set up against the wall for their 
preservation and exhibition. 

All visitors are recommended to walk 
to the top of the Slotsfjeld, a precipi- 
tous rock (200 ft.) accessible only 
from the N. and S. This is the site 
of the old TOnsherghus castle, one of 
the strongest fortresses in Norway 
during the middle ages. The rock 
was first fortified in the 12th cent., 
and played an important part in the 
internecine wars of the next cent., 
when it was encircled by a wall. In 
1877-78 the Emns were cleared and 
the foundations, both of Magnus 
Lagaboter's (1263) brick Castle and of 
the equally ancient Ch, of St. Michael, 
laid bare. In 1888 a granite Tower 
(60 ft.) was erected to commemorate 

Route 4. — Tonsberg ; Sandefjord ; Laurvik. 83 

the historical interest of the spot, and 
to afford the citizens, as well as 
visitors, a magnificent view of the 
snrronnding country. [A small fee 
payable.] Some Mounds in the 
vicinity are reputed to cover the 
remains of the older kings of the S. 
of Norway. 

A drviie (11 kil.) to Vramgen sounds 
where, in Kjtihmmds-shja^ harbour, 
the Arctic whalers, <j^c., are laid up 
in winter, is of interest. They ai^ 
manned by seamen who live chiefly on 
NdisrS and T/'d^md islands. A swing- 
ing bridge, connecting the island first 
mentioned with the mainland, crosses 
the canal, which is to be replaced by 
one of greater depth and breadth. 
Many of the cottages of the seamen 
are patterns of cheerful neatness. 

There is an excellent SanatorvuM 
(sea-bathing) at Ormelet, TjiynUi^ 
island (June 1-Sept. 1), and very good 
sea-flshingj with boats for hire. Local 
strs. run to Ormelet. 

The small townof Vall(j, with an old 
battery, is about 7 kil. by road from 
Tonsberg. At Nctrverdd (6 kil. from 
Tonsberg) is another large and com- 
fortable Scmatorium amidst pine- 
woods, through which are many pretty 
walks. Sea-fishmg goQd.B.E. otT}6m6 
will be seen the Lille FcBrder light- 
house (see Btei 1), marking the en- 
trance to the Christiania fjord. 

Returning to the main line, and 
leaving the Jarlsberg mansion to the 
rt., the train proceeds to 

Sem stat. (121 Ml.), and, after pass- 
ing, on ground more or less level, the 
stat. of 

Stokke (128 kil.), runs throu^^ 

Baastad stat. (136 kil.) To the 1. 
of it is Ookstad, where the Viking 
ship exhibited at Christiania (Bte. 1) 
was dug out in 1880. In a few 
minutes the train draws up at 

SandeQordsic (139 kil.) Buff, Pop. 
4250. On fjord of same name. This 
is a fashionable watering -place be- 
tween June 1 and Sept. 1, the 
waters being sulphurous, saline, and 
chalybeate. Oiants* cauldrons occur 
near Aa^en and in Vinddlsbugtf to 

[Norway — vi. 92.] 

which access is by boat. Upright 
Monumental stones of great antiquity 
are also found in the vicinity, the 
country between this and TSnsberff 
being, in fact, of deep historical 

[Steam oommnnioation witit Chris- 
tiania, Laurvik, Ac] 

After passing the second small 
stat. beyond, through scenery more 
or less tame, until, at TjGdUng stat. 
(149 kil.), a view of the Laurvik fjord 
is obtained, ttie Laagen river is 
crossed by a bridge (660 ft. long) ; and, 
after a momentary run through 2 
tunnels, the traveller alights at 

Laurvik ^^ (158 kil.) Buff. Brit, 

ISteam eommunieation daily with all coast 
towns B. and W. ; passengers by Copenhagen 
Btr. landed at Horten (see above) for LaurrU:. 
Weekly oonununication from Oopenhagen 
vid Prederikshavn, whence only lOhrs. direct 
to Laurvik. Strs. on Hamburg route also touch 
here. Two of the ** Ostlandske Lloyd's *' com- 
fortable strs. leave alternate every Fri. night, 
winter and summer, for Tyne Dock, New- 
castle, after the arrival of the express from 
Ohristiania. Direct str. to Antwerp every 
Thurs. nig^t after arrival of express from 
Christiania. The Swedish W. coast rly. lines 
and Oopenhagen accessible vid Horten, Moss, 
Fredezlk8faald(Bte.3). (Coiinilttime.tables.)] 

TopooRAPHT,<fec. — This picturesque 
town, enfranchised 1671 (pop. about 
12,000), lies in orescent form at the 
head of a small bay formed by the 
Skagerak, from which it rises some- 
what steeply towards the wooded 
heights that form a verdant amphi- 
theatre on the N. There is nothing 
to see in the town itself, but a walk 
in Storgade and the neighbourhood 
of the Ch, affords a beautiful view. 
At the E. end is the old wooden 
mansion of the Earls of Laurvik, now 
used as a School. In the face of a 
rock (to the 1.) are inscriptions re- 
cording visitations of tiie town by 
Christian V. and his successors. At 
the other extremity, on a height, is 
Fritzdehusy the noble residence of 
the Treschow family, pf Danish 
descent, whose remote ancestors 
may have given the name of 


Route 4. — Christiania to 8kien, 

" Tresoo '* to the well-known Soiily* 

Much of the landed property that 
onoe belonged to the old earldom is 
in the hands of that family. The 
view from the mansion and its beau- 
tiful grounds is fine. [Admission on 
application to the steward of the 
estate.] Large Factories will be seen 
at the mouth of iheFarris-elVt ascend- 
ing the rt. bank of which the pictu- 
resque Farris-vand (lake) wUl be 
reached. Between these points is 
situated "Laurviks Pride," the Beech- 
wood (entered from the W.) of about 
60 acres, in which citizens and visitors 
delight to wander, the plantation 
itself and the views from it being 
delightful. The greatest attraction, 
however, to Laurvik is its splendid 
Hydropathic establishment,^ much 
frequented (from June 1) by aliens as 
well as natives for the efficacy of its 
waters, and of its other curative pro^ 
cesses in cases of gout, rheumatism, 
chronic catarrh, nervous affections, 
poverty of blood, skin diseases, &c. 
The principal establishment and its 
hotel are situated at a short distance 
from the town, alongside the beech: 
wood, of which the hotel park is a 
continuation, about 9 acres of it con- 
sisting of beech-trees, the other 6 
acres being planted with a variety of 
other trees an^ bushes, and adorned 
with flower-beds and grass-plots, with 
beautiful walks on roads and paths 
that dry immediately after rain. In 
this part of the park is the Kurhotel, 
a brick building in Italian Benais- 
sance style, with . 2 dining-rooms 
and spacious verandahs affording 
beautiful views. The Bade og Socie- 
tetshus (" Pump-rooms ") is a large 
wooden building in Norwegian style, 
with every variety of hydropathic 
appliance, reading, dancing, and 
billiard rooms, Aq. A band plays 
outside twicQ a day. The warm sea, 
fulphurou^, and m>arine-mud baths 
are in a pretty wooden building at 
tiie head of the bay, close to the rly. 

* Even the name of " Soilly " is apparently 
derived from the Danish word skille, or 
** separated " (from the mainland) islands. 

stat. This is the only establishment 
in the N. which commands a really 
pure geological sulphur spring, A 
ferruginous spring, in the hill near 
the old mansion above mentioned, is 
likewise utilised by the establishment, 
the waters from both springs being 
carried twice a day to the pai^ pump- 
room. (For terms, vide Index.) 

Excursions. — Many pleasant ex- 
oui'sions can be madie hence by str., 
carrifl^, and rail. The Farria lake, 20 
kil. in length, on which a str. runs 
daily, should be seen. At its upper 
end is th6 pretty wooded mountain- 
ous district of Slemdal, A beautiful 
lake (Lak^Q) with Waterfalls, imd a 
ohanning Shooting-box, belonging to 
Mr. Treschow, can be reached £rom 
the. steamboat-pier at the end of the 
Farris, on foot or horseback. (Dis- 
tance only a few kil.) A str. runs 
daily to Fredrihsvcern, 6 kil. distant 
(see Bte. 15). Many other trips and 
walks will be indicated at the Bath 
hotel. . 

FisBiNO. — The sea-fishing outside 
the bay is very good. TVot^^flshing in 
the short Farris river is preserved by 
the ownet of Frltzoehus. Mention 
will be found under " Sport ** of the 
saZrttoTt-flghing in the Laagen (Logen) 
liver, which, after rising in the Nord- 
mamds-Laagen lake in the Hardanger 
mtn. moorlands, and running through 
Numedal and past Kongsberg, falls 
into the sea at the E. end of Laurvik. 
A few days' fishing obtainable with 
local assistance. Two tolerably good 
pools at Ha/nsvold (37 kil.) are occa- 
sionally available. A drive to the 
latter point (4 hrs.) along the bank of 
the river is in any case recommended. 

Leaving Laurvik, the line takes a 
N.W. direction, along the Farris river 
and the W. side of Lake Farris, on 
the face of the rocks, blasted for that 
purpose. Several short tunnels are 
pasded before and after the lake is 
crossed, the views between being very 
striking. Beyond the seventh tunnel 
will be seen (rt.) the great Bjoml}en 
(island). The first stat. is 

Tjose (169 kil.) Passing a Ch., and 
still running along the Farris lake, 

Route 4. — Poragntnd; Shim,. 


through scenery of the most pictur- 
esque description, the train proceeds 

Aaklungen stat. (182 kil.), whence 
it takes a S. direction, and, skirting a 
small lake, reaches 

Birkedalen stat. (188 kil.), alt. 236 
ft. The line then runs between 2 
small lakes, a wood, and several 
cuttings, to 

Eidaager stat. (192 kil.), prettily 
situated and surrounded by forest. 
There is an hotel in the neighbour- 
hood, facing a small fjord, which is 
about 5 Ml. off. Good bathing here 
and many villas, A short run hence, 
through wooded scenery, brings the 
traveller to 

Forsgnmd^ (195kil.) Buff, Brit, 

This town (pop. 4000), dating 
from 1807, straggles for some distance 
along both banks (now bridged) of the 
rapid Skien river, from near its outlet 
in the Frierfjord, It is a place of con- 
siderable trade in timber and ice, and 
much shipping belongs to it. It boasts 
of the only Porcelain manufactory 
in Norway. It has several other 
ind^ietrial estdbUshmentSy including 
Creosote-^orks, Vold^ a large estate, 
consisting of fine pine-woods and 
numerous lakes, at the head of a 
small picturesque fjord running out 
of the Frier-fjord, is owned by Mr. 
Croft, an Englishman. Local str. 
to Void and also to Langesund (Bte. 
15) . Following the 1. bank of the river, 
on which a large old wooden mansion 
of the Danish period will be noticed, 
the train, after passing a remarkable 
subsidence of the river bank at 
QraMen and the site of the Oiemsd 
Benedictine CZois^(12th-16thcent.), 
reaches its terminus at 

Bkien^ (204 kil.) Buff, BHt. 
Vice-Consul resides at Porsgrund. 

ISteam communication with Christiania, 
Brevig, Langesond, &c. (See time-tables.)] 

TopooRAPHT, &0, — ^As one of the 
oldest (1364) municipal towns in the 
kingdom, and as the starting-point of ' 

a journey through the grand district 
of Telemarken, of which it may be 
called the capital, Skien (pop. 
9000) is a place of importance, in- 
creased by the great development in 
modern times of its industrial 
activity. Its huge Wood-pidp and 
Saw millSt &c., driven by the stupen- 
dous water-power of the Telemarken 
lakes, discharged here, after forming 
2 great waterfalls — the Klosterfos 
and the Damfos — into the Skien river, 
attest its commercial activity, which 
naturally includes a considerable ex- 
port trade with foreign countries. 
After a fire in 1886 which laid nearly 
the whole town in ashes, including 
its old wooden ch., reconstruction in 
brick, on a plan of regularity, has 
improved the previous appearance of 
the place. The Shops are well pro- 
vided with stores of every kind for the 
use of travellers proceeding inland. 
In the neighbourhood lies Fossum^ a 
fine and extensive estate of the noble 
(originally Danish) Lovenskjold 

There is a Tourist Association at 

For a striking view of the environs 
of Skien, travellers should ascend, by 
the flight of wooden steps at the 
back of the rly. stat., the steep 
Bratsberg cliff. On the summit, to 
the 1., are the Euinsot a chapel of the 
12th cent., with a crypt in preser- 
vation. The geographical district 
(Bratsberg) has been named after the 
Bratsberg-ga,ard in the immediate 



Route 5. — 8kien to Odde and Bergen, 



iStrs. leave SUen daily for UUfo* and their 
terminus at the head of the Bandak lake in 
Telemarken,* one of the grandest land dis- 
tricts in Norway. Strs. ascending direct from 
the fjord are raised by means of looks to the 
GjeUevand at Skien (14 ft above sea-level), 
whence local strs. start for the Telemarken 
lakes, on which the scenery is very grand. 
This journey can be done with ease in 4^ dys. 
The snow and cold should deter travellers 
from taking this route (over the high Hau- 
keli fjeld") before the first days In July and 
after the middle of Sept., unless partial sledg- 
ing be an atiaraction.] 

Ascending the Skien river, and pass- 
ing, with a total rise of 34 ft., through 
the 4 locks' of the Ldveid canal, cut 
out of the solid rock (1861), the str. 
reaches in about 1 hr. the NordsjG 
lake,4S ft. above sea-level, and 27 kil. 
in length. In area (17 sq. m.) it ranks 
as the third among the lakes of Tele- 
marken, the waters of which are 
mostly concentrated in it before their 
ultimate outfall at Skien. Passengers 
can leave the str. and walk to the 
uppermost lock. On entering this 
picturesque lake, the Lifjeld mtns. 
(6100 ft.) will be seen in the N.W. 
background. Very soon, on the face 
of the cliffs to the rt., will be seen the 

* As the canal and locks between Ul^ot and 
Strengen will be opened in the course of 1892, 
it would be useless to state the present ar- 
rangements (time, fares, dsc.) of strs. on this 
line. They will be altered as soon as strs., 
both from Ohristiania and Skien, are able to 
ascend uninterruptedly to the upper end of 
the Bandak lake. (Consult time-tables and 
recent notices at hotels, &c.) 

 Indifferently spelt HaukeZW and HaukeZ<. 

• The fourth is used only when the river is 
in flood. 

MikaMhule, the entrance to a oavem 
(82 ft. deep by 23 ft. in breadth), 
which, evidently excavated, was used 
in the middle ages as a chapel, dedi- 
cated to St. Michael. It can be as- 
cended by steps from Ldveid, where 
boats are available. After stopping 
at a few landing-stages, the str. 
reaches in about an hour from the head 
of the canal, and 2 hrs. from Skien, 
UlefoB (HoUm) » (20 kil. from 

[Travellers bound for BitterdaZy the Bjukan- 

/ai,4EC.(Bte. 6) can disembark here. BzoeUent 

accommodation. (jStea Index.) The drive hence 

to Strengen (22 kil.) will not be taken after 

1892, and is therefore not described.] 

The Wat&rfall from which this 
place takes its name is a very short 
distance from the steamboat - pier. 
On the 1. and rt. of it, respectively, 
are the Mofumons of the Cappelen 
and the Aal families, near which are 
grouped SaAD-fMlU, Ironworks, and 
2 Chs, The Nuke and JSofp^ peaks 
will be seen in the distant S.W. 

The Caaialy which will be entered 
above the Ulefos, is one of the most 
interesting and stupendoxis works of 
the kind in Europe. It replaces a 
porta{fe (although a veiy good road) 
of 22 kil. between Ulefos on the 
Nordsjd and Strengen on the Flaa- 
vand, from which there is str. com- 
munication to the head of the Bandak 
lake, 66 Idl. distant, the entire length 
of the uninterrupted water-communi- 
cation from Skien being about 105 kil. 
A difference of nearly 178 ft. in level 
between the 2 extremities of the 
canal is surmounted by means of 
16 locks and 2 dams. The first 3 
locks, with a total ascent of nearly 
28 ft., and with a huge dam at the 
top, are reached at Ulefos, soon after 
which the str. enters the first of 
the 7 locks that overcome the 
principal obstacle to navigation (a 
fall of 80 ft.)— viz. the Vrangfos, 
Some way before the first lock is 
reached, the str. enters a canal of 
masonry that runs parallel with the 
dammed-up river. All these looks are 
blasted out of the rock, and faced 
with heavy blocks of grey granite. 

Route 5. — Laurdal. 


They rise gradually, with a length of 
120, a breadth of 22, and a depth of 
8^ ft. From the lowest of these locks 
passengers will be struck with the 
gigantic proportions of the stone- 
work above them. A still stronger 
impression is produced by the sight of 
the raging light-green waters of the 
Yrangfos, now confined deep down 
within a narrow gorge alongside the 
locks. It was here that the chief 
cUf&culty in construction was en- 
countered. As no bottom could be 
found in the gorge, it was necessary 
to construct a massive arch of hewn 
granite, between the 2 rocky sides, 
as a foundation for a dam of immense 
solidity. Of great breadth at its base, 
this wall is constructed of heavy 
hewn blocks of granite, well cemented. 

The dam above the Yrangfos looks 
forms a splendid waterfall. 

After passing through 6 more locks, 
the level of the Flaavand lake (about 
230 ft. above the sea) is attained 
at Strengen^ an important point in 
posting days. At the upper (W.) end 
of the lake (15 kil.) the rapid waters 
of the narrow Fjaagesund are slowly 
ascended for 3 kil., between high, 
steep cliffs, which frequently appear 
to shut out all access beyond, to the 
Hviteseid lake (185 ft.), of a grander 
but more gloomy character, owing to 
its precipitous sides. The Brokefjeld 
(3540 ft.) is visible to the rt., and dis- 
tant to the 1. is the Baholtfjeld (3350 
ft.) After passing Bukden island, the 
str. proceeds, with sufficient water, 
through a swinging bridge, to 

Eirkeba, in the Sv/ndbygd, which 
presents one of the most charming 
landscapes in Telemarken, of a mild, 
not gloomy, character. This point 
is in communication by road with 
TvedestfTcmd (140 kil.) and Arendal 
153 kil.) (See Bte. 16.) 

[Eirkeb5 can be reached, and vice vertd^ 
from the Ghristiania-Eongsberg-Hitterdal, 
Ac. (Bte. 6). Distances: Landtvcerk {Ban- 
land) %oNordre £H^eiie. 17 kil.; b^ond vrhiat 
are um iSi^'ord), 26 kil., and Kirkebd, 17 ML] 

On returning (by a str. touching 
here), the broad rapid Sharpstrbm' 

men (7 kil. in length), connecting the 
Hviteseid with the Bandak lake (185 
ft.), is entered. The scenery here in 
gloomy weather is somewhat depress- 
ing, the lake being bordered by grand 
hills, with peaks and ridges of fan- 
tastic form on the 1. shore. To the 
1., after passing Apaldsto (whence a 
road runs to Elirkebo), will be seen, on 
the top of the mtns., a curious forma- 
tion to which the name of 8t Olafs 
shvp has been given. Some stretch 
of imagination is here requisite. A 
considerable way to the rt. is visible, 
close to the shore, a rock on which 
malefactors were executed in olden 
days. In about 2 hrs. from Hviteseid 
the str. touches at 

Laurdal^ (TrissBt), a very prettily 
situated hamlet at the foot of high 
mtns., with houses surrounded by 
orchards and gardens. The lake 
scenery here is extremely grand, and 
resembles that of the great fjords 
on the W. coast, but it requires a fine 
bright day to remove the feeling of 
oppression imparted by the towering 
mtns. and the dark waters of the 
lake, which can sometimes be much 
agitated. This used to be a favourite 
resort of anglersy one of whom (in 1882) 
landed, not far from the pier, a lake- 
trout of 20 lbs. ; but the trout have 
either been much diminished in 
numbers or rendered very shy by the 
extensive native use of the otter. 
Nevertheless, there is sufficient sport 
(gratis) for those who require a pastime 
while staying for a week or more at 
this pleasant, health-giving retreat, 
where also the best of food and ac- 
commodation will be found close to 
the steamboat-pier. It is a pleasant 
row (about 1^ hr.) hence to Dalen, at 
the end of the lake (see below), and 
many good trout can be picked up on 
the way. Visitors in search of better 
fishing can make excursions to well- 
stocked lakes in the mtns. beyond 
TrissBt, a drive of about 3J hrs., 
mostly uphill. They can also cross 
over the lake by str. or boat to Ban- 
daksU (see Bte. 17), and drive (21 kil.) 
up a splendid and romantic zigzag 
road to the great Aamdai cqpper-workt . 


Route 6. — Skien to Odde and Bergen. 

belonging to an English Go. The 
LUle ("small") Rjukanfos is a short 
way off the road to the 1. 

Posting-Route from Lattbdal to 

(Pay 15 6. j^er Ml. and horse^ but 
only 11 o. from Koldal to Odde.) 

The shorter and grander road vid 
Dalen (see below) can be joined hence 
by posting to Mogen (12 kil., nearly 
3 hrs. drive), the first ascent from 
Laurdal being very steep. The stat. 
is a poor one, but can be used as a 
centre for excursions to the OftaU, 
Bergy and other mtn.-lakes in which 
good fishing is procurable. The lake 
close to the stat. can be fished, but 
payment is expected. The high-road 
to Eongsberg is joined here, and a 
post-road runs N. (22 kil.) to Ode- 
gaardf on the way to Raulcmd (15 
kil.), on the great Totak-vand 
(2230 ft.), where there is good trout- 
fishing. This is excellent in the much 
larger Mjds-vandt which can be 
reached on foot over a very boggy 
tract from Bauland. An English 
sportsman holds the lease of the best 
fishing and shooting in this district. 
Inquire for available water or moor 
at Laurdal. The next stage from 
Mogen is 

Aamot (15 kil.; 2^ hrs.) Grand 
scenery. The hilly road here crosses 
near this spot the fine Hyland rajMt 
spanned by a wooden bridge, and worth 
seeing. Pedestrians can proceed hence 
to the Bjukanfos, and vice versdj vid 
the Totak and Mj5s-vand (lakes). 
There is also a road to Dalen, with 
which, however, there is now better 
communication by a splendid road 
from the next stat., 

HeggesWl (14 kil. ; 2J hrs.) Very 
hilly road. Good quarters. (See below, 
Dalen to Odde.) 

Continuation of Ste.-Route to 

Including a stoppage at Bandaksli, 
opposite TrisaBt (Laurdal), the str. 
reaches, in about 1^ hr.. 

Dalen, « at the head of theBandak 
lake, which gradually narrows, and 
becomes still more gloomy until the 
flat, cultivated, and partly wooded 
plain at the mouth of the Tokke 
river comes into view, with the snow- 
tipped mtns. of Upper Telemarken 
as a background of much splendour. 
Shortly before reaching the extremity 
of the lake, observe, on a high olift to 
the rt., a stony mass, to which fancy 
gives the form of a **monk and 
lady," the latter apparently kneeling 
to receive his blessing. A popular 
legend says, on the other hand, 
that, the monk having insulted the 
lady, she inflicted severe injuries on 
him, some rocks under water on the 
opposite side of the lake being pointed 
out by the local peasants as disrupted 
portions of the monk flung there by 
the indignant lady. 

Travellers having time at their dis- 
posal, or requiring a rest at Dalen, 
or anglers staying at one of the hotels 
(see Index), should drive to the 
Bavngjv/D (the "Baven^s Abyss "), a 
perpendicular oliJff (1000 ft.) above the 
Tokke-elv. A grand view is obtained of 
the Libygfjeld from a pavilion, com- 
memorating a visit by King Oscar II. 
in 1879. The air-current is so strong 
here that pieces of paper and some- 
times handkerchiefs, and even light 
hats, are blown back to those who 
attempt to throw them over the preci- 
pice. This excursion can be made in 
5 hrs. (Horse, 5 kr., or 7 kr. for 2 

[Fishing. — Thisis sometimes pretty 
good at the mouth of the river, where 
large trout have been taken with a 
small fly ; but the use of the otter (in 
the lake) by the local pop. renders 
more satisfactory a stroll up the river, 
where in several of the reaches a 
basket of smaller fish can, under 
favourable atmospheric conditions, 
easily be made. No charge made.] 


[Both at Trisset and at Dalen car- 
riages, stolkjcerrey and carrioles will 
frequently be found that have brought 

Route 6. — Heggestol, 


travellers through from Odde, and 
which can be engaged for the return 
journey at the usual posting-rate (15 5. 
per kil. and horse), or for a specifio 
sum. This arrangement implies a 
slower rate o| progress, although it 
renders possible the performance of 
the journey in 3 days, with stoppages 
at comfortable hotels or stats, each 
night. In these circumstances, alsov 
the drivers will not object to halts of 
some hours at stats, or places where 
fishmg is available ; and the country 
through which the traveller passes 
afiEords excellent opportunities for 
such sport, for which no charge is 
made unless a boat and rower be en- 

Passing through the hamlet of 
Dalen, and crossing a high wooden 
bridge over the rapid Tokke river, the 
traveller soon r^^es the magnifieeint 
new road which ascends in nume- 
rous zigzags along fear-inspiring preci- 
pices on the rt., and mtn.-sides rising 
to 2000 ft. on the 1. A magnificent 
view opens out from the summit, 
which is reached in aboht 1^ hr. 
Hence about ^ hr. drive brings the 
traveller along a level road to the 
hamlet of Eidaborg (2800 ft.), with its 
timber Ch. of ancient exterior, but wii^i 
nothing of any special interest within 
it. A Manganese quarry will be seen, 
and a posting^road leading to Mogen 
and Trisset (see above). Taking the 
road to the 1., up the ste^ JBUdsborg- 
aotSeny and descending from its sum- 
mit to the Malands-86Btert a post will 
soon be reached on the wayside indi- 
cating a path to the "Ravngjuv*' 
above mentioned. After a di^ve of 
over 3 hrs. the pretty BOrtevwnd lake 
(hitherto ascended in boats) will be 
reached. A road (opened in 1892) 
now runs along it, and end/bles the tra- 
veller to reach with comfort, and with 
the enjoyment of scenery scarcely 
to be surpassed in Norway for gran- 
deur, the Stat, of 

Heggestol (about 84 kil. from the 
steamboat-pier at Dalen). A halt is 
necessarily made at this farmhouse, 
where the quarters are, however, 
clean. Vi/nje ch, and manse are 

close by, at the upper end of the 
Vinje-vand (lake), where there is 
good troutrfisMng, Travellers are 
reconmiended to push on, for a good 
meal or night's lodging, to the Chttn- 
gedal hotel (14 kil., about 1^ Inr.) A 
little beyond Yinje ch. the road 
crosses to the rt. bank of the Orun- 
geddl r., where a good road over the 
Byrt-eheien is soon reached. The 
river is followed for some distance, 
and after the Rtiaaaen has been sur- 
mounted it descends to the level of 
the SmOrklep, one of the largest 
arms of the Yinje lake. The river is 
then re-crossed near the junction of 
a mtn.-path (1.) to the great Tot^ 
lake, and soon, on the fiat shore of 
the Grungedal lake (1590 ft.), will be 
seen the hotel after which it is 
named, and where good trout-fishdng 
is obtainable. The waters of the 
Grungedal basin, like the li^es on 
the Haukeli-fjeld (over 3000 ft.), are 
frequented at this great distance 
from the seaboard by flocks of gulls, 
proving an abundajioe of piscatory 

Passing from this point numerous 
farms (one of which is the Nylcend 
postmg-stat), and skirting the lake, 
with a fine view of the Orungefjeld 
and a sight of Grungedal Ch, (4 kil.), 
the travellbr reiaohes the shore of the 
Tveite-vandf and is next driven along 
the short river-bank to the Edkmd (7 
kil.) branch of that lake, at a farm on 
which a halt is made when proceed- 
ing in the reverse direction. Gross- 
ing a river which rushes dowb from a 
valley on the rt., the Haukeli rd., 
built between 1858 and 1887 (112 
Jdl. to thd HiaJrdanger fjord), is at- 
tained. Amongst many other farms 
to the rt. is that of OrmeXwoaZ, where a 
sununer Pensidn/nat (boarding-hoilse) 
deservedly flourishes in a narrow 
valley, into which the beautiful Vafos 
falls (6r kil.), after its waters leave 
the Lofngeidvaaidf in a sucoesdion of 
bold leaps. From the 2 Flaathyl 
farms the scenery attains more. SJid 
moiie of a mountainous type and the 
road, ascends by the side of a foam- 
ing streamy one of the rapids of 


Route &.—8kien to Odde and Bergen. 

which is called the Rjukanfos, the 
third of its name in Norway. Of the 
numerous HQly or pools formed hy 
the river, the largest is the EikeU^ at 
an eleyation of nearly 2800 ft., dose 
to the Eikilirvcmd, Bising almost 
continuously, and crossing many 
brooks and tarns after leaving the 
river, the posting-stage is reached (in 
about 3| hrs.) at 

Botten (26 kil. from Nyliend stat.), 
on the VaagsUvaatd (2525 ft.), in 
which the t/rmU-fiahing is very good. 
Pta^rmigcm-shootmg and Reindeer' 
»talhing available in the proper 
season (see IntroduoUon) by ar- 
rangement locally. Lapps are fre- 
quently encamped in the neighbour- 
hood. Although the posting-stat. 
is comfortable and well supplied with 
food, &o., superior accommodation 
at moderate prices will be obtained 
at the Nyitdh hotel (8 kil. farther 
on). The snow-dad mtns. beyond 
add impressive grandeur to the 

Hence, after skirting the lake, and 
ascending a valley with birchwood 
copses, several streams and small 
lakes will be passed. Soon to the 1. 
will be seen Vasdabeggen (5515 ft.) 
and other mtn.-peak8. Halfway to 
the next stat. a view is obtained of 
the grand Kjcela/ocmd (lake : 2970 
ft.) and of high peaks in 4 differ- 
ent prefects. Mention must be made 
of the EjoelaUnd to the S. The country 
becomes entirely treeless on reaching 
(in about 2^ hrs.) 

HankeU-toter (18 kil.), at the £. 
end of the Staavand (8086 ft.) Ex- 
cellent accommodcUiofi and food^ at 
reasonable prices fixed by the Tourist 
Association, which has reformed this 
stat. The large dining-rocHn in the 
Beataurant is very elegant in the 
artistic simplicity imparted to it by 
varnished pine and national orna- 
mentation. Opposite is a building 
in the form ol an old Stabur (store- 
house), with cosy bedrooms upstairs. 
The prindpal deeping accommoda- 
tion is, however, in the large house 
diagonally opposite the restaurant. 
The latter, as well as the $tabur, is 

available only between June 15 and 

In the afternoon large herds of 
reindeer may be seen descending to 
the lake from the heights on which 
they browse. At such a height the 
scenery is naturally wild and deso- 
late, and is rendered still more weird 
by patches of snow in hollows and 
by floes of ice on the lake, even in 
July and under a burning sun. The 
mtn. air becomes sharp and chilly 
early in Aug., and showers are not 
unfrequent. Travellers should be 
provided with wraps and waterproofs. 

[On the reverse jonrnej tbe posting<-rate 
hence to Botten is 11 '6. per ]dL,and cart 36 '6. 
A fixed charge of 6 kr. for 1 person and 8 kr. 
for 3, is made from the ScOer to Gryting 
(Bridal). (Seebeiow.)] 

From the Scater the Journey is 
resumed by the excellent carriage- 
road made in 1886, which runs, 
through scenery of wild gruideur, 
first idong the shore of the Staavand 
and ihen through a gorge past Ule- 
vaager, A short distance beyond, 
the Ulevand will be skirted, and the 
prefect, of Bergen will be entered after 
surmounting &e Nupeaae, the grand 
Store Nup mtn. becoming visible to 
the rt. The road ascends gradually in 
long Eigzags ; and, as the horses can 
proceed only at a walk, travellers wiU 
prefer, in favourable weather, to take 
on foot the mtn. -paths, by which the 
distance is considerably curtailed be- 
tween each curve. Magnificent views 
down the road. In less than 2 hrs. 
the wild Dyrshar pass is entered. 
The highest point of the road, or 
watershed (8706 ft.), is attained be- 
tween the DyremU to the rt. and the 
QrothdU to ike 1. 

A Cavm (''Yarde ") to the 1. com- 
memwates a journey made by King 
Oscar II. in 1879. Much snow gene- 
rally lies in the ndghbourhood of this 
point. After driving for a diort dis- 
tance along a level, &e road begins to 
descend, and, at about 18 kil. from 
Haukdi, a short halt for cgftee, ale, 
and even solid refreshments is made 
at the SvandaU wayside Inn^ where 

Route 5. — Roldal Hotel. 


anglers can obtain aooommodatiDn 
(6 beds). The trout-fishing in the 
lakes below is good. 

In about \ hr. henoe, a^er passing 
the StavsmU peak (rt.) and the Sta/vs- 
tjem (tarn), the magnificent descent 
into the EMal valley commences. 
To the rt. opens the Tarjebu-dal, iiov^. 
which the Risbu-Aa (rivnlet) issues. 
Grossing to the rt. bajik of the latiter, 
the traveller is whirled down wind- 
ings of such boldness %s to fill the 
mind with no small amount of appre- 
hension. After passing Lia Scster 
the traveller gets, at AnAtmanU, a 
grand view of the Bifldals-saata and 
the Ekkjeska^y and a fine glimpse of 
the RblddL-vand. The Valdai is then 
entered, and the blue waters of the 
river that flows through it crossed. 
The pretty Niivle-fos next confronts 
the traveller, the ^'e^2and«»t«^ appear > 
ing to the 1. Amidst lovely scenery, 
in strong contrast with that of the 
mountainous district now so far 
behind, the road descends to the pic- 
turesque i^^Z^Z lake (3 sq. nuin area), 
and, after a drive (including halt) of 
4^ hrs.,the traveller hails with delight 
a rest at 

Boldal Hotel i( (30 kil.), where 
every comfort and the best of cheer 
await him. This is a very lovely place, 
and well worthy of a stay of soiqa days. 
The trout-fishing in the river above 
and in the beautiful lake below affords 
very good sport. 

In the Ch. on the plain on the other side of 
the lake are visible txaoes of the original aa» 
edifice of wood. Until 1836 the omcifijt above 
thedooropening into the chancel was an object 
of pilgrimages from the W. coast districts as 
well as from Telemarken. It was reputed to 
have miracnloas healing properties, and the 
ch. loft contains a large collection of thanka- 
glving-ofCerings in the form of miniature 
wooden legs and arms. A sflyer casket was 
presented to the ch. in 1704 as an intercession 
against a troublesome visitation of wolves. 
Among other objects that are also preserved 
may be mentioned an old oenser. llie pulpit 
is dated 1627, the altar-piece (painted by 
Gotfrid HendtasoheU, of Silesia) 1629, and the 
font 1626. 

[Thisia the point from which travel- 
lers take (and vice versd) the mag- 
nificent route to Sand in B^ffylhe^ in 

connection by str> with Stavanger 
(Bte. 21).] 

At about 3 kil. from the hotel, viz. at 
jSoore) a road branches off (1.) to the 
SuMai (Sand I Bte. 21). Passing the 
fine Br^oim ^ hotel (whence a splen- 
did view), the road winds up over the 
Saarebrekker until its sununit (3393 
ft.) is reached, after a drive of about 
3 hrs. (15 kiL) Pedestrians can 
avoid the tediousness of being driven 
at a foot-paee up the numerous zig- 
zags by taking short cuts along 
paths that will be discernible. From 
^ the Elversvand the great Fo^fefonn 
glacier breaks into view (in the 
happy absence of mist), and soon the 
Seljestad glen is enteced, the present 
road replacing the old dangerous 
bridle-path, which will be seen run- 
ning to the 1. In bold windings, and 
amidst scenery of the grandest charac- 
ter, the road descends to the dark 
Chr»vand (2800 ft.)« at one end of 
which will be seen a WaterfaU* A 
splendid view then c^ns of the 
charming Sk<xredal, the mtns. behind 
which are covered with the Folgefonn 
snow-fields. The latter are kept in 
view, and, in 40 min. after commencing 
the descent, travellers arrive at 

Seljestad stat. and hotel (very good) 
(28 kil.,1 about 4 hrs. from Bdldal). 
The glen in this part (alt. 2027 ft.) is 
of much grandeur, the Folgo^ Saue- 
mUt and other mtn.-tops being in 
full view. 

Descending gently* after a rest, 
through scenery that becomes more 
and more wooded, the river is crossed 
a second time, and soon will be 
reached a bench placed by the side of 
the rook, from which can be admired 
(1.) the SmlOrtjemfoSj tumbling down 
into an abyss from a considerable 
height. A little way farther on, in the 
JUsendal, the road becomes very 
beautiful, and the views are equally 
fine when travelling in the (4>pQ8ite 
direction. After crossing a bridge, 
the rivev is retahied on the 1. hand. At 
the point where the valley contracts 

> Actual distanm 30 kiL 

42 Route 6. — Chrisiiama to Kongsherg wnd the Rjuhcmfos. 

(about 1 kil. from a cross-road) the 
EspeUmdsfoSi one of the most pic- 
turesque in Norway, will be seen on 
the 1., and, a short way beyond, the 
spray of the fine Skarsfos and Laate- 
fos is frequently felt on the posting- 
road, close to which their Toluminons 
waters unite. Between them is an 
hotelf to which visitors at Odde drive 
in combination with an excursion to 
the BuarbrcB (glacier), (see Odde). 
The height above the waterfalls can 
be reached in 25 min., by a convenient 
pathway. The river by which they are 
formed rises in the Reinsmms-vand, 
The Vifos, or HUdalsfos, will be passed 
at Hiidal farm (about 5 kil. from the 
Skarsfos), and the N. end of the Sand- 
vend-vand will be reached after pass- 
ing one of the prettiest parts of the 
vaJley. On the rt. the Tjofmadalsfos 
will be passed, and, on the W. side of 
the lake, the Strandefos, at Strand 
farm. The blue ice-masses of the 
BuarbrcB soon open out on the 1., and, 
after crossing by Vashm bridge, the 
traveller finds himself, after a drive 
of 2^ hrs., at the Hwrdcmger hotel of 

Odde^ (26 kil.) (For description, 
ike, see Bte. 23.) 



(by rail) ; 


(by road and str.) 

[Fare, Snd ol.* expr., 6.20 kr. ; mixed train, 
4.70 kr. Two trains daily in fi^ and 4^ hrs. 
Distance 98 kil.] 

1. Chbistianu to Eongsbbbo. 

(See Bte. 4 for journey to and de- 
scription of Brammen (53 kil.), wh«re 
earriages are changed.) 
' No Ist cL 

On leaving Drammen the train 
ascends the broad valley of the river of 
the same name, the rt. bank of which 
it partly follows, affording pretty 
views to the rt., and, after passing 
the old Strtfm farmhouse, pulls up at 

Gulskogen (66 kil.) The next stat. 

IQandalen (64 kil.) Lower Eker 
ch, on opposite side of river. 

In the distant background vKll be 
seen (1.), after a short run, the Jons- 
knut (2978 ft.), and, after crossing the 
small Lo^lv, carriages are again 
changed at 

Hoagsnnd (70 kil.) Bvff. The 
main line continues to Krdderen (N.) 
and HiSnefos, and the Bandsfjord 
(N.E.) (Btes. 7 and 9). The river, 
which rises in the great Ekem lake, 
is navigable up to the HeUe/os, the 
last of its falls, situated not far from 
the rly., although not visible from it. 
Good salmon-fishing in the pool 
below. Hence a branch line proceeds 
S.W. through a highly cultivated and 
fertile district, passing 

VeBtfosBen stat. (75 kil.) Several 
factories. The low rounded top of 
the Jonsknut in view. Hence the line 
runs along the bank of a rapid river, 
issuing from the Fishmn-vand^ con- 
nected with the Ekem lake, which is 
bounded on the E. by high mtns. 
(Strs. ply on both lakes, but irregu- 
larly.) At the next stat., 

Barbo (81 kil.), will be seen the 
pretty brick Gothic Ch, of Fiskum, 
on the N. shore of the lake : the old 
Wooden ch, standing below it. Bun- 
ning next through a narrow valley, 
the train reaches, still in pretty 

Krekling stat. (85 kU.) The Slmm- 
fjeldene (2950 ft.) come in view, and 
ihen the train stops at 

SkoUenborg stat. (92 kil.), in a 
sterile district. The Labrofos (gene- 
rally visited from Eongsberg) is only 
1 m. to the S. Pedestrians bound 
for Telemarken, over the Meheien, 
start from here. The train now runs 
nearly N., keeping the Laagen (pro- 
nounced Logen) river to the 1., and, 
after passing through a wood, stops at 

Route 6. — Kongsherg. 


X0N68BEEG ^ (98 kil.) Buff. Pop. 

This long, straggling town, pictu- 
resquely situated on the Laagen river 
(which, flowing through the Numedal 
and falling into the sea at Laurvik, 
here rushes like a cataract below the 
bridge), bears all the characteristic 
features (smoke and dirt) of a mining 
district. The houses are mostly of 
wood. The Ch, (1761) and the Twjsm- 
hall are substantial brick buildings. 
A Monument to Christian lY. com> 
memorates the foundation of the 
town by that soyereign. 

Eongsberg owes its origin to, and is 
celebrated for, the rich SUver-mineSt 
belonging to the State, situated about 
7 kil. W.S.W. of the town, on the 
Telemarken rd. 

There are also in the town a MM, 
built in 1840, a Small-arms mawu- 
factory. Powder-mills, and Smeltmg- 
house (erected in 1845 for reducing 
and refining silyer-ore and manufac- 
turing cobtJt, as used in commerce). 
Specimens of the silver and of the 
cobalt pyrites, in the various stages 
through which they pass, can be 
purchased at the smelting-house. A 
fine collection of the local minerals 
can be seen on application at the 
Mine offices in the Market-place. 

Permission to visit the mines is 
obtainable at the offices, but only the 
specialist will oare to take the trouble. 

[Except on Sat. and Sun, (and before 
4 P.M.), the mines can be entered from the 
Soffffrekd^ the miners' quarter of the town, 
whence an ascent is made to the 

Christians stott (adit), 300 ft. below the 
Fredriks stall. It is followed for a dii^nce 
of aboot 2 kil. to the Kongen*s Ombe, whence 
the Tisitor will be glad to reach ** grass," 
without proceeding nearly a mile forther, to 
the Gottes Bi^fe shaft. 

The rock of the Kongdborg mining district 
contaios native silrer and sulphuret of sUrer, 
with copper pyrites, iron pyrites, and blende 
disseminated through it ; that is to say, in 
certain ranges of the strata from 1 to 60 fms. 
broad. The dip of the strata to the E. is 
from 50 to 80 deg. The rock in the whole 
mtn. is mostly gneiss, with layers of mica and 
hornblende. The principal mine (Konffen'i 
Orube\ now about 2000 ft deep, is said to 
have been discovered in 1623 by a shepherd, 
and was first worked in 16S4 by CJhridtlan lY. 
Only 4 or 5 of the mines are of importance out 
of 100 that have boen opened. The famous 

mass of silver, about 6 ft. long, 2 ft. broad, 
and 8 in. thick, now in the Natural History 
Museum at CopNenhagen, was raised in these 

Other Excursions. — The Skrim- 
f jeldene (2950 ft.) are 20 kil. S. of the 
town, and can be ascended in 1 day, 
in combination with a look at the 
Labrofos (136 ft.) and the huge Wood- 
pulp miU worked by its water-power 
(7 kil. from the town). 

The ascent and descent of the 
Jonsknut, which the traveller will 
have seen from Hougsund (see above), 
can be made in 6 hrs. (Guides at the 
hotels, from which magnificent views.) 

2. eonqsbebo to tinnosbt and the 

Engaging a conveyance at Eongs- 
berg (vide Index for prices), whence 
the journey can be continued 
through a fine summer's night, 
Tinnoset can well be reached in 11 hrs. 
The road is very pretty, first along 
the rt. bank of the Laagen* for about 
7 tdl., and then through the wooded 
Jondal (valley) to the 1. After pass- 
ing Jondal Ch. the river is crossed, 
and a halt made for ^ an hr. near 
the Storfos, about half-way to Bolk- 
esj5, the overlooking heights of which 
have to be crossed at an altitude of 
about 1800 ft. On the descent a 
beautiful view is obtained of the lake 

Bolkesjo, where the horses are 
rested for about 2 hrs. at the excel- 
lent Hotel of the same name (25 kil. 
from Eongsberg), with which (as well 
as with Skien) there is communica- 
tion by telephone. The tops of the 
Oausta, Bkfjeld, and lAfjeld mtns. 
close in the &ie landscape to the W. 
At a lower level than the Bolkesjd, 
the great Fol^G lake adds to the 
beauty of the scene, and offers good 
sport (trout) to the angler. Boats 
are available on those lakes to take 
the traveller to Vik, 3^ hrs. walk to 
Tinnoset. This is idso a very pretty 

» For salmon-flahing in the Laagen, see 
" Angling," in Introdvetion. 

44 Route 6. — Christiania to Kongsberg and the Rjuhanfos. 

excursion for those who make a stay 
at Bolkesjo for health and repose. 
From the hotel balcony a good view is 
obtained of that part of the Lifjeld 
mtns. (about 5100 ft.) on which, in 
Nov. 1B70, aeronauts descended with 
despatches from Paris, in 15 hrs. 
Had it not been for a lucky encounter 
with woodcutters (whose match-boxes 
told the bewildered travellers they 
had landed in Norway) they would 
necessarily have perished in the 

For aboujt 11 kil., as far as Vih^ the 
road from Bolkesjo is bad, being both 
hilly and sandy. It then becomes 
good in the valley of the Tinne river, 
issuing from the Tinnsjd (650 ft.) 
In 2 or 3 hrs. Oransherred ch» is 
reached, and the river crossed and fol- 
lowed on its rt. bank along the 
Hitterdal rd. to 

TinnoBBt Hotels (33 kil.), where 
good food and lodging will be found, 
at the S. end of the lake, about 37 kil. 
in length and 3 kil. in breadth. Its 
sides are partly wooded, partly of a 
rocky character. There is trout-fish- 
mg in the river issuing from it, but 
anglers should not go in a boat with- 
out a local rower, the rapids being 

A str. starts daily (except on Sun.), 
when, as well as on other occa- 
sions, it can be specially hired for 
36 kr. (9 passengers, and 2 kr. for every 
additional one) for 

Strand (FagersPrand)^ which it 
reaches in 2f hrs. (Dinner on board ; 
ticket, 2 kr.) Stoppages are made at 
a few intermediate stats. Beyond 
Hovin (rt.) the mtns. rise considerably 
on the W. shore, to which the str. 
crosses in order to reach Busgrenden, 
A glimpse of the Bleffeld is here ob- 
tained. At Perskaasay on the same 
side, is a Waterfall formed by the 
Diger river, which issues from the 
Sjaaen lake. Returning to the W. 
side of the lake, the str. turns sharply 
round a point on which stands 
Haakenes farm, at the foot of the 
mtns. of that name, and where the 
scenery is finest. Entering the 
Vestfjordy a small arm of the Tinnsjo, 

the str. disembarks its passengers on 
a pier opposite the 

Fagerlund Hotel, « where convey- 
ances are engaged for Foa, a poor 
mtn. hamlet (22 kil.), reached in 
about 3 hrs., the entire excursion to 
the Bjukanfos and back being easily 
feasible in 7-8 hrs. From Strand, a 
road, almost level for 18 kil., ascends 
thepretty 7e«t^*ord valley, partly along 
the bank of the Maane river, after 
passing a small Ch, near Strand. At 
a distance of about 3 kil. the Midd&Ui 
r. (rt.) is crossed, and Oattstaj the 
highest mtn. in S. Norway (6170 ft.), 
bursts into view. Passing, in the 
pretty valley that faces Gkkusta, a 
place called MUand, the traveller will 
be taken along a level bit of road to 

Nyland (England) ^ about 10 kil. 
(1 hr.) from Strand, where those who 
desire to ascend the Gausta will find 
a small Iivn to the rt. of the road. 
The ascent can be made in less than 
a day (actually 6 hrs. up and 4 hrs. 
down), the first stage being Svineroi 
scBter^ where travellers can, if neces- 
sary, be roughly accommodated. 
From this point the stony summit of 
the mtn. is reached in 2 hrs., but 
not without fatigue. (Guide, 6 kr.) A 
mtn. HiU enables those who wish to 
enjoy the panorama (which is, how- 
ever, not equal to expectation)- to pass 
the night on Gausta. 

The traveller bound for the Bjukan- 
fos keeps on the road, which turns 
somewhat to the rt. after passing 
DaU ch, and farm. At Ingulsland 
(rt.) he will be at the foot of the 
steep side of the OaustahncBm, one 
of the most interesting parts of the 
Vestfjord valley. At Krosso the 
ascent increases, and soon the build- 
ings at Krokam, and the spray of the 
waterfall will be visible in the dis- 
tance. The Maane river will be seen 
below, rushing down wildly in a suc- 
cession of rapids. Then a bridge 
will be crossed over the Va>a river (a 
tributary from the rt.), and the drive 
will end at 

Vaa, Declining here the eervioes 
of one of the numerous boy-guides, 
the traveller follows a well-trodden, 

Rente 6. — Krokan ; the Rjukanfos. 


but partly rough, steep, and wet, path, 
and reaches, in J an hr., 

Krokatit where he will find an ex> 
cellent Inn^ belonging to the Tourist 
Association, which has affixed to a 
neighbouring rock a Marble tablet 
to the memory of its founder, T. J. 
Heftye, bajiker at Ghristiania. 
Splendid view E. over the valley. 
A path past the tablet brings the tra- 
veller in a couple of minutes to the 
point from which he is called upon to 
admire the 

^jnkanfos (the " Steaming Water- 
fall "). It is considered to be one of 
the finest in Europe ; for, apart from 
its grand surroundings, it has a sheer 
fall of about 800 ft., and when in 
volume certainly presents a magnifi- 
cent aspect. The effect is still more 
striking from a point lower down, 
which only the h^dy should attempt 
to reach. 

[(1) From the Bjnkan enterprising toorists 
can reach the Hourdcatgerfjord^ Odde being 
attainable on horseback and on foot in about 
5 days, and the Vdringfos and Eidfjord (the 
more difficult route) in about 4 days, entirely 
on foot, with a guide (In both cases) engaged 
for a fixed sum at Krokan. 

(9) A small driring road leads fromErokan 
to Maristieny^ where a magnificent yiew of 
the Bjukan 1b obtained. The fall can be ad- 
mired from FostOy a little farther on, where 
pedestrians must be cautious. Following the 
track, several ssBters are passed and Hollvik 
reached in 8 to 6 hr& (Tolerable quarters.) 
The Maane r. (the trotU-^iahing in which 
partly belongs to the Bkien Tourist Asso- 
ciation) issues here from the S.E. arm of the 
M)9*vand (2960 ft.), which is crossed (4 ka) 
in a boat to Erlangsgaard, The track thence 
is indicated by posts and calms.* It runs 
S.W. over marshy, uneven ground, and, later, 
S.E., before resuming its orig^inal direction ; 
and, after traversing some biroh-woods, passes 
SifUmbulien and SOremhytta saeters, from 
which a height is crossed and descended to 
QibOen farm (9 kil. : 3$ hrs., from Hollvik) on 
the W. arm of the di^ary-looking H jtevaod, 
crossed in a boat. On the other side, the track 
takes a more westerlydirectiou to Uvand^ and 
passes several seeters until it runs along the 
L (W.) bank of the Farhovd river, and then 
across marshes to J^Smikarhougen ssBter, 
continuing along the same bank of the river 
(passing, among other seters, that of Finitol, 
on a rivulet iaaaing from the BjGrtjBn). This 
being waded (when not too full), the pedes- 
trian will, in the vicinity of Qjuvland farm, 
get to the Baulaud parish road,which has to be 

* A road under jconstructlon here. 

* The offleiBl maps are ftiulty. 

followed W. to the grand Totak lake (34 kil. 
in length), where quarters are obtainable at 
Midgaarden (Gaard0&rd) (16 kil. : 4^ hr&, 
from GibOen). From this point the ascent 
of Skartmiten (about 4100 ft.) is worth 
undertakLng. The Rangild/osot the BUuelv 
is i\ kil. from this point. After rowing in 
an hour across the lake (6 kil., 1 kr. each) a 
road IB reached at Kostveit, whence the 
traveller can drive to Heggntdl stat. (about 
16 kil.)> on the main way over the Haukeli 
to Odde (see preceding fioute). 

(3) On the more difficult fruny? or horseback 
journey to the VOringfo* and Bicifjord, the 
first stage is to Hollvik (as above). A boat is 
taken thence to lijSutrand (3^ hrs.), and to 
the upper part of the Mfdnand in 3 to 4 hrs. 
more. After about | an hr. walk (3 kil.) 
humble quarters will be found at Mogen. On 
the second day the traveller will trudge 
towards the Q-juvsjb lake (N.W.), in which 
the trotUing is excellent. Farther, the path 
soon runs over marshy ground past 3 other 
mtn.-lakes, amidst desolate scenery. To 
the rt. rises the Normandtlaagen (4160 ft.) 
lake. After crossing the Beisa r., which falls 
into it, shelter, after much heavy walking 
during about IS hrs., is obtained in a hut at 
Btssabu. The night may, however, be better 
spent at a fisherman's hut before reaching 
that refuge. The succeeding day will be 
occupied in traversing the bleak and wild 
ffardang^r-viddOf partly over snow, to 
BcerrasUUen (25 kit) A good path runs 
(9 kiL) hence to the VSringfoi, a night's 
lodging being obtainable at H61 farm, 4 hrs. 
distant from EidQord (see Bte. 23).] 


Taking the str. at Strand fFager- 
strand)» the traveller will re- 
gain his conveyanoe at Tinnoset. 
The distance hence to Hitterdal is 
26 kil. along a good level road, at 
about half-way of which a chauss^ 
runs off (rt.) to Landsvcsrk (16 kil. 
from Tinnoset) on the highway to 
Odde, over the Haukeli (see Bte. 5). 

Travellers are attracted to Hitterdal 
by its grotesque Slav ch.f familiar as 
the chief architectural curiosity in 

Hitterdal eh. (keys at the manse opposite) 
is the largest and one of the most fmcient 
and interesting buildings in Norway, of the 
same period (12th cent.) and style as that at 
Borgund (Bte. 8). 

The situation is charming, in a broad belt 
of meadow-land occupying the centre of a 
wide undulating valley, the N. and S. sides of 
which dope gradually towards wooded up- 
lands. The ch. itself stands a little back 
from the road, partially hidden by an avenue 

* Spelt also HiterdaL 


Route 7. — Ghristiania to Bandsfjord. 

of trees, and in the centre of a grass-grown 
churchyard, which is separated from the 
roadway by a low stone wall pierced by 2 
red-tiled, roofed gateways. 

The building is entirely of pine, and the 
exterior, owing to a frequent coating of 
pitch, is of one uniform dark-red, tan colour, 
the roof and walls being overlaid with 
shingles, those of the roof rounded at their 
lower edge, the rest tooth-shaped. The 
general outline is picturesque, increased by 
the curious covered way running round the 
entire ch., and the fantastic gabled central 
tower, B. of which, at lower elevations, rise 
2 spires surmounting the chancel and the 

Three projecting gabled doorways on the 
S.W. and N. sides of the exterior gallery 
give access to the ch., the body or nave of 
which is about 40 ft. sq., with a flat ceiling. 
The B. end is prolonged by an oblong chancel 
of about 30 ft. by 26 ft., terminated by a semi- 
circular apse some 12 ft. In diameter, making 
a total length and width of 84 ft. by 57 ft. 

The S. door of the exterior gallery is the 
only one still bearing traces of the ancient 
carving, and Mr. Fergusson, in his Hand- 
book of Architecture, suggests that the 
panels may once have been adorned by 
Runic carving, which, as they decayed, have 
been replaced by plain timbers, detracting 
much from the original appearance. The 
restorations made in 1850 have also greatly 
tended to deteriorate the character of the 

The interior (in which details of Anglo- 
Norman architecture will be observed in the 
capitals of pillars and in the mouldings) is 
painted throughout of a light straw colour, 
with darker grained pillars, and the blank 
windows painted a bright green, elaborate 
dragon and snake carving filling up the 
spaces between the circular arches and the 
windows, most of which are modem. 

A gallery runs round 3 sides of the quad- 
rangular nave, broken at the "W. end by the 
principal interior doorway, the sides of 
which between the gallery stairs are carved 
in a remarkably fentastic way. Above the 
gallery are modem, plain glass window8,with a 
little colour introduced in the red, star-shaped 
centres. A carved wooden pulpit stands at 
the S.B. comer on a level with the gallery. 

In the archway connecting nave and 
chancel are openings to the sacristy, Ac. ; 
and an arcade, supported by 2 disengaged 
pillars, ornaments the sides of the chancel, 
in the centre of which is a plain grained 
wooden font in front of the altar-rails, which 
separate the chancel from the semicircular 
apse, the centre of which is occupied by the 
altar, covered by a red altar-cloth, dated 
1723, and surmounted by a large green and 
gold cross. Behind the altar is an ancient 
episcopal throne (or seat) ornamented with 
carved figures of horsemen, dragons' heads, 
and old Norwegian designs. Small lozenge- 
shaped windows are perforated in the sides of 
the chancel and at the back of the apse. The 
ceiUng is an Innovation, and replaces the 
original open roof. , ._. ^ 

Some curious carving and a picture of 

the Crucifixion, which formerly decorated the 
altar, now hang in the sacristy. 

On the opposite side of the way is an open 
wooden, gable-roofed Belfry, about 30 ft. in 
height, and in the same style as the chu 

The traveller need not tarry more 
than i hr. in visiting this curious 
edifice. He will then continue his 
journey along a good road, passing, 
after 1 kil., the old Lysth/us posUng- 
stat, and, if time permit, he can 
stop the carriage at the iron Ely. 
bridge over the Tinne river, and walk 
up its rt. bank to the Tmn-fos^ which 
works a large Saw-mill^ returning 
along the tramway on the 1. bank in 
I an hr. ; but the same way back is 
shorter. At about 7 kil. from Hitter- 
dal, the carriage will be left at Notod- 
den, ^ or at Tangen pier, on Hitterdal 
lake, from which strs. run to XJlefos 
(2^ hrs.) and Skien (see beginning of 



(By rail.) 

[Distance, 143 kil. ; time, about 6 hn. ; fare, 
expr. 7.10 kr.] 

(For journey to Hougsund, see 
Bte. 6.) 

From Hougsund (where carriages 
wiU have been changed) the train 
continues to run up the pretty vaUey 
of the Drammen river, full of small 
falls and rapids and frequently 
crossed. The DOviksfos will be 
passed at 

Skotselven stat. (80 kiL), while 
passing to the otherside of tne river. 
At the next stat., 

Aamot (86 kil.), will be seen on the 

Route 7. — Honefos; Heen; Bandsfjord. 


opposite (rt.) bank, amidst pretty 
Boenery, a waterfall formed by the 
Simoa (issuing from Sigdal) at its 
junction with the Drammen, crossed 
by a suspension-bridge. After pass- 
ing Embretsfos and Qjeithus paper- 
mills and the mouth of the Snarumy 
coming down from Lake Erdderen and 
the Hallingdal, the train draws up at 

Gjeithns (92 kil.), rt. bank ; Heggen 
ch,, and Modum inanse, to rt. A very 
short run brings the train to 

VikerBnnd (96 kU.; Buff,), from 
which is a short branch to Erdderen 
(see Bte. 9). Here the Drammen r. 
ti^es its rise in the Tyrifford (see 
" Excursions," Bte. 1). At a distance 
of about 5 kil. is St Olafs (Modmm) 
hydropathic establishment, « beauti- 
fully situated in a park, affording pic- 
turesque views, and in which is the 
Kaggefos, formed by the Snarum or 
Hallingdal river (Moderately good 
trout-fishing in it.) The "Modum 
bath " is a place of great resort in sum- 
mer, and most beneficial to invalids 
in the stage of convalescence, and in 
affections of the throat and chest. 

Hence the train runs along the W. 
shore of the Tyrifjord, the best views 
of the lake and of the W. slopes of 
the Krokskog (with the rounded tops 
of the Oyrihatigen, 2217 ft., and the 
Bvngkollmt 2266 ft.) being to the rt. 

Nakkemd stat. (105 kil.) and 

SlgsBTdalen stat. (Ill kil.), still on 
the Tyrifjord. Str. hence to Stmd- 
volden on opposite side of lake (see 
" Excursions," Bte. 1). The "Binger- 
ike nickel-mines " are close by. At 

Ask stat. (118 kil.) the line leaves 
the lake behind, and runs on to 

Honefos «(124kil.) Buff, This town 
(1250 inhabitants) is named after the 
great Waterfall formed by the Aadals 
river, which rises in Lake Spirillen and 
unites here with the Bands-elv, issu- 
ing from the Bandsf jord. When com- 
bined, these streams form the Stor-elVy 
falling into the Tyrifjord. The fall 
is not, however, imposing except 
after a flood (May or June) or during 
a rainy summer. Its several branches 
drive manysawand flour mills. Views 
from a bridge over the 2 rivers above 

the town, and from the 2 bridges 
within it. A walk of about 1 hr. 
brings the visitor to the beautiful 
HbfsfoSy by a road along the 1. bank 
of the river. The Sivenfos, a smaller 
fall, is a little higher up. The hotel 
at Honefos is a favourite resort botii 
of aliens and natives, and some days 
may well be spent here. The walks 
and drives in the neighbourhood are 
charming, and the trout-fishing not 
contemptible. A trip to the Ringkol 
above-mentioned (partly driving and 
partly on horseback in 5 hrs.) is re- 
commended on account of the fine 
view it affords of the Ringerihe, Per- 
mission to fish in the adjacent lake 
obtainable at the hotel. Information 
respecting several other charming ex- 
cursions will be given on the spot. 

The stat. beyond is 

Heen^ {131 kil.) Str. hence up 
Lake Spirillen (Yalders: Bte. 10). 
Posting-stat. To the 1. will be seen 
the Norefjeldy frequently covered with 
snow. The line bends suddenly to 
the E.,past the Bbjaas (1500 ft.) and 
the Ashelihoug mtn. (1400 ft.), and 
through districts partly wooded and 
scantily populated, before reaching 
the BandseVoy which it follows up to 

EAKDSPJOED ^ (142 kil. ; Buff,), 
where the river issues from the great 
lake of that name. (For description 
and journey beyond, see next Boute.) 


Route 8. — Ch/risiiama to Bergen. 



(By rail, str., and road.) 

[Bergen oftn be reached from Ohiistiania 
by 8 other routes, uniting at Leerdal- 
soren— tIz. the roads running seyerally trom 
Lakes Erbderen, Spirillen, and Mj'dsen (Btes. 
9, 10, and 12), but the route here described, al- 
though a little longer, is to be preferred for 
its greater beauty and interest.] 

Dist. Time dost 
Ul. about kr. 
Ohristlanla to BandsQord 

by rail (Ete. 7) . . 14» 6 hra. 7.10 
Bandsfjord to Odnvse by 

str. (Bte. 8) . . 72 6J hra. 6. 

Odnaas to LierdalsSren by 

roiid(Rte.8) . . 220» S-8dy8.46. 
Lssrdalsbren to Bergen 

by str. (Bte. 26) . . 280 20 hrs. 12.40 

Total . . 664 4-6 dys. 69.60 

Posting.— ¥oT a stolkjflBrre (2 
persons) the rate is 25 6, per kU. 
exclusive of gratuities (15 o. per 
10 kil.), but only 17 6. per kil. 
for a carriole. One of Bennett's 
vehicles recommended at a small 
extra charge. Apply at Christiania or 
Bandsfjord, or at Odnses on reverse 
journey. The charge for a carriage 
(2 or 8 persons) is 110-130 kr. ; 
gratuity, 5 kr. 

[A carriage for 2 persons can also be 
bargained for, the local drivers taking 66-70 
kr. When horses are engaged for the entire 
distance, only about 60 kJL can be done in 
1 day ; whereas by taking a relay at each stat., 
about 7 kiL can be accomplished per hour, or 
80 kU. per day in the middle of the summer. 
JHl. (for 4-6) starts daily. Fare, 84 kr. 
Luggage : 40 lbs. allowed. Seats should be 
secured in advance, as those conveyances, as 
well as the stats, at which they stop for 

Pay for 238 kiL 

meals and for the night, are often fall at the 
height of the tourist season. 

The freight of a carriole on board the 
Bandsfjord str. is 2.40 kr., and of a carriage 
4 to 6 kr.] 

(For the journey to Bandsfjord, see 
Bte. 7.) 

The BandflQord (45 kil. long, with 
a maximum width of 4 kil., and 
426 ft. above sea-level) is one of 
the longest lakes in Norway and 
the fifth in area (about 53 sq. m.) 
It is separated on the E. from the 
Mjdsen by a mtn.-ohain, and on the 
W. from the Spirillen by another 
ridge of about the same height (1650- 
2300 ft.) The populous and fertile 
district by which it is bordered on 
the S. is called Hadeicmdf and that 
at the N. extremity of the lake, Land, 
In most parts the Bandsfjord, which 
does not offer any great variety of 
scenery, is more like a river than a 

1. By Str. from Bandsfjord to 

The sl/r.y on board which excellent 
meals are provided, stops at about 
10 piers on its way to Odnses. Soon 
after leaving the Bandsfjord river (fre- 
quently obstructed by logs) it passes 
the Hadelands Glass-workSt where 
it crosses over to the W. side of the 
lake. On the opposite flat shore are 
several large farms, Jcevndker ch., and 
Velo (on an eminence), the residence 
of the district judge. Betuming to 
the £. shore, the str. stops at 

Boenlandet, Elvetangen, and 
Hangslandet. A little beyond the 
latter stat. a glimpse of the SOlvsberg 
wiU be obtained, and then the Hvate- 
hyhcmvpen (2493 ft.) will be seen 
before reaching the prettily situated 
stat. of 

Eokenyiken (nearly 2 hrs. from 
Bandsfjord). King Halfdan the 
Black (a.d. 860) was drowned while 
crossing the ice to this place. The 
Brandhukol rises behind the large 
farmhouses that will be passed. A 
short distance beyond the Ch. and 

Route 8. — Tonsaasens Sanatorium ; Frydenlund. 49 

tanna of Nes (ri.) the widest part of 
the lake is reached. The str. next 
stops on the £. shore at 

BenteboUet on the W. side of 
which towsrs the Skjyktiaaa. 

In about 20 min. alter crossing to 
the W. side, the pier at BjonerHen is 
reached. A road (about 11 Ml.) runs 
hence to the SpirUlen lake, passing 
the W. and E. Bj<mevand lakes. 
In J an hr. the str. stops at 

Sand, on the E. side of the lake. 
Enger ch, not far. Soon after, a 
stoppage is made at 

Bi/ngelien, on the W. shore, and 
next, in about 4 hrs. from Bandsf jord, 

Faldsvandet on the E. side. In 
10 min. more the str. reaches 

Sofj where a Ch. and Middle- 
school house will be seen. A. road 
and footpath hence to Vestre Toten, 
whence a good road to Sivesind, run- 
ning to W, Toten, mosen lake, and 
Gjiyvik (see Bte. 12). 

Fluberg, 6 hrs. from ^andsfjord. 
The Ch. (of S. Land), set off by weep- 
ing birches, will be seen on the rt. 
Entering the northernmost bay of 
the lake, surrounded by pretty mtn. 
slopes, the 2 principal valleys of 
N. Land open out on the 1., whilst 
to the rt. the road to Gjovik (see 
Bte. 12) comes down to Oranum 
posting-stat. The str. is next moored, 
in about 5| hrs., at 

OdnsBS. « (For conveyances hence, 
see head of Boute, and apply to 
Bennett's agent.) 

2. OdncBS to Lc&rdalsGren by Rood, 

When the str. arrives early in the 
evening, it is advisable to post on at 
once to 

Tomlevolden stat. (17 kil., about 
2 hrs.), a typical Norwegian farm- 
house affording good accommodation. 
Free trout-fishing here and in the 
Etna river. 

At Hdljerasten (7 kil.) the Etna 
r. is crossed (a fine view of its valley 
opening out from the bridge), and the 
Valders district is soon after entered. 
At Trondhjemy where a short halt is 

[Norway— yi. 92.] 

made, a long ascent begins. After this 
has become somewhat less steep, the 
level summit is reached at 

Sveen stat. (17 kil., pay for 18), 
a small but comfortable stat. on the 
N.E. side of the Tonsaas. In summer, 
first sight of snow is here obtained, 
with a beautiful view of the Etna 
valley, alongside of which is that of 
the Bcegna, 

[Tonsaasens Sanatorium^ (1970 
ft.) is 3 kil. beyond, and 5 hrs. drive 
from OdnaBS. A highly salubrious 
and much frequented hydropathic 
resort. A dU, runs to it. Beautiful 
views, and many pretty walks and ex- 
cursions to be made. FishiTig and 
shooting. Boats on the lake. Postt 
telegraphy and telephone. At a dis- 
tance of 6 kil. from Sveen, and 3 
kil. W. of Tonsaasen, is the Breid- 
ablik Hotel and Pension « (on the 
Spirillen route), also beautifully situ- 
ated, and a pleasant resting-place. 
Views of the Jotuuheim mtns. and of 
a splendid waterfall.] 

At a distance of 5^ kil. from the 
Sanatorium, the summit of the road, 
which has been running between 
smaJl lakes, bogs, and pine-woods, 
will be attained at an altitude of 
about 2070 ft. A magnificent view 
hence of the mtn. land between 
Valders and HaUingdal, some of the 
peaks (over 7000 ft.) of the southern- 
most chain of the Jotunfjelds being 
seen 96 kil. to the rt. 

In fine, sunny weather a panorama, 
unsurpassable for grandeur, will be 
enjoyed by taking a path to the 1. (5 
min.) Descending the valley of the 
Bcegna river, where the Spirillen 
route to Valders unites (Bte. 10), the 
traveller arrives at 

Frydenlnnd stat.* (18 kil., pay 
for 23), in Nord/re Au/rdal, where very 
good accommodation will be found. 
This is a populous hamlet, serving 
as an administrative and judicial 
centre. Aurdal ch. close by. A 
grand view from the hill above the 
stat. Game abundant. 

[Junction with road to and from Spirillen 
lake, vid Fjeldheim (Bte. 10), a mtu.-road 


Route 8. — Ch/ristiama to Berg&n. 

(nearly S days on foot ; guide^ 30 kr.) ; also 
hence to Viko (Rolf shut) on the Hallingdal 
(Kr<)deren) route to Laerdaladren (Rte. 9). 
The following places will be passed : Hovcy a 
pretty summer Pensiorit where hare and elk 
shooting is obtainable ; Ol^'den ZaiEr<;(in2 hrs.), 
crossed in a boat supplied from Hove. At the 
S. end of the lake PardU sceter^ also a Pen- 
sion ; SSndre market, or Sinderlien, on the 
Titleia r. ; Vcuet sceter (3 J hrs.) ; Sanderstdlen 
(4^ hrs.), a summer Pension (fair accommo- 
dation), with good ptarmigan - shooting in 
autumn ; Mone sceter (6 hrs.) After trudging 
over some bogs, a road will be reached at 
Brauiemo sceter (8^ hrs.) ; and in about 3 hrs. 
more the traveller can be at Bolf shus.] 

Continuing the Yalders route along 
a tolerably level road running high 
above the BcBgnaj the source of that 
river in the Aurdalsfjord (one of a 
series of long lakes) will be reached. 
Fine view from Onstady before passing 
the District prison. Beyond, to the 
rt., is the fine Fosbraaten waterfall, 
while to the 1. will be heard the roar 
of the Veslefos (frequently visited 
from FagemsBs). After driving about 
3 kil. along the beautiful Stravdefjord 
(1148 ft. above sea-level, and about 
21 kil. long) a halt is made at 

FagemsBB^ (13 kil.), on the lake 
and at the mouth of the Nczs river. 
Excellent accommodation. A few 
days can well be spent here, the 
scenery being very beautiful, and 
attractive to artists. Fine trout to 
be caught in the lake and neigh- 
bouring streams, and dtick-shooting 

[Fagemses is a favourite starting-place 
for an excursion to the Jotunheim mtns. (For 
description, see Rte. 11.) The posting will 
be : On the Ostre Slidre road to Rogne, 17 
ML ; to Skammestein, 17 kil. ; and to Beito, 
11 kil. Thence on horseback (3.50 kr.) to 
Raufjordheim Itotel (11 kil.), on the shore 
of Lake Bygdin, from the opposite side of 
which the mtns. can be ascended. The car- 
riageable road runs on from Skammestein 
to the Vinstervand lakes.^ 

Crossing the Ncbs river (with pic- 
turesque cataracts), the shore of the 
lake is kept, passing the wooden Ch. 
of SvencBS. A bend in the valley 
soon opens out a grand view of the 
Jotunheim mtn. and its peaks. At 
UlnaBS Ch, a bridge crosses the lake 
to Steiende, where a river falls into 
it. Beautiful views ; many large 

farmhouses. The N. end of the lake 
will be reached at 

Fosheim^ (15 kil.) Gk>od quarters 
at the Fosheim ssBter, 1^ hr. from 
Fosheim. The pretty Fosheim-fos is 
close to the stat. Beyond, the road 
soon runs along the SUdrefjord (1237 
ft.) To the rt. is the wooden Ch. of 
Boent with an old belfry. A standard 
ell-measure is attached to the ch. door 
by a quaint ring of entwined dragons ; 
and the interior is also worthy of in- 
spection. Beautiful landscape, ter- 
minating on the W. by the mtns. in 
Yang district, of which the Bergsfjeld 
will be seen first. 

[The road mentioned above as leading to 
the Jotan mtns. branches off here.] 

On the 1. will be passed JSande 
(4 kil.), where travellers can be 
accommodated. Farther along the 
lake, which at one point contracts 
for a short distance, the scenery 
attains its greatest beauty. By the 
side of the road is the brick Ch» and 
Belfry of Vestre Slidre, with the Par- 
sonage beyond. A road runs off here 
to dstre Slidre (see above). 

[At about 6 m. from Yestre Slidre ch., and 
before reaching the crest of the hlU, on the 
Ostre Slidre rd., the KvitfiSvd eminence can 
be reached by a path to the rt. in about \ an 
hour. Splendid views here of the W. and 
E. Slidre valleys, of the Bitihorfi (5364 ft.), 
and of snow-clad mtns. N. of the Bygdin and 
Vinster lakes. A very short way to the W., 
where the Kalvaahdgda rises to a height of 
7150 ft., another very extensive survey of 
elevated mtns. can be enjoyed.] 

At a very short distance from Yestre 
Slidre will be passed first the attrac- 
tive Hotel and Pension Ei/nang (at 
Volden), where horses and carriages 
are procurable, and then (rt. ; gate 
and private road) the dlken Hotel and 
Pension (much frequented by invalids 
and tourists), beautifully situated 
about 300 ft. above Strande lake. 
Beyond, again, is the Husaker Pen- 
sion, The Kvithbvd (see above) can 
be conveniently ascended from these 
summer resorts in 3 hrs. (both ways). 
Fine view of the Slidrefjord, or upper 
part of Lake Strande, obtained from 
the Kvale ridge, after descending 
which travellers reach the stat. of 

Route 8. — Loken ; Oilo ; Chrindaheim ; Skogstad. 61 

Loken 3t( (14 kil.), where there is 
a large and excellent hotel. Good 
trout-fishing in Lake Slidre, olose to 
the hotel. From the Ldkensherg (15 
min. walk), a fine view opens oat, 
although a better one is obtained by 
riding (1| hr.) or walking (2 hrs.) to 
the top of KvUh&od (3363 ft.) 
Ascent for view to be recommended. 
About 5 kil. on the road to the next 
stat. is the fine Lofos, a fall of the 
Bcpgna, the 1. bank of which will be 
followed through scenery more or less 
wooded. Crossing that river and pass- 
ing (12 kil.) Vangsnc&s hotel (fair 
accommodation for summer boarders 
and others), beyond which (on the 
rt.) is a valley whence issues the 
Rysna (the Baufjord being accessible 
hence), the traveller is driven over a 
bridge spanning the Ala river to 

OUo stat. (15 kil.) Very good 
accommodation and food. In the 
upper storey of the house (grandly 
situated) are sketches and paintings 
on the walls, by elder and later Nor- 
wegian artists who have frequented 
Oilo. Pretty view of Lake Vangs- 
mjosen (1528 ft.) from a hill at the 
back of the stat. Within an hour the 
Htigakol can be climbed for a wider 

The lake (about^ 21 kil. long) is 
soon reached from Dilo and followed 
(on the S. shore) for a considerable 
distance. Bounding a promontory, 
from which will be seen the mtns. 
that tower above the lake, the road 
runs past the Kvamsklev ('* Ravine 
Cliff "), where it is partly roofed in, 
to protect it against the fall of rocks 
and stones. The road is a splendid 
piece of workmanship (formerly one 
of the worst in Norway), and rises, 
partly in zigzags, along the face 
of perpendicular cliffs, and amidst 
scenery of wonderful grandeur, being, 
in fact, the most striking of any 
scenery on the Valders route. To 
the 1. will be seen rising in a solitary 
group, the Orindadti mtns. (Grinde- 
fjeld top, 5364 ft., can be ascended 
in 4 to 7 hrs.), and in the centre of 
the landscape the steep Skudshom. 
Becoming level, the road runs past 

the wooden Ch. of Fangf, which now 
replaces the ancient Sta/o ch.^ sold 
to the King of Prussia in 1844 for 18Z., 
and set up by him on the Hochsberg 
in Silesia. In front of it, leaning 
against the churchyard wall, is a 
Stone, with the Runic inscription : 
** The sons of Gk>sa erected this stone 
to the memory of Gkmar.^' 

Driving past the old stat. of Tune 
i Vang, this stage ends at 

Orindaheim (Vang) * (10 kil.) Tele- 
phone. Beautiful views from the hotels 
of the VangsmjOs lake; The Grinde- 
f jeld can be ascended hence, with a 
guide and by a good walker, in 4 hrs. 
Saddle-horse also procurable at the 
stat., where herds of Reindeer may 
occasionally be seen. 

[At a little distance from Tane a magnifl- 
oent track, partly cut out of the rook, turns 
off to the 1. across the mtns ., and past several 
fine lakes, into the Krtideren (ffallingdal) 
route to Lserdals'dren (Bte. 9). A hard day's 

The road continues along the 
shore of Lake Vangsmjds (bounded 
on the N. by peculiar and impos 
ing mt'n.-turrets), which is left at 
Oie ch. (12 kil.), whence there is a 
mtn.-path to Nystuen on the Fillef jeld 
(J a day's walk). The Elvlunfos is 
near the ch. The lesser Strandefjord 
lake is then skirted before crossing 
a small stream and reaching, in 2^ 

Skogstad stat. (17 kil.), 1883 ft. 
Good accommodation. This is also 
a good starting-point for the Jotun- 
heim mtns. Trout-fishing in the 
neighbourhood and in the Tyi/n 
vand (12 kil.) From the Homtmd 
(4620 ft.), opposite the stat. (3-4 hrs.) 
a grand panoramic view of the Jotun 
mtns. is obtained. Ascent strongly 

[Tracks for pedestrians between this stat. 
and the next to the Jotun mtns., A.ardal, 
on the Lysterfjord (Sogn), the Bygdin lahe^ 


Here the ascent of the Fillefjeld 
will be commenced, after recrossing 
the small stream already mentioned, 
the road soon becoming in some 
places uncomfortably steep. The 


Route 8. — Christiania to Bergen. 

daseent in the reverse direction is 
natunJly still less pbasant. Vegeta- 
tion beoomes very scanty, and stunted 
birch and mtn.-willow are almost the 
only trees yisible. The wood of the 
mtn.-biroh is beautilolly veined, and 
is extensively used in Norway lor 
furniture and knick-knaoks. 

The barren and dreary plateau of 
the FiUeffeld is attained some dis- 
tance before arriving (in 1} hr.) at 

Nystuen stat. (11 kil., pay for 
17 both ways). (Alt. 3168 ft.) Gk)od 
resting-place when not overcrowded. 

[A splendid view of the snow-clad Jottin 
intns. (36 kil. distant) and of several Olaeiert 
-iirill be obtained by an hour*8olimb to the top 
of the hill to the rt. of the rood above the 
stat. In clear weather a wild and grand 
vista of lofty peaks and crags, including the 
QaUUapig (8397 ft.), the highest mtn. in 
Norway and in the N. of Snrope. Parts of 
the lofty Horunger also come into view. 
The ascent in question (strongly recom- 
mended even to ladies who are good walkers) 
can be more conveniently made from a point 
^ kil. on the road to the next stat^ whence 
a small path has to be olimbed along the 
eastern side of a stream. Two or 8 hrs. are 

The stat. is at the foot of the steep 
Siugtmda (4690 ft.) and at the W. 
«)xtremity of the Uirovand lake. 
GK>od fishing in the lake below and 
in the river between this stat. and the 
next. The flavour of the trout is 
celebrated, and they run to 2 and 3 
lbs. in the river. Before reaching the 
stat. travellers will observe the fine 
examples of "perched blocks '* on the 
edge of the ridges that run parallel 
to, and high above, the road. The 
Government contributes towards the 
maintenance of this stat., or ** Fjeld- 
stue" (Alpine hospice). The nar- 
rower sides of the bailoings face the 
W. in order to present as little sur- 
face as possible to winter storms 
from the westward. 

From Nystuen the road runs along 
the tJtrovand and ascends a long 
hill, and, reaching its highest point 
(3295 ft.), descends to the Smeddal, 
The old, shorter road (^ an hr. to the 
1.) is more interesting, and should be 
walked by pedestrians for fine mtn. 
views. The scenery is not invit- 

ing until the pillar marking the 
boundary between Norway on the £. 
side of tiie f jeld and Norway on the 
W. side is reached. It also shows 
where the ecoles. provs. of Hamar 
and Bergen are conterminous. Skirt- 
ing the 2 Smeddal lakes (3116 ft.) 
in the vall^of that name, the region 
of the birch is reached, and the fiirst 
eaters of the Sogne passed {Bru- 
scBter, 3240ft.) A short drive through 
a birch-wood, with the torrent of ti^e 
nascent Lcerddl river below, soon 
ends at 

Xaristuen (17 kil., pay for 22 in 
reverse direction). Hotel and Sanato- 
rium excellent, amidst scenery which, 
although still of a bleak character, is 
more pleasing than that at Nystuen ; 
while, notwithstanding the height of 
the stat. (2675 ft.), the air, infiuenced 
by sea-breezes from theW., is palpably 
warmer, though still bracing. The 
stat. was foxmded as a feldstue 
about the year 1300, and became 
private property only in 1847. Trout- 
flshvng (good in a lake 5 kil. off) and 
also ptamUgan-shooting available. 

[The StOetind (5818 ft) can be asoended and 
descended without difficulty or danger in 
6 hrs., and a third of the way can be done on 
horseback. In clear weather 100 of the Jotun 
peaks are visible from the rounded summit, 
as well as the Jdstedqly Folg^onn^ and other 
minor snow-fields or glaciers. 

A mtn.-path leads, in 12\ hrs^ to Famke 
in Hallingdal (Rte. 9). From the old road 
the Svarteberg (4330 ft.) can be climbed in 
1\ hr. from Maristuen.] 

From Maristuen the road keeps 
close along the banks of the Lcerdals- 
elv (about 200 ft. below it) through a 
magnificent pass. Enormous masses 
of rock, fallen in many places from 
the mtns. above, add to the effect of 
the scenery, and one of the most 
attractive districts in Norway is now 
entered, aboxmding in legend and 
romance. The vidley, hemmed in 
by huge rooky masses, appears at 
times to allow of no further progress. 

Several small streams and Water- 
falls are passed on the way to the 
next stat., the Bakkefos being more 
particularlv noticeable. At Borh 
bridge (2 kil. from the next stat.) 

Route 8. — Hwg j Borgund Ch. ; Husum. 


the Erdderen (HaUingdal) road joins 
the chau8s4e to Lserdalsdren. Great 
damage was done in 1873 at Borlo 
by landslips, whioh are frequent in 
the Lffirdal valley. The latter widens, 
and, passing the MarkeddU river, 
whioh runs down from the 1., the 
stage ends at 

HflBg (11 kil., pay for 17). Very 
good accommodation and food. An 
ancient upright Stone wiU be seen a 
little below the stat., near whioh is 
also a fine waterfall (Hcegfos), 
where fairly good trotU-fiahing is 
available. An excursion (6 hrs.) can 
be made (with a guide) to the Bringe 
mtn. (5606 ft.) from a meadow at the 
back of the stat., of which the situa- 
tion is very romantic. Ascent steep, 
but can be effected even by ladies 
accustomed to climbing. No danger, 
except in wet weather. Extensive 
view of snow-clad mtns. 

On leaving this stat. the traveller 
drives through the grandest scenery 
of the Laardsd, one of the finest valleys 
in Norway. The excellent road con- 
tinues to descend, the LsBrdal's tor- 
rent thundering close alongside, l^e 
falls and cascades whi(di that stream 
forms between the Fille-f jeld- and the 
Sogne-f jord are very numerous, and 
afford fine subjects for the pencil. 
Some of the peasants* cottages are 
particularly picturesque. They are 
built of stout beams on foundations 
of rock, generally 1 storey high, 
with a gallery outside when in upper 
storey is added. The roofs are con- 
structed of planks overlaid witii birch- 
bark covered with turf. Birch and 
alder and browsing goats are com- 
monly seen upon them. 

After passing (1.) Kvamme farm 
(whence there is a mtn.-path to Aarddlt 
at the head of the Sogne-fjord), at 
abouV 10 kil. from Heg, the traveller 
should stop at the Kirkevold hotel 
(good) in order to visit (close by on 
the road) the 

Boii^[tiiid o&., now disused, and of whioli 
the keys are kept at the hotel This most 
singular and interesting edifice, one of the 
two (see Hitterdaly Bte. 6) oldest stav chs. 
(and the best preserred) in Norway, is sup- 

pOMd to have been built in the 11th cent., for 
the arches and the apse are seanioircular, 
and it has all the characters of the style of a 
small German Bomanesqne ch., so far as it 
can be imitated in wood. It is of very strange, 
fantastic design, with oarred dragon's-head 
termlnUs to the numerous gables, whioh givt 
it almost a Burmese aspect. Built of pine, it 
is protected from the weather l^ coats of 
pitch. The nave measores only 89 ft, the 
circular apse 16 by (4. A low passage, about 
8 ft. wide, runs round the exterior of the 
body of the oh. The interior is almost dark^ 
for light has aocess only by the smaU round 
holes above the waU& There are JRunie in- 
teriptions on the W, door, made by "Thorer** 
. . . **on St Olaf s fisdr-day," and recording 
that *'thl8 Ohnroh is on Chnroh Oround." 
The belfry, partly restored in the 17th cent^ 
stands apiui;. It is covered with shingle, 
like the mtoy roofa of the oh. The bell 
within it is dedicated to **Sanotas Lauren- 
cius," but bears no date. 

After inspecting the ch. (in J an 
hr.> travellers are reoommeaded ta 
walk about 300 yds., up the hill, into 
the old romantio road whioh runs 
over Vimdhelle HiU to the next stat., 
which can thus be reached in about 
the same time (| an hr.) as the con- 
veyance will take to accomplish the 
distance (4 kiL) by the new road to 
Husum, which deseeinUi through a 
ravine. The entrance to tiiis should, 
however, be first inspected, the scenery 
being grand, and includes the fine 
Svarkgi^waterfaU, Windmgthrough 
the picturesque road, the end of the 
stage is reached at 

Husnm (13 kil.) Excellent ac- 
commodation and food. Good trout 
and salmon flshmg rbest in August). 
This is the centre of the finest scenery 
in the Lsrdal valley, and many 
channing excursions can be made, 
notably (in 4-6 hrs.) to the top of the 
Nonhaug on the L oank of tiie river, 
where a magnificent view of the 
Hortmger peaks will be obtained. 
The Okkm (5684 ft.) is also ascended 
from here. Aa/rdal can be reached 
in a day by a mtn.-path through the 
Lysnedah A very interesting part 
of the old road can be walked down 
to the narrow passage between great 
boulders that bears the name of 
gt, Olaf 8 Klemme. 

The road now followed runs, along 
the rt. bank of the river, which is next 
crossed by a stone brid^. Not far 


Route 9. — ChHstiania to Bergen, 

henoe will be passed the Oigars/oSy 
the river being still followed, partly 
under overhanging rocks, although 
an older road runs over the Seltaas. 
On the opposite side of the river is the 
frightfully steep old parallel roads to 
which the name of Galdeme is given. 
The oldest (rt.) dates from the middle 
ages. Beyond, the river is recrossed, 
and a pretty Waterfall passed. The 
river to the rt. comes down from the 
Lysnedal, On the top of the rocks 
to the rt. is a stone resembling an 
owl in form. After a considerable 
descent the pass opens out into a 
broad, fertile valley, and at a short 
distance 1. of the road is 

Blaaflaten (15 kil.) Very good ac- 
commodation. Salmon caught here. 
On the level road down the valley, in 
which traces of many landslips and 
avalanches will be noticed, the small 
B&afos (1.) will be passed, and the river, 
no longer so rapid, will be crossed. 
After passing Tiynjum ch.j and ob- 
taining a view of the AaJcen — some- 
what like the Gausta2(Telemarken) in 
shape — the road at last turns sharply 
to the N., past LcerdalsGren ch,y and 
terminates at 

LABDALSbBEir « (LcerdaJ) (11 
kil.) For description and continua- 
tion of journey to Bergen, see Sec- 
tion U., Bte. 26. 



(By rail, str., and road.) 

[This is an altematiye, slightly shorter, 
route, to be chosen by those who are already 
acquainted with the scenery in Yalders. The 
stats, on it are not as good as those in Bte. 8, 
but improvements are in progress. Laerd^- 
bren can be reached in 2 to 3 days through 


Dist Time 


kil. about 


Christiania to Krbderen, 

by rail. 

122 7 hrs. 


Krbderen to G-ulsvik, by 

Butt .... 

40 8 hrs. 


Qulsvik to LBBrdalsbren, 


207 2-3 dys. 


LsBrdalsbren to Bergen, 

by str, .... 

230 20 hrs. 


Total . 

599 4-5 dys. 


Posting. — Bates as in Bte. 8. Carriage 
(apply at Bennett's) for 2 persons, 100 kr. ex- 
cluslre of gratuity (6-6 kr.) Freight of car- 
riole, 9.88 kr. ; of carriage, 10.88 kr.] 

The rly. journey to Vikersund (96 
kil.) — Buff'i and change of carriage — 
has been described in Bte. 7. The 
stats, beyond are 

Hcere (101 kil.); HoU (104 kil.); 
Snarum (108 kil.) ; and Ula (113 kil.) 

The branch line (26 kil.) then 
reaches its terminus at 

Kroderen (122 kil.) Buff. Toler- 
able accommodation opposite stat., 
at the S. end of LaJce Eroderen 
(433 ft. above sea-level, 40 kil. long, 
and about 15 sq. m. in area). Some 
beauty is imparted to the lake (on 1.) 
by the Norefjeld (4953 ft.), which is 
often covered with snow in the early 
part of the summer. 

Boute 9. — Quhvik ; Nms ; Viko. 


At about 10 min. walk from the 
stat. is the pier, at which travellers 
embark on board the str. that mns 
in connection with the train, and on 
board of which a good dinner will be 
found ready. Steaming through shal- 
low water, with a pleasant, fairly 
cultivated landscape on either hand, 
the narrow Skinnestmd, leading into 
the Raaenfjordf will soon be passed. 
Another narrow channel (a river), 
called the Noresundf will be entered 
before passing Olberg (good quarters), 
after which the str. reaches the 
Noresimdj where the Norefjeld will 
be in full view. There are mtn. 
roads from Olberg to Sigdal and 
Eggedal, and a cha/ussie to HUnefos 
(Bte. 7). It is also, next to Norre 
(where the post-road crosses the lake), 
the best starting-point for an ascent of 
the Norefjeld (in about 10 hrs.) From 
Ghristiania, this is the first oppor- 
tunity of obtaining a view of the 
grander mtn. -ranges and peaks of 

Above the Noresund the lake widens, 
and the Blodfjeld (2965 ft.) will be 
seen. After several stoppages, the 
str. reaches the end of its voyage at 

QnlBvik, « at the outfall of the Hal- 
lingdal liver. The posting-stat (good 
night quarters) is about 1^ kil. from 
the pier. The ascent of the Norefjeld 
may also be made from here. Driving 
up the valley of the Hallingdal along 
a level road, the stage ends at 

Aavestrud (Flaa) (14 kil.) Good 
quarters, and also at Vik (10 kil. from 
Gulsvik). Between this and the next 
stat., the river expands into lakes, on 
the largest of which {Bromma) is 

BdrtruBS (17 kil.) Beyond, the 
road is partly hewn out of the side 
of the Beta mtn., high above the 
lake. Passing the District cA., the 
horses are pulled up at 

Nfles « (11 kil.) Good quarters. 
Becommended to those who push on 
from Gulsvik (in about 6 hrs.) This 
hamlet is the administrative centre 
of Hallingdal, with a gaol and many 

[On the reverse route, the river can be 
descended hence to Gnlsvi^ by boat (without 

danger when the water Is not low) in about 
3 hrs. (8-10 kr.) There are mtn.-roadB hence 
to Valuers (about 1 day), to NumedcU (6-8 
hrs.), and, without a guide, to Lake Spirillen 
(1-2 hrs.) Trout-fishing on the latter track, 
hi Strifen lake (sceter quarters). A road and 
path also lead (W.) to the Tunhifvd fjord 
(7 hrs.)] 

Keeping along the rt. bank of the 
river, and passing a saw-mill at a pic- 
turesque spot, a bridge (about 9 kil.) 
is crossed, and the 1. bank gained. 
The vc^ey begins to open out, and 
soon the river will be seen to take an 
abrupt bend to the W. A short dis- 
tance in that direction is Eolfshtts (a 
favourite stopping - place), where a 
Landhandler (store-keeper) provides 
excellent quarters, good trout-flshmgt 
and the means of making excursions 
in pursuit of pretty views. Close is 

Viko (Gol) stat. (20 kil.), prettily 
situated. Good trout-fishing , both in 
the river and in the Tisleifjord^ a 
large mtn.-lake, about 15 kil. N. 

[A mtn.-path connects the stat. with tht 
Yalders route, which can be joined hence in 
12 to 16 hrs., passing the Tisleifjord (13 kiL 
long), which is crossed in a boat. About 
half-way (in time) a bridge spans the Strandt- 
fjord^ on which is Iflnaes ch.^ whence FoshHtn 
and Fagerlund (on Rte. 8) are severally 7 and 
8 kU. distant. 

At Viko, a road (64 kil.) branches off to 
Torpe (well-preserved <too ch.\ Aal^ and Eol, 
and terminates at Oudbrandsgaard. Mtn.- 
paths thence to the N. end of the Hardanger 
(to Ose)^ and to the southernmost arm of the 
Sogne (AurUmd). Grand mtn. scenery.] 

The road soon leaves the Halling- 
dal river and ascends the Hemaedal, 
or valley of the Hemsilt which, at the 
point where it is crossed, forms a 
waterfall, and joins the main river. 
A steep ascent is made up the long 
zigzags cut out of the Oolsbakke 
(which a pedestrian can avoid by tak- 
ing the old road). The site of the old 
Ool stav ch.y now near Ghristiania, 
and replaced locally by a new one, 
will be seen half-way up. On the 1. 
rises the Skogshom (5641 ft.), the 
road running up a pretty pass. Pass- 
ing over to the E. bank of the Hem- 
sil, and driving through a somewhat 
monotonous tract, the end of the stage 
will be at 

Klevm (in Ool) (16 kil.) Toler- 
able quarters, Scenery uninteresting. 


Boute 10. — Christiania to Bergen. 

[At Ekre (4 kfl.) S mtn.-path8 will bring 
the pedestrian into the Yalders roate in 12 to 

The Veslehom rises to the L, and 
from it falls the Homsfos in 4 
streams, which are very pretty in the 
early part of summer. Passing 
Hemsedal ch,, and crossing over the 
TrUmselv, the halt will be at 

Fauske (Tuf) (20 kil.) Com- 
fortable quarters. (Jood trout-fishmg 
in the 2 rivers close to the farm, and 
in a lake 6| kil. distant. Oood reindeer- 
shooting m the district. Between 
OrOndalen (rt.) and MGrkedalen (1.) 
rises the KaHstHlherg peak in solitary 

[Boad and mtn. paths to Ny^uen on Val- 
ders route in about 16 hrs.] 

Hence the road ascends steeply the 
Morkedal, a desolate but grand-look- 
ing valley. A Uttle beyond this stat. 
the Hemsil forms to the 1., close to 
the road, the pretty Bjukande (steam- 
ing) /05, of no great height, and which 
can be reached by a path made and 
maintained by the Norwegian Tourist 
Association. This fall must not be 
confounded with the great and the 
small Bjukan faUs in Telemarken. 
In about 3 hrs. (the stage being a 
long and difficult one) the traveller 

Bjdberg (20 kil., pay for 30 to 
Tuf). Although as yet only a solitary 
hospice^ with dreary surroundings, the 
accommodation is neat, clean, and 
comfortable. It lies 3823 ft. above 
sea-level. Gk)od centre for reindeer- 
shooting and trout-fishing close by. 

[The ^5bergntit (5760 ft) can be ascended 
in 2 hra. Ifystum (on Yalders route) can be 
reached, vid the Eldrevand^ within a day. 
MarUttten (on same route) is 23 kil. distant 
by a mtn. -path.] 

After passing many scRters^ a 
pillar will be seen (about 7 kil.) 
marking the boundary between the 
" Stifts " of Christiania and Bergen. 
It is erected on the Eldrehaugj a 
remnant of moraines of the glacial 
period, and which forms the water- 
shed between the Drammen and the 
Sogne fjords. The road, more level, 
runs along the shor^ of the ^Idre- 

vand, affording a view of the Juke- 
legg (6288 ft.) At about 10 kil. the 
Bimunit of the road (8788 ft.), the 
highest in Norway, is surmoanted. 
After a rapid desoent, and orossing 
Drcbugheller bridge, the traveller 
alights at 

Breistdlen (15 kil., pay for 22). 
Comfortable mtn. quarters, witii rein- 
deer-stalking facilities. 

From this stat. the river is kept to 
the 1. At a steep part of the desoent 
(partly in zigzags) at BersWlen, the 
Berstblfos (wortib seeing) is a few 
minutes' walk (rt.) from the road (from 
which it is not visible). Scenery on 
this stage exceedingly wild and grand. 
Descending at last a long hill, to 
Borlo bridge, the traveller joins the 
Valders route at 

Httg (12 kil., pay for 15). (See 
Bte. 8 for continuation of journey to 
LsBrdalsdren and Bergen.) 

ROUTE 10. 


(By rail, str., and road.) 

[The map will show that, after leaving the 
rly. from Ohristiania, this route lies between 
the Bandsfjord and the Erbderen lakes, and 
joins the main Yalders rd. at Frydenlund 
stat. The road from the head of the Spiril- 
len (or SperiUen) is not, however, so good as 
that from the 2 other parallel lakes. It 
will be taken chiefly by those who are already 
acquainted with the other routes. If the 
water be not low in the Spirillen (respecting 
which inquire at Ohristiania), the journey 
can be accomplished in about the same time 
as in Rtes. 8 and 9, in the following seotionB : 

' III differently writtoi* VaJdret ojr Vafden, 

Route 10. — SpiriUm j Ncbs j Sorum. 


Gliristiania to Heen, by 
rail (on line to Bands- 
fjord) . . . .131 

Heen to Sbrum by 
str. . . , .66 

SQram to Frydenlund, 
byroad ... 51 

Frydenlund to Leerdals- 
bren, by road . . 162 * 

Laerdalsdren to Bergen, 
by str, . . . . 230 

Total . 

Dist. Time Cost 
kil. about kr. 

4ihrs. ) 

S^hrs. ) 

2-3 dys. 42. 

20hr8. 12.40 
. 630 4-5 dys. 64.20 

The posting-rates are the same as in the 2 
preceding Routes, but the number of horses 
(between the Spirillen and Frydenlund) is 
more limited.] 

(For journey to Heen stat. see 
Bte. 8.) 

A s^. awaits the train on Lake 
Spirillen, and gives ample time for 
luncheon before embarking at the 
hotel, Co and from which passiengers 
are rowed in boats ; and there is also 
a good Eestawrcmt on board. In case 
of detention at Heen, a trip can be 
made to HGnefoa (Rte. 7) by road 
(6 kil.), ot by a path along the river- 

The str. ascends the Bcegna river 
(locally called the Aadals-elv) between 
high and wooded banks. The first 
stoppage is at Skollerud, Aadakns ch. 
being seen to the rt. Soon after, the 
strength of the current and the wind- 
ings of the channel give interest to 
the voyage, which is for a few mo- 
ments interrupted at Bergaund farm, 
and again at Flaskerud, In 2J hrs. 
from Heen, the rapid Ecmgstriym is 
encountered, the str. having some 
difficulty (aggravated by floating logs) 
in entering 

SPIEILIBH, a pretty lake, about 26 
kil. in length and 13 sq. m. in area. It 
lies 536 ft. above sea-level, and is con- 
sidered to be more picturesque than 
the Bandsf jord. The foot of the steep 
Bamberg (1690 ft.) will soon be passed 
(beyond Viher and £Jnger), and the 
course up the lake continued towards 
Treknatten fjeld (about 3900 ft.) in 
Hedalen, of which a view opens out. 
The Btr. next stops at 

 Pay for 174 l?il, 

WaBB (NcBsmoen), at the head of 
the lake (to which there is a 
good road from Heen), and enters 
the BcBgna river, N<b8 ch. being on 
the rt. against a background of mtns. 
Passing under a long wooden bridge, 
passengers are set down at Oranum 
(4Jhrs.) A good station, reached 
by a good road when the str. pro- 
ceeds no farther than Nass at low 

[An interesting £icct<r*<o« (11 kiL) can be 
made hence (or from Sifrum, see below) to 
the E^ialen stav eh., about 600 yrs. old, al- 
though the aisles apparently date from the 
17th cent. It is connected with a tradition 
(current elsewhere in Scandinavia) relating 
to the Plague of 1349-60, when the entire 
valley is asserted to have been depopulated. 
A considerable time later, some hunters came 
across the ch., and found under its altar a 
bear, which they shot, and the skin of which 
18 shown hanging on a walL Its authen- 
wcity IS, however, more than doubtful. 
There is some fine carving in the porch. 

The Treknat (see above) can be easily 
ascended from this stat.] 

Depth of water permitting, the str. 
proceeds through a tortuous channel 
marked out by poles. On the rt. will 
be passed the pretty Fagemes farm- 
house, and on the 1. rises majestic- 
ally the Valdsrahom, Stemming 
next the Valderssirdm, the str., under 
favourable circumstances, reaches its 
destination at 

Sdrain. Good quarters. The ex- 
cursion to Hedalen ch, may be made 
hence in about 7 hrs. Fine views 
on road. Here (if not commenced 
earlier) the posting begins. 

[Bennett's carriages and carrioles (but few 
horses) available, even for the entire journey 
to Laerdalsdren, <fec.] 

On the first part of the stage, up 
the BflBgna valley, N. Hedalen Ch. 
will be passed, a road running off (1.) 
to the old ch. (21 kil.) above de- 
scribed. Beyond, the Muggeddla river 
is crossed, the stupendous Morkollen 
cliff being left behind. The road then 
runs across broad heaths, and, after 
becoming slightly undulated, brings 
the traveller to 

Oa/rthus (18 kil.) Thence it runs 
past the old Storsvem hotel (6 kil.), 
and, after surmounting a small hill, 


Route 11.— The Jotunh&im. 

crossea the Hiilera river, which falls 
here into the BsBgnaas a fos. The 
valley contracts between steep rooks, 
and the road leaves the rt. side of the 
BsBgna over a bridge, beneath which 
is the pretty Storebrufos^ close to 

Fjeldheim stat. (17 kil.) Oood 

[Close to Bang Gh.t a little beyond the stat., 
on the 1. bank of the rlrer, is the Krcemmer- 
moen Petuion (worked in connection with 
that of Breidahlik, Ete. 8). Near is a huge 
atone (Kongsten) in which inscriptions and 
eflagies hare been cut relating to various 
Norwegian kings, and to the artist himself 
(Ole Dbnhaug, who died 1880). On the rt. 
side of the river, on an eminence (4 kil. 
from the stat), is the curious old ch., newly 
restored, of Renli, attributed to the middle 
of the 13th cent. Its ground-plan differs en- 
tirely from that of other stav cA*.,and its open 
roof has been, fortunately, preserved. 

There is a good jwsting-road from Fjeld- 
heim to Jonsaasen Sanatorium (9 ML), and 
to Sveen stat. (see Bte. 8).] 

The splendid new road runs along 
the BflBgna, and from its highest point 
a view is obtained of the broad Val- 
ders valley. The summits of „ the 
Jotunheim mtns. enclose the Ostre 
SUdre valley. A gentle descent is 
then made down the TonscMSy and 
the views become more and more 
beautiful until the great Yalders main 
road is reached at 

FSTDENLUND (16 kil.) (For 
continuation of journey, see Rte. 8.) 

ROUTE 11. 


This remarkable region was un- 
known to the outside world until 
1820, but has lately become a 
favourite tourist-ground. (For a 
general geographical description, see 
IntroducHon : " Geography," Ac.) 

[The British tourist will more easily under- 
stand its limits by drawing a line from the 
head of the Lyster fjord branch of the Sogne 
fjord (Skjolden) S.S.B. to the N. end of 
the Aardalsvand, thence £. following the 
river, connecting this line with the Tyin 
lake; thence along the banks of this lake 
N.B. to Bygdin lake ; thenoe follow Bygdin 
lake B. to its end, and turn N. to the B. 
extremity of the Gjende (or Gjendin) lake 
and follow the river Sjoa Nj!T."Vr. nearly 
to BjJflstad ; then turn W. to the Tesse vand 
and follow the Smaadal, which runs nearly 
parallel to the Vaage vand, but turns up 
N.W. towards Lom ; then cross the water- 
shed into theBbverdal above Rbiseim; follow 
that valley and continue S.W. by the For- 
tunsdal to the starting-place at the head of 
the Lyster fjord. This will include an area 
of nearly 1500 sq. m. This space is oc- 
cupied by an irregularly distributed group of 
mtns., with highland vallqrs between them 
that radiate and zigzag in every conceivable 
direction. It is not a chain of mtns. nor the 
spur-lines of any chain, but a medley of mtns., 
valleys, tarns, torrents, and glaciers, includ- 
ing the highest peaks of the Scandinavian 
penin. The mtns. are designated, accord- 
ing to their shapes, as **Tind" or **Pig*' 
(peak), " Nceb " (beak), « Eom " (horn), "iW" 
(high plateau), «iVb«" (nose). The inter- 
mediate tarns, or lakes, are, as in other parts 
of Norway, indifferently indicated by the 
terminal of " Vand " or « <^'ff," the glaciers as 
" Bros " (pi. Brceer\ and small aocumulationB 
of permanent snow or ice as **£tul" (pL 

The whole region is uninhabited excepting 
during the summer months, when certain 
oases of pasturage are denuded of their usual 
snow-oovering, and the cattle are driven 
there, and cheese-making is conducted in the 
ppgter-lmts. These and tlje FJeldloeger and 

Route ll.^Approaehes to the Jotwnheim. 


" Tourist hoder ** (wooden bouses erected by 
the Tourist Association) are the only quarters 
obtainable. The "Tourist boder" hare been 
greatly improved, and serezal of them afford 
good quarters. 

The whole region is considerably elevated, 
is snowed up till about the end of June, and 
snow renuuns in all the shady hollows 
throughout the year. The vallcrys descend 
(but exceptionally) lower than 8000 ft. above 
the sea, and their upper gorges or connecting 
passes iBand)y rising to 5000 ft. and more, 
are for the most part filled with perpetual 

There are, however, many true glaciers in 
the " Jotunheim" — i.e, valleys filled with blue 
orevassed down-flowing ice, the overflow of 
greater accumulations above. But these 
glaciers are generally inferior to those of the 
Jostedal and Folgefonn. 

*' Jotunheim,'* or home of the Jotum 
(giants), is properly used as the name of this 
region or district, and " Jotunfjelde " for the 
mtns. of Jotunheim, Jotunfjeld being the 
singular. They include about 120 mtns., 
having an elevation of between 6000 and 8000 
ft. ; three-fourths of these are between 6000 
and 7000, and the other fourth above 7000 ft. 
high. The highest is the Galdhbpig, 8397 ft., 
and the Olitretind is but 17 ft. lower, viz. 
8380 ft. The heights of other mtns. will be 
given bdow. Some are snow-topped, but the 
majority culminate in dark rocky pyramids 
projecting above the surrounding snow. 

All the valleys are paths of brawling 
torrents, or rivers of considerable width ; the 
water of which, coming from the melting ice 
and snow, is always thick and muddy in the 
summer. These have to be crossed by wading 
or by stepping from boulder to boulder, or by 
the help of trunks of trees thrown across, 
excepting in the places where the Tourist 
Association has constructed bridges for the 
benefit of tourista It is in the Jotunheim 
that the value of this exceUent institution is 
best displayed. 

Food should be carried. In the huts 
erected by the Association will be found 
cooking utensils and fuel ; milk, cheese, and 
fladbrOd in most of the saeters. 

Only a few years ago carrioles or any other 
wheeled vehicles could not be used in the 
Jotunheim. Some highways have now been 
constructed between the great lakes and in 
connection with the main posting-routes. 
But in general the i)edestrian is paramount 
here. As Norwegian ponies are wondrous 
climbers, most of the following routes from 
place to place, and even some of the mtn. 
ascents, may be done on horseback, with 
occasional descent from the saddle at the 
steeper portions of a track. 

None but experienced mouutalneezB should 
attempt any of the routes through this region 
without a guide. A compass is indispens- 

The usual fee for a guide Is about 4 kr. per 
day. British and American travellers must 
remember that Norwegian eludes are com- 
monly landed proprietors, and not mere 
luggage-porters. They will carry a knapsack 
of moderate weight (up to about 20 lbs.), and 
exert themselves wulingly to diminish th9 

tourist's fatigue, but will not be imposed 
upon. If 8 tourists engage 1 guide, he will 
not carry the 2 knapsacks. 

All the routes have been treated below, as 
th^ may be done by average pedestrians. A 
horse will in most oases tntverse the ground 
a little quicker, but of course at a foot's 

Appboachbb to the Jotunheim. 

The irregular grouping of the mtns. 
and of the contingent network of the 
courses of rivers and valleys is so 
complete that it is not easy, or, 
indeed, possible, to divide this district 
into symmetrical main or branch 
routes, or to carry out any consistent 
principle in the arrangement of ex- 
cursions. The following include the 
chief approaches to the wild snow- 
dad peaks and valleys in this gener- 
ally described route : 

A. From the Gm>BBAin>Bi>Aii, by 3 
different ways (Bte. 12). 

B. From the Soonefjobd (Bte. 26). 
G. From the Bomsdal (Bte. 12). 
D. From SfiNDMOBs (Btes. 12 and 


£!. From Yaldbbs, by 2 different 
ways (Btes. 8 and 10). 

A. From the GUOBAAVDfiDAL. 

(a) Vi& GausdailjEspeddleny Sikils- 
dalm to Qjefide. — The route branches 
off 6 kil. from Lillehammerj and 
turns to the 1., crossing the Laagen 
river, and through the Oausdal valley, 
where clean accommodation will be 
found at the following stats. : 

Disemd (12 kil.) 

Yeiflten (15 kil.) 

Xoen (11 kil.) 

Kvisberg (17 kil.) Hence a very 
bad road up steep lulls to 

Dalbakken (2 hrs.) Interesting 
Cauldrons at Hehedeskjedelen. At 
Dalbakken boats are iJways available 
for crossing over the Espedalsvand 
(1.60 kr. for 1 person or 1 kr. for 
each). In less than 4 hrs. the old 
Nickel-works will be reached. Thence 
another boat over BredsjUen lake, to 
Veltvolden (1^ hr.), where a boat 
must be ordered for crossing the 
next lake. Beyond, J hr. walk, and 
then across Olstappm lake to the 


Route 11. — The Joininheiint 

small bat good inn at Heuigaatkfn 
(5^ hrs. from Dalbakken). Thence 
it is a walk of 30 min. to the Slcmgen 
lake (quarters). The 2 lakes of Sknigen 
and Krokloen axe erossed in ^ an hr. 
The tourist then walks to Rindgleli 
saBter, and, crossing the Hmbgle river 
to the FlyacBter, thence through the 
beautiful Sikilsdal valley to the 
SikildalsscBter (good quarters), in 
5-6 hrs. from Haagaaoen. (Horse to 
Gjendesheim, 6 kr.) 

There is a track along the 2 small 
Sikilsdalen lakes (which can be 
traversed by boat), at the end of 
which a path leads up to a pass in the 
hills and down again. Snehattaiaaeen 
to the rt. Thence down and across 
the Sjoa river (new bridge, 1892), to 

Qjendesheim, ^ 5 hrs. from Sikils- 
dals sffiter. 

Another path leads from the pass 
down to the Store Sjodalsvandt 
which may be crossed by boat to 

(b) ViA Vaage and Ea/ndsvark, — 
From Bte. 12, 3 easy carriole-routes 
branch off W., converging at S^irem 
(good quarters) : 

1. From Storklevstad, through the 
Eedal (crossing the Laagen river at 
Kolo Bro), up to the excellent stat. 
Bjdlstad (29 kil.), with interesting 
wooden houses from the 17th and 
18th cent. Thence a hilly road to 

Snerle (17 kil., pay for 18 in the 
opposite direction). 

Sorem (7 kil.) Near Vaage ch. 
and the Vaagevcmd. Near Sorem is 
the ancient estate of Sandbu, the 
seat of one of the chief families of 
the characteristic peasant-nobility of 
the Gudbrandsdal ; now cut up into 
farms. Haakenstad^ another estate 
in the neighbourhood of , Sorem, is 
the seat of a peasant family of 
which the pedigree dates from the 
15th cent. 

2. From Bredevahgen (or Moen) 
a good road runs to 

Aasoren (11 kil.) 
Snerle (16 kil.) 
Sorem (7 kil.) 

3. From Lanrgaard there is a hilly 
roftd oyer Vaagerusten pass to 

SSrem (21 kil.) 

From Sorem the road crosses the 
river OUa and then turns W. To 
the 1. is KlungncBS farm. On the S. 
bank of the Vaagevand lies 

Valle Odegaard (10 kil.) No stat. ; 
horses always provided from Sorem 
for the whole road to Besstrand 
seter. Here the road to Gjendesheim 
branches off S. to the Storvik smter 
(18 kil. from Sdrem),a halting-place. 
Thence to the Randevcerk saaters (11 
kil.) (rest again). The road theA runs 
over into the broad valley of the Sjoa 
(Sjodal) to Hindsceter (quarters), 18 
kil. from Bandsvasrk. In 1 hr. thence 
Bus8lien asster is reached, and in 1^ 
hr. the Besstrandsceter, where the 
road ends. From this point the Store 
Sjodalsvand is crossed by boat (1^^ 
hr.), or by walking along its bank in 
the same time to 

Bessheim. Good quarters; these 
are found also at Bessesceter, 

From Besfidieim, hilly path* in | hr. 

Gjendesheim', splendidly situated 
at the E. end of the famous Gjende 

(c) Vi& Bbi$eim,—Bj the 3 pre- 
viously mentioned carriole-routes to 
Sdrem. Thence along the S. bank of 
the Vaagevand to Valle Odegaard, 
and on to 

Garmo (20 kU.) Then a hilly road 

Andvord (15 kil.) Curious old Stav 
ch. of Lorn (see Bte. 12). 

[The Lomsegg may be ascended from And- 
Tord in. about 4 hrs. Splendid view of the 
Galdhbpig and of the other mtna. of the 
N. branches of the Jotunheim ; also of the 

From Andvord towards the S. the road runs 
up the naxrovr BSvray along the lev Bovra river. 
The CkddMi the massive base of the Oaldbo- 
pig, is well seen from a turn in the road.] 

Sots^ixii ^ (14 kil.) The best head- 
quarters for the N. part of the Jotun- 


(a) Vift Lystert from Skjolden to 
Fortun and TwrtegrQ (Bte. 26). 

(6) Vi& Aardal. — The Aardidstan- 
gen stat.^ at the head of the dardah- 

BoiUe 11. — Approaches to the Jotunheim. 


fjord, a branch of the great Sogne- 
fjord, affords a good starting-point 
lor excursions in the Jotunheim. 
From Aardalstangen it takes 15 min. 
to reach the Aardalsvandy where 
boats are provided by the station- 
master of Aardalstangen. FamcBS, 
on that lake, where boats are always 
procurable, is reached in IJ hr. A 
boat leaves Famees regularly in con- 
nection with the steamship routes 
from Aardalstangen. The environs 
of the Aardalsvand are grand. 

From Fa>mces a road leads up the 
valley along the Aardbla river to its 
junction with the Store Utlanvetf and 
farther along its N. bank. The Aar- 
ddla rises in Lake Tyin, and crosses 
down through a side valley, the 

[A mtn.-path leads from Moen along the 
Aardola^ with its brilliant waterfalls, to the 
neighbourhood of Tyin, and then S. to Ny&- 
tuen on the Fillefjeld, in 10-12 hrs. (Bte. 8).] 

The river is crossed in 1 hr. at 
XJtla bridge, near Moen farm, and 
then the other bank is followed. At 
HjelleihQ river is crossed again twice. 
The S. bank is then kept. Here is 
the celebrated Vettisgjel pass or 
oleft, through which only a path 
leads up along the river. The scenery 
is grand and wild. In the river the 
Hbljafoss will he admired. Beyond is 
an ascent to Vetti farm, which is 
reached in 3 hrs. from FarnsBS (night 
quarters). This is a good staxting- 
point for the tracks to Tym, Bygdm, 
and SkogadalsWen. 

C. From the SOXSDAL (Bte. 12). 

The Jotunheim may be reached 
from Hoset or Mdhnefij by crossing 
the Lordal (valley of the Lora) to 
Aanstad, and then proceeding over 
Andvord to Boiseim. The most in- 
teresting track is that from Mlilmen 
(horse, 10-12 kr.) Here the Bauma 
river is crossed. Then along the 
OrGna river, and in 3^ hrs. to a great 
plateau, with splendid mtn.-views. 
Thence in 2 hrs. to the summit, and 
down along the Grove elv to 

NyssBter (3 tolerably good saeters), 
7 hrs. from Molmen. 

From NyssBter a track leads up 
the mtns. on the S. side of the Lordal 
and, after the plateau has been 
reached, along several smaU lakes. 
The descent along the Aura river is 
very steep down to Bakke, the first 
farm in the valley, whence a primi- 
tive ro^d runs across the river OUa to 

Aanstad stat. ( 14 hrs. from Mol- 

The track from Hoset is more easy, 
since it runs up the Lordal along the 
river to Nysceter (6 hrs. from Hoset). 
The route from Nysseter to Aanstad 
is in both cases the same. 

From Aanstad E. to 

Andvord (11 kil.) and 

Soiseim (14 kil.) 

D. From the SdNDXdB£ (Ete. 31). 

From Ma/raak in the Qevtcmger, a 
new road leads over the mtns. to 
QrjotU (Bte. 12). From this mtn. 
stat. the distances are, to 

FoUfoflsen (18 kil.), a new well-re- 
commended stat. in pretty environs. 

LinMim (19 kil.) 

Aanstad (11 kil.) 

Andvord (11 kil.) 

Edifleim (14 kil.) 

E. From VALDEBS (Bte. 8). 

(a) Yik FctgemcBSyBeitOtBygdin. — 
At FagemcBS stat. a road branches 
off to the rt., which afterwards leads 
up the hills along the Neselv. 
Beautiful views on ScehQfjorden 
{Difvrefjorden) lake, where already 
some peaks of the Jotunheim are 
seen behind the Ostre Slid/re valley. 
To the rt. is Skrauthval ch., and to 
the 1. a magnificent view of the lakes 
Hovefjorden and Volbufjorden, and of 
the surrounding mtns. The first stat. 

Bogne (17 kil.) Good quarters. In 
the vicinity a pretty view is obtained 
from (HangshiHden (horse, 1.60 kr.) 
From Bogne hills are descended. 
Storfossen (a fall on the 1., 6 min. 
from the road) is worth seeing. Be- 
yond the river Vindaaen is crossed, 
where on the rt. the VindefoB is seen 
through the trees. Then the road 


Route 11. — The Jotunheim. 

runs along the Heggefjord, at the 
S. end of which is the Hotel Beg- 

?'encBS (recommended). Ascending 
ong hills, over a rough road, the 
traveller reaches the curious old Ch. 
ol Hegge, On the 1. are several 
small laJces. The river-hank is next 
followed to the stat. of 

Skammestein (17 kil.) View of 
Kalvaahdgda, Thence a drive along 
the HedaUfjorden and Oiangen lakes 

Beito (11 kil.), where as yet the 
road terminates. (Guide from Beito 
to Eaufjordheiniy 2.50 kr. ; with 
horse, 5 kr. ; to Qjendesheim, 5 kr. ; 
to Bessheimt 5.60 kr.) There are 
only mtn.-paths beyond. 

From Beito a track runs up the 
hills through small birches and 
across long fens to the Bitihom- 
scBter (8763 ft.) The Bitihom rises 
on the 1. To the rt. the track leads 
to Vinstervand and Qjendesheim; to 
the 1., and a little down to 

Bauffordheim, where quarters are 
obtainable for the night in the long, 
capacious hut of a mtn.-guide : on 
the E. shore of the Baufjordj an arm 
or eastern extension of the great 
Bygdin lake. There is a splendid 
view of the Mugnafjeld and the 
Torfinnstmd, Good trout in the 

Charges : Boat to Eidshugaren, 
8.40-12 kr. (according to the number 
of passengers) ; to Nybod, 4-5 kr. 
Guides to Hestvoldene^ 1.50 kr. ; to 
Nybod, 2 kr. ; to Bessheim, 4.50 kr. ; 
to Gjendesheimt 4 kr. 

[The BitUiom (6275 ft.) may be ascended 
from here or taken on the way by ascending 
from the Bitihomsseter, and descended on 
the N. side to BAufjordheim. To the sum- 
mit and back 5 hrs. The views to the W., 
S., and E. are very fine ; but the N. pcuiis of 
the Jotunheim are not well seen.] 

(6) Yii Tyin, — Between the stats. 
Skogstad and Nystuen a good road 
(6 kil.) branches off on the rt., and 
leads in long zigzags, with splendid 
views of the valley, of the Suletind, 
the Jukulegg, &c., up to the small 
Jotunporten pass, where a view opens 
of the lake Tyin. * This large and 

magnificent mtn.-lake is reached in a 
few minutes from the pass. 

Tym lake is 3620 ft. above the sea, 
and abounds in good trout 

Tourists can proceed hence by 
boat on the lake, or on foot or 
horseback along the E. shore of lake 
Tyin (a tedious journey) to 

Tvindehang (14 kil. ; 3 to 3^ hrs.) 
Here a tourist-hut, where beds are 
obtainable, and good cooking, wine, 
meat, biscuits, &o. The scenery, 
which has been improving from the 
S. end of the lake, is here very fine. 
From the middle of the lake Gald- 
hopiggen is seen for an instant. 

ISkinneggen (5150 ft.))shou]d be ascended. 
It can be done in 2 hrs. from Tvlndehaug, 
and will well repay the climber. The crags 
and glaciers of the W. Jotunf jelde, such as 
BreikvamscBkerif just across the lake, the 
I(felledal*tindy and Koldedalitind^ a little far- 
ther to the N.W. ; the StSliitaastinder, be- 
yond and a little to the 1. of the last-named ; 
j^Mgettfflstinder beyond agtdn ; the Urancuu- 
Hwi and the Melkedalttind^ on the rt. 
of Koldedfdstind ; also the mtns. of the £. 
Jotunf jelde over the Bygdin, and far beyond 
the latter, as far as Nautgardstind on the 
N.E. and Mugnatind E.S.E. The descent can 
be made on the N. side, down to EidsbU' 
garen on Bygfdin.] 

From Tvindehaug travellers pro- 
ceed by boat up the lake or on foot 
about ^ kil. farther to its N. end, 
and then by a new high-road over the 
isthmus to 

Eidsbugaren^ (6 kil. from Tvin- 
dehaug). Gk)od head-quarters. Finely 
situatea on the W. extremity of the 

Bygdin (see above). 

Traces in thh Jotunheim. 

A. Bygdin Lake. 

B. BAUFJORDHEIM, across Yaldbbbflyen 

to Gjbndbsheim or Besshbdc. 

C. Byqdin to G JSNDE, by the Torfinsbdal 

and the Svabtdal. 

D. Gjbndx Lake. 

B. Ascent of Galdhopioobn. 

F. Ascent of the GLrmsriND. 


I. Gjbndb to Bygdin, by the Aadal and 

the Gronnbbebg. 
K. Bkssheim to Spitbrstulbn. 
L. Skogadalsbobn. 


Route 11. — Tracks in the Joiwnkeim, 


0. EmsBUOAREN to SkogadalsbQbw. 
p. Gjendsbodbk to Skooadalsb5sn. 
Q. Spiterstulen to Skogadai^bobsn. 
K Slbthavn to Skooadalsboen. 


Y. Skjoldex to Skogadaisboen. 

A. Bygdin Lake. 

3576 ft. above sea-level, and 25 
kil. long (area 18 sq. m.), lying 
nearly E. and W., with low ridges on 
its S. side, and lofty mtns. on the N. 
The lake is in itself a beautiful 
picture in good weather as well as 
in a storm. Fine views of the mtns. 
are obtained from it — of iheKolde- 
daUtindy Ura/ncLOstind^ and Melhe- 
dalstmdj beyond its W. extremity. 
The Sva/rtdalspigge and SletmarkhO 
are seen through Langedal on the 
N. side, and, farther still, through 
Torfinnsdalj the Knutshultind. The 
Torflrmsti/nd rises boldly from the 
shores of the lake between these 2 
valleys. Bitihom and Skaget are pro- 
minent at the E. end of the lake, where 
quarters are available at Baufjord- 
heim (see above). There is a path 
along the N. shore which is some- 
what level. It runs under the steep 
sides of the Oaldeherg. The river 
Breilaupa is difficult to ford. Either 
this track or a boat brings the tra- 
veller to 

Eidsbugaren (28^ kil. by water; 
34 kil. by the shore). Inn very com- 
fortable, situated at the W. end of 
the lake. Large boats with 2 rowers 
should always be engaged. From 
Baufjordheim to Eidsbugaren the 
time occupied is generally 7 hrs. Can 
be done in 5 hrs., but bad weather 
may lengthen the trip to 9-12 hrs., 
if the la£e be passable at all. 

B. BauQordheim, across Valderg- 
flyen to Ojendesheim or Bessheim. 

In 6-7 hrs., cairns indicating wel 
the path. 

From Baufjordhevm a path leads 
E. and joins the direct track from 
Beito. Thence in 15 min. to the 
bridge over the Vinstra river, called 

Vinsterbroen. Immediately below 

this bridge the Vinstra, flowing from 
the Bygdin lake, falls out into the 
great Stromvandet. The path leads N. 
and leaves the lake, ascending along 
the E. to BypebcBk, np to the flat 
Valdersflyen plateau, where a splen- 
did view of the N. mtns. opens, viz. 
Synshom, Kalvaahdgda, Mugnajfjeldt 
GUtretindt Besshd. Many other 
peaks are seen. It then runs along 
a series of cairns, erected by the 
Tourist Association, winding between 
the innumerable tarns (Fisketjemene) 
that cover the plateau, and after- 
wards down to the small pass of 

Heimdalsmnnden, or mouth of the 
Heimdal(3|^ hrs. from the Vinsterbro). 
To the rt. is Ovre Hei/mdalsvandy a 
good lake for trout. (Along this and 
Nedre Heimdalsvand in 6| hrs. to 
FlysceteTy see p. 60.) From Heimdals- 
mnnden the track runs towards the 
N., with the small heights of Brur- 
skankene to the rt. Splendid mtn.- 
views here. It then descends the 
Vargehakke to the Leirungen tarn, 
where the Leirungshcekken brook 
is crossed ; then to the 1. towards 
the isolated OjendehD mtn., and 
later past 2 small tarns to the 
rt. The banks of the Sjoa river 
are reached at Gjendeoseni where it 
flows out of Lake Ojende. Here a 
boat must be shouted for, and the 
river crossed to 

Ojendesheim (p. 60), (6 hrs. from 
the Vinsterbro). 

If the Leirungsbsek be not crossed, 
pedestrians cai; proceed until they 
reach the Sjoa river, and walk down 
along it to the Maurvangen plains, 
where the path from the SikUsdal 
to Gjendesheim is crossed. Farther 
on, the river is followed to vre 
Sjodalsvand, where it is necessary to 
shout for a boat to Bessheim or 
Bessesseter. The lake is then crossed 

Bessheim (se^ above), (7 hrs. from 
the Vinsterbro) 

0. Bygdin to Gjende, by the Tor- 
finngdal and the Svartdal. 

[This is one of the finest routes (7 hrs.) in 
the whole of the Jotunheim.] 


Route 11. — The JoUmhemi. 

A boat moat be taken from Baufjordhetm 
(see p. 62), oyer the Bygdiu lake to the 
mouth of the Torjinrudal (3 hrs.) Thence, 
there is a short climb N.E. into the Tor- 
finnsdal, taming later up the vaUey, on the 
western side of the rirer. Beautiful yiewB of 
Torflnnstind (1.) and Kalvaahdgda (rt.) Oroes 
the river and reach the summit. Pine view 
of the Knutthultind and of a gi>9at snow- 
hollow, Tof:^Tuhullet, looking back. Then 
2 tarns are passed on the L, and, surmount- 
ing the highest point, Svartdalsbandet, the 
Svartdal is entered. The view here com- 
mands the Melkedalitind (6905 ft.), the Rav>- 
dalstind (about 7400 ft) on the W., the Skar- 
daUtind (7212 ft.) N.W., Simlehultind (7163 
ft.) N.N.W., the Memuru glacier and peaks 
around it N., and BetthS (7573 ft.) N J!. Olose 
on the E. rise the Leirungskamp and Enutg- 
hulstind, between which is the Owe Leir- 

[Ascending here to the rt., and crossing the 
pass into this valley, of which the stream 
bends northward through the Leirungsmyr, 
the B. end of the Gjende may be reached. 
This is a long walk.J 

After passing the watershed, still keeping 
northwarids through the deep and narrow 
avartdcdy which is followed to its outlet in 
the Cfjende^ at the foot of the Knutahultindy 
cross the Svartdbla river, and then follow 
the small cairns on its W. side, upwards (to 
the 1.) on Gjendebrynetf not down to the rt. in 
Svartdctltglupet. The track runs almost 
straight down to the S. bank of the Qjende. 
The Gjendebod* is opposite, and a boat to 
cross may be obtained by shouting for it. 

D. The Gjende Lakeif (3323 ft.) 

A wild mtn.-lake, with greenish 
water, 18 kil. in length. There are 
now 3 tourist stats, on its shores. 

Notice the old stone hnt or hos- 
pice, the old Ojeindehod^^ and its 
bench the ** Gjendehtmden.'* This 
hospice was famous for ''Gjende- 
the," an infusion of the dried leaves 
of the lily of the valley. 

It takes 4>6 hrs. to cross the 
Gjende by boat. 

From the lake several of the sur- 
rounding mtns. are seen in their 
entire height, but they do not look 
so majestic as when viewed from the 
heights. It is always best to take a 
large boat with 2 rowers, in anti- 
cipation of a possible sudden storm. 

A walk (12-14 hrs.) along the N. 
shore of the lake is very interesting. 
(Guide, 4.80 kr.) 

[Splendid Excursioiu may be made in the 
surrounding mtns. and glaciers. The follow- 
ing may be named : 

1. From the Cfjendebod. 

(a) The Svabtdai^ozu (about 5150 ft.)> 
not the avartdalspig (7116 ft.), but a north- 
ward shoulder of this mtn., may be climbed 
from the Gjendebod in about 8 hrs. The 
view from it has been described as one of the 
finest in the Jotunheim, but this is question- 
able. That from the Qjendetunge (6100 ft.) is 
perhaps equal to it, and the asoent is more 
easUy made from the OJend^bod. Both views 
are remarkable for the grand display of the 
higher masses around. 

(6) The Mbmurutungb (4975 ft.), com- 
manding a splendid view northward of the 
glaciers of the Memurutind and its peaks 
beyond; southward of Knutthvly one of the 
characteristic snow-hoUows of the Jotun- 
heim, and nearly the whole of this magnifl- 
oent region, should be ascended if possible. 
It is not difficult— easiest from the Memu- 
rubod. With a guide it may be ascended 
from Gjende, either up the Btiikelceger or 
from the StoraadcUy and descended to Memn- 
rubod, in 6 or 7 hrs. Travellers may sleep 
here, or take a boat back to G-jende, or to the 
E. end of the lake and back. To ensure the 
latter, it is better to order the boat firom 
Gjende before starting ; or by taking the 
boat, and starting from the Gjendebod. This 
is the easiest. 

2. From the Kemurttbod.* 

(a) The Mbmurutunqk (see aboveV 
(6) Across the glaciers of Memuru (Afetnu- 
riibrceen) and of Heilstugu {Heastvgubrceen). 
In some years this is a difficult and danger- 
ous passage, in others no risk is incorred. It 
takes 8| hrs. to walk from the Memnrubod to 

8. From Cfjendesheim or from Beuheim. 

(a) The BsssHO (7580 ft.) is ascended by 
following the N. bank of the Bessa rvret to 
the Beutrandfjeldy and proceeding up the long 
Bestfjeld ridge, which (round the Besswmd) 
leads up the summit. 

(b) The Bbssboo is ascended by taking the 
S. bank of the Beasix, and then keeping to the 
L, following the small cairns up to the Vesle- 
fjeld (6763 ft.) By following the highest 
ridge of this mtn. W., the climber reaches 
the steep and narrow Beuegg^ the ledge sepa- 
rating the OJende from the Bessvand. This 
point may be made in 7-8 hrs., up and down. 
It takes i hr. to cross the ledge. Only those 
not subject to giddiness should take this 
highly interesting trip, which may be exten- 
ded to the Hemurubod and, across the Memu- 
rutunge, to the Gjendebod (14 hrs.) 

The view from the summit of the ledge is 
wide and brilliant, endosing the Besshb, the 
Uladals and Baudalstinder, the Snehultind, 
the Knutshultind — all surrounding the green- 
ish lake of Gjende, which, seen lying at the 
bottom of an inunense cleft, is surveyed in its 
entire length.] 

E. Ascent of OALDHdPIOOEK. 

As this is the highest mtn. in N. Europe, 
and its ascent from Bbiseim presents no 
serious difficulty, most tourists who have 

Route 11. — 'Tracks in the Jottmheim. 


cotne for the purpose of climbing iti the Jo- 
tunheim, will not fail to attempt it if the 
weather is favourable. The climbing can be 
undertaken from R&ueitn^ from SpUerstiden^ 
and from Slethavn. 

1. As Bbiseim is 1860 ft. above the sea, 
and G«ldhbpiggen 8397, the actual ascent 
is but 6537 ft., for which 8 or 9 hrs. should 
be allowed, or 12 to 14 for going and retm'n- 
iug. As a glacier has to be crossed, a rope 
should be taken, and the usual precaution of 
proceeding in single file, with the rope at- 
tached to the first and last, the othars holding 
fast, or also attached, should be adopted. An 
ice-axe and Alpine stocks should be carried. 

From Boiseim follow the high-road till 
near to the new Ckilde Mri«, then turn to the 1. 
by a steep winding path to Rauberg seeter, 
ij^ hr. Then a long walk over dibrU and 
snow to a glacier, which may be either crossed 
(the rope being used) or skirted by a stony 
track along the E. shore. In a hollow to the 
rt. is the glacier lake of GjuThroDen, a tarn 
with fioes of ice floating on it. It is about 
7200 ft. high, the highest lake in Norway. 
The local guide Knut Vole has erected a good 
hut here (OJuvvashjftten)^ with accommoda- 
tion for the night, meals, &c. Enlarged 1892. 
Moderate charges. The summit peak which 
rises from this glacier is a dome, with dark 
and nearly vertical precipices on all sides 
but one, and this is a snow-slope which has 
to be climbed. The axe and Alpine stock are 
useful here. 

The view from the summit is magnificent, 
dominating all the peaJks of the Jotunf jelde, 
the nearest of which is the Glitretind, only 
17 ft. lower. Skagestolstinderne, the h^hest 
peaks of the Horungerne, stand up steeple- 
like on the W. The snow desert of the Jos- 
tedal stretches out on the N.W. horizon ; the 
Dovrefjeld, with Snehsetten, on the N. and 
the pyramidal Bondane for in the E. Peaks 
and precipices of dark rock stand up in 
strong contrast from amidst the bright gla- 
ciers below. On the summit is a hut for 

2. From Spiterstulen (see p. 66). Shorter, 
but steeper ascent. First cross the Visa 
(bridge), and then up the edge of Sve^enoti 
to the summit. 

3. From Slethavn (see p. 67). Still shorter, 
but steeper. 

From Spiterstulen, a direct path leads to 
OJuwathytten; good for the combination of 
the routes. 

Guides from Boiseim or Spiterstulen, 5 kr. 
Additional charge of 2 kr. for each member 
of a pcurty. 

F. Ascent of the GUT&ETIKD 
(8380 ft.) 

This is best made from Bbiseim, com- 
mencing with a walk of 3 hrs. through the 
pleasant beech-clad valley of Yisdal, tiU the 
junction of the Olitra river with the main 
stream is reached at an altitude of 3200 ft. The 
ascent is then commenced between the Olitra 
and SkaiUa rivers, the first 2000 ft. over a 
steep grassy slope, then over debris on the 
Glitterhb, or up a species of gully, to the 1. of 

[Norwa/y—yi. 92.] 

Glitterhb. The last 1600 ft. of ascent is up 
the snow-cone of the summit, and free from 
danger if proper precautions are taken to 
avoid the precipice on one side. An ice-axe 
is useful, as some parts of the cone are slip- 
pery, and with its aid steep slopes may be 
ascended. The upper part looks down upon 
a huge semicircular cavity, 2000 ft. deep, with 
2 large glaciers at the bottom. Mr. Cecil 
Slingsby, who In 1876 ascended with his sister, 
thus describes the view from the summit : *■ 
*<The principal points of interest were the 
view oi Galdhb, with its little ice-covered 
mtn.-tam and large snow-fields. N.N.E. was 
Snehsatten, a tame-looking mass. Lodalskau- 
pen far away to the W. A little N. were seen 
some of the more prominent Bomsdal peaks. 
From here, the sharp-peaked Homngtinder 
looked thoroughly Alpine in character, al- 
though a portion of the range was hidden 
by intermiing peaks. The noble eocles. 
mtn. Kirken showed out to perfection, its 
durk form contrasting grandly with the snow 
and many glaciers around. Beyond Kirken 
were to be seen manv other fine mtn. masses. 
Unfortunately for GUtretind, the great range 
of the peaks of the Galdhb shuts out many 
curious and &uitastic peaks (Smdrttabtinder), 
whilst the wretched LeirhS completely con- 
ceals many of the most enchanting peaks cf 
the Jotunheim. The view E. is of extreme 
desolation : black moorlands for miles, which, 
however, form a variety from what is seen 
from Galdhbtind, as the main thing that im- 
presses the successful climber on the latter 
is the immensity of the Norsk snowrfields, as 
little else besides snow and ice is seen." 

The descent may be made to Visdals seeter 
in about 3 hrs., from which Bte. G. may be 

G. Boiseim to Gjende, vid 

13 kil. A very interesting walk. This 
route runs directly N. and S. through the 
middle of the northern parts of the Jotunheim. 
Several of the highest peaks are seen, and 
may be ascended in very little time. Spiter- 
stulen is commonly used as a stat. for the 

From Boiseim, in grand environs, 
to the 1., along the river Fisa, whioh 
is crossed by a bridge. Then up the 
Visdal (valley of the Visa), whioh 
rises rather precipitously ,to the bridge 
over the Ookkra, where on the 1. will 
be reached the 

Visdala seeter (6 kil.), 2956 ft. 

Here a path to the Smaadal branches off to 
the 1. When turning due B., and proceeding 
up the Ookkerdaly the 4 Uladaittinder (the 
highest 5708 ft.) are finely seen rising from 
the Visdal. Higher up the vaUey a fine view 

» In the Norske Turistforenings Aarhog^ 




Route 11. — The Joimnheim. 

is obtained of the Hettthroepiggene (7088 ft.) 
and the 8 Galdhopigge Bide by side. 

From the LauvM both Galdfabpiggen and 
Glltretind are seen to perfection. This mtn. 
stands to the N. of the valley, and is easily 
ascended. It has 3 snmmita, B., W., and 
central ; either may be asoended from Yisdals 
ssBter with little difficulty: the W. is the 
easiest. Height of E., or highest, 6716 ft. ; 
of the central, 6583 ft. ; W., 5829 ft. Those 
who hare climbed all 3 pronounce the 
view from the W. equal to the others. 

G-litretind may be asoended from here 
(see F.) By starting early from Boiseim this 
may be done, and the saater reached again in 
time for a long night's rest. 

From Qokkerdal the tourist can go on E. to 
tlie top of the pass, where he will turn (rt. > to 
FifuJuUten and then descend into the 8maadeU. 
There is a path from Smaadal over the 
Smaadaltceter and SmorcUdtoBter to Teue vand^ 
ami farther to Randwark^ on the road from 
Yaage to Gjendesheim. Long and tedious. 

Proceeding from Visdskls saBier (1.) 
the path descends the hill-side to the 
bottom of the dark, narrow, and Inzu- 
riantly wooded valley. Bridges and 
trunks of trees are thrown across the 
principal tributary streams at 

Smitigjela and Orjota, Beyond 
this, to the rt., is the Oaujpa/rscBter 
(3193 ft.) on the other side of the 
Visa ; thence cross the rivers Glitra 
and Skauta (3^ hrs. from Boiseim). 
Here the limit of the birch is reached. 
To the rt. is Styggebrceeny the glacier 
from which Galdhopiggen rises. 
Then over the small Spitra river to 
the tourist-stat. of 

Spiterstulen (l^hr.from Skauta), ^ 
with accommodation for the night. 

[The Skauthd (6675 ft.) may be ascended 
from the aaster in 3 to 4 hrs. by following the 
t^kauta torrent-valley, from which are fine 
views of the peaks and glaciers of the 
I'me^jelde, The summit commands these, and 
also the sharp peaks of Kvashd, the Veo glacier, 
which is very fine, and LeirhS (7885 ft., the 
seventh in rank of altitude). QUIa'etiud is not 
well seen. 

Oaldh5piggen may be ascended from here 
without crossing the large glacier. Tip and 
down in 6-7 hrs. Three successive peaks 
have t(0 be climbed. 

Heilstuguhb may'be ascended in 6-7 hrs. 
up and down.] 

Still ascending the valley, the 
tourist will see the Bukkehulsldft 
ravine, through which (rt.) the Tver- 
aabrcB and Svelnaashm, 2 of the 
Ymesfjeld glaciers, are visible, and 

the 3 OaldhJGpigge above all. Look- 
ing straight up the main valley is 
seen the HeUstugulU) (about 7200 ft.), 
and a little rt. the Uladalstvnder 
(the north-westernmost of the 4 
peaks, 7584 ft.) After passing the 
rough bridge over the Heilstugtuia, 
which flows from the Heilstugu 
glacier, between Heilstuguho and 
Memurutindeme, the 

Uladalsmund is entered, the wide 
pass which leads into the more nar- 
row UladaL This valley follows the 
S. course of the present route, and the 
Visdal, which is now left, turns west- 
ward towards the Lei/rvand and 

[By following the Visa (wading occasion- 
ally) the foot of the Kirken peak (7068 ft.) 
may be reached and ascended, or by rounding 
the N. shore of the Leirvand the path is 
reached that proceeds northward down the 
Leirdal and southward over Hogvaglen to 
Langevand, whence, following the N.E. bank 
of the lake, it rejoins the present route at the 
Storaadal (see below).] 

The path through the Uladal — 
which at last sweeps round the steep 
Simletind (7480 ft.), and commands 
fine views of Skardalseggen and the 
Raudals peaks to the S. and W., 
and then opens the Gjendefjeldene 
and their glacier — is tolerably good 
up to the &st of the Uladal Ues, or 
Uladalsig'&n (5145 ft.); after this, 
when the highest point of the pass, 
the Vladalsbandet (5703 ft.) is passed, 
the descent (to the rt.) is over roagh 
ground, snow and rock fragments, 
passing along the Simlebrcnen glacier 
and the S. Uladals lakes (5125 ft.) 
On the descent, the Langevand is 
seen on the rt., at the end of which 
the path leads down and then con- 
tinues to the tarn, 

Hellerljem, where the track im- 
proves, and follows the roaring waters 
which tumble down in the Hellerfos 

Storaadal, where the troublesome 
Simlead has to be crossed. The 
track down this valley is better, 
although some small lateral streams 
have here to be crossed on the way 

Route 11. — Traek$ in the JoUmheim. 


Ojendeboden, at the W. extremity 
of Lake Ojende (8 hrs. from Spiter- 

H. BtfiBcim to Ojende, vid Slethayn 
(14 hrs., on foot). 

This route is not so direct as the above, 
but has the advantage of an easier beginning. 
The journey ma^ be broken at Slethavn, 
where there is fair accommodation. 

The first 6 Ml. of the road run up the 
Bbverdal, past Oalde eh. The wide wooded 
valley of Ldrdal is then ascended by a path 
on the E. bank of the stream to Elvesoeter 
farm, where it crosses by a bridge, and follows 
the W. bank as far as YtterdaU teeters (3000 
ft.), where good mtn.-qoarters are avail- 
able. The situation is very fine on the flanks 
of the Oaldhopig, with the round snow-clad 
Loftet or Vealefjeld rising farther S. from the 
opposite side of the valley. 

This mtn. (7318 ft.), commanding a grand 
panorama, may be easily ascended from 

A track branches oflE W. over the Bover- 
^cernhdUen to Skjolden on the Lyster fjord, 
and skirting the Bovertun vand proceeds to 
Fortun on the Lyster fjord (see S.) 

Above the Ytterdal seeters the track leads 
over a bridge on the E. side of the LeirUy 
where it turns up the upper Iieirdal. On its 
ascent the valley becomes treeless, and more 
and more desolate, the path keeping the E. 
bank of the river, between the SkarUind 
(7886 ft.), one of the peaks of the Ymetfjeld 
group, to which the Galdlibpig also belongs, 
on the B., and Veiltfjeld and XknQSm^stabiiind 
(about 7600 ft.), with its glacier, on the W. 

In order to avoid the glacier-river Illaaen 
(t.«. the bad river), there are 2 bridges 
over the Leira, by the first of which the 
W. bank is gained, and by the second the B. 
side, which is kept up to the sseter, 

Slethavn (6 lurs. from Boiseim), with good 
and clean accommodation.* G-aldhbpig can 
be ascended hence. 

From Slethavn, in 1^ hr. up the valley to 

Leirvand (4932 ft.) There is a stone hut here. 
Then proceed, with the magnificent steeple- 
peak of Kirken (7068 ft.) on the L, and across 
the small bridge over the Leira ; thence on the 
W. of the lake to the highest part of the 
route (5399 ft.) at the great cairn called 
Hdgvaglen, on a desolate fjeld, forming at 
once the watershed of the Leirdal, the Yisdal, 
the Uladal, and the Storaadal. The Honing' 
tinder are finely seen from here. A toilsome 
stony path passes to 2 tarns of the Hbgvagl 
(the HogvagHjern) to the Langevand^ the E. 
shore of which is followed for 8 kil., between 
Uladdlstindy N.E. (7584 ft.), and Skardalitind, 

From the lower Hbgvagltjern along the 
Langevand^ where the Ulad&la river must be 
pasMd (can be troublesome), and thence to 

Hellertjernf wheze the path from Spiter- 
stulen is reached. Beyond, as described 
under G., to Gjindbbodkn. 

I. Ojende to Bygdin by the Aadal 
and Oronneberg. 

From the Ojendebodi over the 
bridge across the 8toraaddla,&nd.ihen 
proceed round the W. end of the lake 
to Vesle Aadalf and descend the slope 
to the N. bank of the river. To the 
1. are the mighty glaciers of the 
SUtmarkhb. Then ascend the valley 
W.S.W. up to a rough bridge. Cross 
the river by this, and follow the path, 
which presently bends a little more 
to the S., with the OrHnneherg on the 
rt. The luxuriant pastures found 
here justify its name. A choice of 
paths is then offered. The easier is 
that descending at once to the Bygdin 
lake by a due S. course, crossing the 
small QjeithQ height, down the valley 
of the HGistakka river to its mouth 
on the N. bank of the lake. Then 
follow the path westward, skirting 
the lake, or take a boat (which may 
sometimes be had, but must not be 
relied upon) to Eidsbugaren. 

The finest route is followed by as- 
cending the Oravafjeldj after passing 
the pastures of Gronneberg. From 
the summit the mtns. and glaciers 
around are finely displayed — Oks- 
dalshi) and Sletmarkhd on the 1. ; the 
Semmeltind (7133 ft.) due N., and 
beyond it the glaciers of Memuru, 
flanked on the E. by the rugged 
Tjukningssu (7912 ft., and fifth in 
rank among the giants), and Besshb 
{^bl% ft.), stretching far beyond in 
the same direction. The Melkedals- 
tinder, N.N.W. (7105 ft.), the 
BatuLalstrnder, N. (7409 ft.), and 
Skardalstinder (7212 ft.), between 
and beyond the 2 last-named, are con- 
spicuous objects. Other peaks are 
finely displayed. By a rather pre- 
cipitous descent the 1. branch of the 
Gravad^/c is reached, and is followed 
to the N. bank of the lake. Then 
cross the Mj'dlka (the " Milky " river) 
and proceed along Lake Bygdin to 

Eidsbugaren (see E.) 



Route 11. — The JotunheiM. 

E. BeBsheim to Spiterstolen 
(in 10 hrs.) 

The traveller walks first along the 
N. bank of the Bessa np to the 
Beasirandfjeld plateau, with the Bess- 
fjeld and &e Besshd to the 1. ; then 
h>om its highest point (4495 ft.) down 
to the Bussvand (4085 ft.), which is 
reached at the end from which the 
Biissa issues. A bridge over that river 
(lower down) will be ready in 1892. 
After crossing the Bussa, the track 
runs to the 1., and (in 1 hr.) along 
the lake, towards the Blaatjemaa 
river, where an ascent is made to the 
rt. To the 1. are the Tjuknmgssiten 
and Memuru glaciers, sdso the Blaa- 
^emhulbrcB. The summit becomes 
flatter. The track leads to the rt., 
through a small pass, and then down 
into the broad Veodalen valley, where 
it turns upwards to the 1., to the 
VeobrcB glacier. Just below this the 
Veo river is crossed, and thence is 
a steep ascent to the highest point 
of the track, where it leads to the 
stony plateau of Skautflyen. On the 
1. is a greenish lake. Below this the 
Skauta river must be forded, and its 
S. bank followed to the precipices 
from which it tumbles down into the 
Visdal. Here the tourist descends 
directly to Spiterstolen. 

If the Skauta be not forded, the N. 
bank is kept, and the track followed 
to the precipices, where a descent is 
made of the steep ridge between the 
Skauta and Glitra rivers into the 
Visdalf where the path from Boiseim 
to Spiterstulen is reached in 1| hr. 
from Spiterstulen, and 3^ hrs. from 

L. Skogadalgbden. 

This is a centre of the W. part of 
ihe Jotunheim, and the best point 
for excursions in the wildest and 
grandest of its mtns. It is a Hut 
(good) belonging to the Norwegian 
Tourist Association, and is managed 
bya well-known guide. It can be 
reached in 1 day from Eide in the 
Lysterfjord, or from Aardalstangen. 
One day's waJk also brings the tour- 

ist to Tvindehaugen, Eidsbugaren, 
Gjendeboden, Spiterstulen, Slethavn, 
and Bovertun. In the Maradaly be- 
low the Skagestolstinder, the Tour- 
ist Association has erected a small 
hut, as a refuge for climbers on the 
peaks and glaciers. The Vcyrmeli 
ssBter is also a good starting-point 
for excursions in the high mtns. 

Store Skagestolstind (7720 ft.) is 
ascended from Vormeli ; dangerous ; 
16 hrs. (up and down). 

Styggedalstind is ascended in 12 
hrs. (up and down) from Skogadals- 

Skogadalsnosi, with a brilliant 
view, is ascended from Skogadals- 
Wen ; easy work. 

M. Tvindehaugen to Skogadalsboen 
(in 8 hrs.) 

From Tvindehaugen a boat is 
taken across the N. part of Lake 
Tyin (see p. 62) to the outlet of the 
Valdres-Koldedala river (46 min.), 
whence cairns are followed up the 
valley. To the 1. will be seen a 
series of snow-clad mtns. with gla- 
ciers : Breikvamsceken, Koldedals- 
tinderj and Hjelledalstiitder. A small 
bridge over the river, now called 
XJradbla^ is crossed, the name of the 
valley having also been changed to 
Uradalen, To the 1. is the wild 
Morka-Koldedal, with the FalkeHnd, 
The cairns run up the XJradal, along 
the TJradalsvand, where the high 
Uranostind is visible to the rt. 

The cairns to the 1. indicate the 
path to Vetti (see N.) The path to 
Skogadalsboen leads along the lake, 
and in 45 min. up to the Uradals- 
bandet pass, where it descends into 
another Uradal. The latter is a flat 
and grassy valley. Splendid view 
here of the entire group of the Hor- 
ungtinder and the Store Skagestdls- 
tind. The Uradbla is then crossed. 
Higher up, the valley is filled up 
with immense boulders, the mighty 
remains of a convulsion that passed 
over a high peak that must formerly 
have existed to the 1. The path hero 
leads upwards to the rt., to avoid 

Route 11. — Tracks in the Jotwnheim. 


the passage over and through the 
boulders. At last the traveller de- 
scends by some high precipices into 
the Utladalf where the path from 
Vetti (T.) meets. Thence the high 
cairns to the rt. are followed, a bridge 
over the Skogadola passed, and the 
track pursued to 

N. Tvindehangen to Vetti 
(in 9^hrs.) 

The roate is the same as in M. to the 
Uradalsvcmdt where the cairns are 
followed, slowly ascending (1.) to the 
Smoget pass, that leads into a narrow 
valley along the Fleskedalsvand. As 
this opens on the other side, a splen- 
did view suddenly presents itself of 
the group of the Horungtinder. De- 
scending into the Fleskedal, where 
the mighty SWlsnosUnd rises on the 
1. (1^ hr. from Smoget), a bridge 
leads over the river, the bank of 
which is kept to the Fleskedalg ssster. 
Thence another bridge spans the 
FUskedbla river. To the rt. a path 
runs over Friken to SkogadalsWen 
(T.) By following the path leading 
to the 1., the Fleskedola is again 
crossed, and in an hour the Vettis- 
mork sater (2188 ft.) is reached. On 
the whole of the way there is a bril- 
liant view of the Horungtinder growp. 
The Morka-Koldedbla is next crossed 
just above the high Vettisfos (see 
Bte. 26). The latter may be seen by 
leaving the path and (only with great 
circumspection) following the river 
to the cliff, from which the fall 
tumbles. The outer parts of the 
mtn. are somewhat loose, and may 
some day break off. From the bridge 
over the MorkorKoldedbla it is only 
a few paces to the spot where the 
path leads down the Vettisgaldery 
along the cliffs, to 

Vettisfos (260 metres), one of the highest 
falls in Norway and in Europe, but has 
generally not much volume. A trip from 
Vetti to the foot of the fall and back takes 

0. Eidsbngaren to Skogadalsbden 
(in 10 hrs.) 

From Eidsbngaren the tracks M. and IS, 
can be taken when passing over to the Tyin. 
Thence the route is along the N. bank of that 
lake to the outlet of the Koldedola. This 
route takes \\ hr. more time than the one 
from Tvindehangen. Considerable time will 
be saved by taking the direct track from Eids- 
bngaren over the Slaatafjeld to the Uradal, 
The most common track is the following, 
through the highly intefesting Kelkedal. 

The route runs at first along the 
shore of Bygdin lake to the outlet of 
the Mjolka {MelkedGla}, where there 
is a primitive bridge ; thence along 
the E. bank of that river, up the 
lower Melkedal, The river is soon 
left, and an ascent made to a small 
plateau with several tarns : Melke- 
hulleme (the "Milk-holes"). The 
track then runs 1. to the Store Melke- 
dalsvandf surrounded by mighty 
peaks : the Melkedalstinder^ and the 
MelkedalsbrcB glacier, that comes 
down to the lake. In 1 hr. the foot 
of the first MelkedalsHnd is reached, 
and, beyond, the track runs to the 
highest point, the Melkedalshandt 
where the Skogadola river flows to 
the W. Thence along 3 small lakes 
(Melkedalstjemene), Between the 2 
first the river is crossed twice. The 
broad Skogadal, as this part of the 
valley is called, is then traversed in 
2 hrs., with a splendid view of the 
Horungtinder, to 


P. Gjendeboden to Skogadalsboen 

(m 10 hrs.) 

From the Qjendebod the Storaa- 
dbla is crossed, and beyond the Vesle- 
aadbla is followed up to the ridge 
behind the QjendeUmge, Thence the 
track runs to the Snehulti/nd (6254 ft.), 
where the Baudal valley opens. The 
Orisletjem and Raudalsvande tarns 
remain on the rt. Thence along the 
river to the Ratiddlsbandet pass, 
where the S. bank of the Bauddla is 
kept and followed to Battdalsmunden, 
Here the valley unites with the Utla- 
dal. Descending into the latter, 
where the path meets the track from 


Route 11. — The Jotunheim. 

Spiterstulen to Shogadalshlkn, the 
traveller soon reaohes 

Q. Spiterstnlen to Skogadalsboen 
(in 10 hrs.) 

From Spiterstulen the same track 
is followed as to Gjende (G.) up to 
the Uladal, where the TJladbla river 
is easily passed. The Visdal is then 
followed farther up, turning to the rt. 
The Visa is next crossed. Splendid 
view of KirkeUj Tverhottenhomene, 
and other peaks, with the VisbrcB 
glacier. Skirting a small tarn, the 
small river is crossed. Thence again 
past 3 tarns (1.) Crossing again the 
same river near its outlet in the 
Leirvandt the track runs to that 
small lake, where the track H. joins. 

This is also crossed. The track 
then passes Leira by a small bridge 
and turns upwards to the rt. across a 
small height, and then descends into 
the Oravdalt as the upper part of the 
valley of the Utla river is called. 
The Gravdal is next descended. At 
Sandboden a small river is crossed, 
which flows from a glacier on the rt. 
The track continues farther down the 
valley to the junction of the Baudola 
with the Store-Utla river, which is 
here crossed by a bridge. In IJ hr. 
more along that river the traveller 
gets to 


B. Slethavn to Skogadalsboen 
(in 7i hrs.) 

The track from Slethavn to the 
Leirvand is as described in H. Be- 
yond, the route is described in Q. 

S. BoTertun to SkogadaUbSen 

(in 7 hrs.) 

FromBovertun the tourist takes the 
track described under U. to Krosshi), 
where the Vetle-Utla valley branches 
off to the 1. That valley is followed, 
and the Steinddla and Kongsddla 
crossed down to the Store- Utla, The 
latter is kept to ChuHdalsstiilenj where 
there is a bridge, which is crossed to 


T. Vetti to Skogadalabden 
(in 6 hrs.) 

The route from Vetti to the Fleske- 
dalscBter has been described under N. 
Thence the track runs to the 1. along 
the cairns up to the JFViA;en (4650 ft.), 
with one of the finest views in Nor- 
way. The descent from this mtn. 
leads to the Vradaly where, after 
crossing the Vradblay the track meets 
M., and then ascends the UtlediJ to 


U. Sl^olden to SoiBoim. 

(2 days ; horses and guides at 
Fortun and RiHseim.) 

(From Skjolden to the tourist-stats, 
at Tii/rtegrd, see Bte. 26.) From Tur- 
tegro a path branches off to Skoga- 
dalsbikn (rt.) From Turteqrb the 
track runs to the 1. up the Dolereset 
to OsoarshoiLg (3723 ft.), where an 
inscribed stone commemorates the 
visit of King Osoar II. in 1860. There 
is a brilliant mtn.-view thence to 

To the rt. is the Fanaraak. 

From this point the vegetation be- 
comes scanty, and finally ceases as a 
stony upland is reached, covered with 
bare loose rock and with patches of 
snow here and there. All traces of 
paths are lost, and the traveller must 
scramble over the huge boulders, 
guided by the cairns (the piles of 
stones surmounted by poles marking 
the route). This tableland forms the 
summit-level of the Sognefjeld, or 
the Ddlefjeld, After a long, slow, 
and gradual ascent along a sheep- 
path, the track turns to the 1., leaving 
a huge glacier on the rt. ; and crossing 
over the last streatn running W., a 
small hut (Herrevasboden) is reached, 
about 3 hrs. from Tturtegrb, From 
about this point, continuing to 
the N.E., the ascent continues to 
the Krossh&t where the track cul- 
minates. [Branch track to Skoga- 
dalsboen (S.) about 5084 ft.] From 
this point the descent commences. 
To the rt. is the great SmOrstabben 
glacier with the Smifrstabtinder 


Route 12. — Gkristiania to Molds. 


peaks (75 10 ft .) Aiter passing through 
a wild cleft between the mtn.-peaks, 
with rocks strewed about in chaotic 
confusion, a narrow, shallow valley 
commences, in which Dombrui bridge 
is crossed where the Dorrnna river 
flows through a subterranean chan- 

After this the Ssster BSverton is 
reached (sleeping accommodation). 

From Bovertun the path continues 
E., crossed by numberless small 
streams trickling through the long 
grass, until, after skirting the S. side 
of a shallow tarn, the wild pass is at 
length traversed and the track turns 
off to the rt., and, crossing some low 
peaty ground, leaves the valley of 
the Biyorat and crossing to the rt. 
the pass of BGvertj6mhalsen enters 
the vaUey of the river Leira^ where 
(to the rt.) the upper Leirdal opens. 
Here is reached the track mentioned 
under H., which leads down the valley 
(to the 1.) The path follows the 
stream and becomes less rugged, with 
the magnificent Galdhopig range in 
full view to the rt. 

A rapid descent leads, past Elve- 
scBter^ to the small white Ch, of BO- 
verdalefif prettily situated close to the 
stream, and from this point the road 
is tolerably level and fit for a car- 
riole. Less than 1 hr. beyond, or 
about 5 hrs. from Bovertun, is the 
pretty farm of 

Bodsheim (Boiseim),1810 ft. above 
the sea. Excellent accommodation 
and good food. The stat.-master is 
a good guide (4 kr. per day), and has 
made the ascent of OaldhJbpiggen 
with several British travellers. 

y. 8^ olden to Skogadalsbden 
(in 10 hrs.) 

(From Skjolden to Turtegro, see 
U.) Thence the track is through 
the flat HelgedaUn to the Steinddla 
(a rivulet which tumbles down from 
the heights of the Fanaraak). Cross- 
ing this and the next brook (Skauta)^ 
an ascent is made to the Keiseren 
pass (about 5084 ft.) On descending. 

the Store-Utla river is soon seen. 
The track runs down to the bridge 
across that river, and then to 


During the descent a splendid view 
is obtained of the Qjerivashrce and 
the StyggedalsUnd, 

ROUTE 12. 


(By rail, str., and road.) 

[This is a route much frequented by those 
who elect to "carriole" either to Molde, by 
the flue Gudbrands and Bomsdal valleys, or 
to Trondhjem, orer the Dovrefield (Rte. 13). 
It offers great attractions, as the description 
of it will show. The seyeral sections to 
Molde are as follows : 

Dist. Time Cost 
kil. about kr. 
Christiania to Eidsvold, 

by rail ... 68 3 hrs. 4.80* 
Eidsvold to IJUeham- 

mer, by str.» . . 106 7 hrs. 6.56 
Lillehammer to Yeb- 

lungsnaes, by road . 278 2-3 dys. 52.00 
Yeblungsnffis to Molde, 

by str. . . . 36 4 hrs. 2.15 


482 4-6 dys. 64.50 

The posting-rate is 15 b. per kil. ezoluaiye 
of fees to drivers. Only 7 horses are kept at 
the stats., which are all fast (see Introduction)^ 
but more are obtainable. At an extra cost of 
about lb*.y a comfortable carriole (can be ob- 
tained from Mr. Bennett, who also supplies 
carriagei through his agent at Lillehammer, 
for the drive to Veblungsnaes, 160-200 kr. 
(less for a trUle), A dU. runs several 
times a week between those places, in 3 days. 
Fare 40 kr. Seats should be secured before- 
hand. Travellers in hired or posting con- 
veyances should avoid stoppmg at the 

» 1st cl. 

" A rly. in construction from Hamar 
up the Q-udbrands vallej^ will, within about 
4 yrs., result in a curtailment and modifica- 
tion of this route. 


Route 12. — Ghriatiania to Molds. 

dfl. night stats. (Bredvangen and Lesje- 
vflBrk, or at Klefstad and Holaker). If 
5 days be devoted to this jonmey^ the halts 
at night are : LiUehammer, Listad, Dombaas, 
Stueflaatcoi, and yeblnngsnae& Travellers 
more liniited as to time, or wishing to go in 
advance of others, are recommended to push 
on to Fostegaarden instead of sleeping at Lille- 


The line (Trunk rly.) to Eids- 
vold was constructed in 1848-51 by 
an English company, and bears 
testimony to the engineering skill of 
Sir Morton Peto and his assistants. 
Its gauge is 4 ft. 7 in., subsequent 
lines being only 3^ ft. 

Starting from tne E. central stat. 
(dst Jembane) close to the Hull and 
London steamship quays, the train 
traverses the Oslo suburb (see Bte. 1), 
and runs through or stops at the f ol- 
lowing stats. : 

Bryn (4 kil.), where industrial 
progress is indicated by several fac- 
tories (matches, tiles, &c») The 
rly. now skirts the Ryenhergenej and 
presents nothing of particular in- 
terest, excepting some examples of 
Norwegian pme-forests on the hill- 
slopes, and a somewhat fertile 
country, considering the latitude. 

Chromd stat. (11 kil.), along a more 
level road. 

Strommen stat. (18 kil.) 

Lillestrom stat. (21 kil.) Buff, 
Junction with line to Eongsvinger 
and Stockholm (Bte. 8). A busy 
settlement of saw-mills, and timber- 
planing factories. Villas and cot- 
tages in marked and transportable 
parts supplied here. It lies on an 
alluvial plain, formed by the detritus 
of the Glommen river and the small 
Nit-elv, which runs out of Lake 
CHeren (1.) 

[A str. daily on Oieren In connection with 
tndn to Sedterlandet.] 

The train then traverses the unin- 
teresting wide plain of Bom&nkey 
from which the distant mtns. of 
Nordmarken (Bte. 1) are visible. 

Lerflund stat. (27 kil.), crossing 
(beyond) the Leiwa river. 

Frosrner stat. (30 kil.) Gh. to 1. 
A road and ferry (over the Glommen) 
hence to Blaker^ 14 kil. 

Kloften stat. (86 kil.) Mtns. seen 

TrogBtad stat. (45 kil.) Stat, for 
Oardermoen camp. Highest stat. 
(666 ft.) on this section of the rly., 
but an altitude of 15 ft. more is 
reached on the way to 

Dal stat. (57 HI.) Scenery en- 
livened by villas. 

[G-ood road to Eurdalen, and an old one to 

Hence the line runs along the 
small Ris-elOy as far as the LDken 
tunnel, shortly before reaching 

B<nm stat. (62 kil.), where the 
bank of the And-elv, flowing from 
Hurdalen, is gained. This stream is 
crossed several times until it is left 
at a waterfall, near its rise in the 
Vormen, Bunning through another 
tunnel, the rly. journey terminates, 
unless travellers desire, exception- 
ally, to continue it to Hamar (Bte. 
13), at 

EIDSYOU) Btat.« (68 kil.) Buff. 
Pleasantly situated on the Vormen^ a 
broad, navigable river, flowing out of 
Lake MjQsen, 

If staying at this place, as travel- 
lers in search of health and rest 
frequently do, the Femigmous baths 
(see Index) can be utilised, the 
Mowument to Wergeland (the poet 
and the discoverer of the springs) 
seen, and a visit paid to the Eidsvold 
Ycerk (Works), 6 kil. from the stat., 
where the Convention was held 
which drew up the Constitution of 
1814 (see " Hist. Notice "). The por- 
traits of those who took part in it 
are hung in one of the rooms of 
the unpretentious 2-storeyed wooden 
house, now State property. The hall 
in which the Convention met, and 
the pictures, will be shown by the 
custodian. A carriage will be sup- 
plied at the stat. 

There is grayUng-fishing (end of 
Aug.) at Eidsvold. and also at Minne 
(see below). 

Route 12. — Hama/r; Qjovik. 



From a pier close to the stat. a 
str. leaves daily, in oonnection with 
the morning train from Ohristiania, 
for Lake Mjosen. Excellent accom- 
modation and food on board. 

Ascending the Vormen^ and afford- 
ing a view (1.) of the summit of the 
Skreifjeld (2130 ft.) and of the Mis- 
berg (ascended in abont 6 hrs. from 
Eidsvold), the str. soon reaches 

^ Hinne rly. suspension bridge (9 
kil.), passing under which, against 
a strong current, it enters 

Lake Mjosen, 99 kil. long (141 
sq. m. in area), and consequently 
the largest sheet of inland water in 
Norway. Its extreme breadth does 
not, however, exceed 16 kil. Its sur- 
face, at ordinary level, is 410 ft. above 
the sea, and near its W. shore and 
S. end, opposite the Skreifjeld, it is 
1476 fit. deep, and therefore nearly 
1066 ft. below the sea-level. Its 
depth is thus greater than that of 
the upper part of the Christiania 
fjord. It has several branches, all on 
the E. shore, the largest of them being 
nearly in its centre and the widest 
part, opposite the Helgd (Holy island). 
The streams and torrents flowing 
into it are numerous, but its princi- 
pal tributary is the Laagen (pron. 
Logen), which falls into it at Lille- 

The scenery towards the lower end 
of the lake is more pleasing than 
picturesque. The hills upon the 
banks are rather low, and wanting 
in fine outline : on their lower slopes 
they are covered to the water's edge 
with woods of alder, birch, mountain- 
ash, &c., and are crested by forests 
of pine and fir. The farms on both 
sides are very numerous and sub- 
stantial. Towards the head of the 
lake the scenery becomes finer and 
less tame ; the hills increase in height 
and attraction. 

The str. calls at a considerable 
but variable number of stats. 

For practical purposes it will be 
sufficient to mention that in about 
8 hrs, it stops at 

HAlCASif (53 kil.) Pop. 4200. 

[Bly. stat. on Ghristiania-Trond- 
hjem line, Rte. 13.] 

This town (the capital of Hedemar- 
ken prefect.) is pleasantly situated in 
one of the most fertile districts of 
Norway, and has thriven since the 
construction of the rly. It is the 
residence of a bishop and of the 
prefect of the Hamar " stift " (eccles. 
prov.) Anciently a market place (of 
an importance more legendary than 
real) known as Storehammer (burned 
and plundered by the Swedes in 
1567), of which the site is a short 
distance to the N.W. 

The see of Hamar was established in 
1152 by Nicholas Breakspear,the first 
and only English Pope (Adrian IV.) 
He founded a cath. and several other 
religious establishments, which were 
all destroyed at the Bef ormation. 

The ruins of the Cath. (the pret- 
tiest in Norway), consisting of a 
wall pierced by round arches, will 
be seen from the lake. Time per- 
mitting, they should be visited (about 
J hr. walk). 

There are several Schools at Hamar, 
a Deaf and Dumb Asylum, an Art 
Association, Banks, and many Indus- 
trial establishments, including a Con- 
densed-Milk Factory, worked with 
British capital. 

The Mesna-fos, a very pretty water- 
fall, is withm J hr. walk of the 

[A good road (60 kil.) runs hence 
to Lillehammer. It is being replaced 
by a rly. to Losna in Gudbrandsdal, 
88i kil.] 

Hence the str. steers W., across 
the Fwmesfjord (leaving the cath. 
ruins to the rt.), and, after passing 
between Helgd island (1.) and Ksbb ch,^ 
where it stops a shoii; time, reaches 
the second important landing-place 

GjOvik^ (65 kil.), a pretty town 
of 1400 inhabitants at the mouth 
of the Huns-elv, The Gh, contains a 
^ood i^tar-piece by Asta Norregaard^ 


Route 12. — Christiania to Molde. 

There are Saw and Planing mills, a 
Distillery, &o.y and the trade of the 
place is not insignificant. 

[There is a posting and daily 
dil. service (38 kil.) to and from 
OdnaeB (Rte. 8), in connection with 
strs. on Lake Jkjdsen and the Barids- 
fjord. Dil. fare, 4.50 kr.] 

Crossing to the E. shore of the 
lake, the str. touches at Heggenhaugen 
and next at Bingsaker, where there is 
an old Ch. with a beautiful carved and 
gilt altar-piece of the 16th cent., from 
Antwerp. The lake now contracts, 
and, passing a small hill crowned 
with the ruins of Haakon Haakonson's 
Castle on the Mjosen (13th cent.), and 
stopping at a couple of other stats. 
(BiHy with glass-works close by, and, 
90 kil., Frengstnen), the str. (in 2^ 
hrs. from Gjovik) ends her voyage 

LlLLEHATffMEU» (105 kil.) (pop. 
1830), prettily situated (160 ft. above 
the lake) on both banks of the smaU 
Mesna river, which forms in the 
vicinity (N.) some picturesque Water- 
falls that should be visited, especially 
in early summer. There is a Bathing- 
hotise at the lower fall (Helvede)j about 
IJ kil. Having been incorporated 
only in 1827, it has a modern ap- 
pearance. Saw-mills, &c., close to it. 
The walks In the neighbourhood are 
beautiful. From a seat upon the 
Christiania rd., a short distance S. of 
the town, there is an extensive and 
lovely view over the lake and sur- 
rounding country. It should, if pos- 
sible, be seen at sunset. 

There is good trout-fishing in the 
Mesna river and the lakes from which 
it issues, about 11 kil. The path to 
the latter runs through forest and 
over swampy ground. 

[For dU. to Oausdal sanatorium, 
see below and Index,'\ 

At about I ML above the town the Laa^en 
(Logen) river falls into the MjHsen. Biang 
in Le^evcerk lake (Gudbrandsdal), it has a 
coarse of 190 kil. and a catchment basin of 
4775 sq. m., a vei^ considerable number of 
email rivers contributing to its volume. It 

waters the OudbrandsdcU^ which opens here, 
and has a total pop. of about 50,000. The 
greater part of it is narrow and winding, with 
mtng. of somewhat unifonn outline on either 
side, cultivated on the lower slopes, and 
genersdly covered with pine-forests in the 
upper parts. Here and there it widens for a 
short distance, but nowhere to a greater ex- 
tent than 10 or 11 ML The Gudbrandsdal 
region (6370 sq. m.) consists to a great extent 
of barren mtns. (some covered with perpetual 
snow) and of morasses, with attractions only 
for Alpine climbers and hardy sxMrtsmen. 
The scenery is mostly tame and dreary com- 
pared with that of the Romsdal and other 
valleys, and only occasionally brightens up 
into plcturesqueness. The pop. being con- 
fined principally to the main valley, the faxms 
are numerous, and also large and tidy-looMng. 
The yeoman farmers are, relatively (for Nor- 
way), well-to-do, and keep up a pride of an- 
cestry and a spirit of independence which 
travelers will do well to respect while posting. 
The kind of Phrygian cap, of a blood-red 
colour, which many of the peasants still wear, 
will serve to remind the stranger of the spirit 
of liberty that pervades, more especially, the 
inhabitants of the Gudbrands valley. 


[For posting-rates and conveyances, see 
head of this Boute.] 

On leaving Lillehammer (past the 
new Market-place and Racecourse) ^ 
the excellent "Kongevei'* (King's 
highway) runs N., and shortly com- 
mands an extensive view over the 
town, the lake, and the Otidbrandsdal 
and Oatisdal valleys. A torrent from 
the E. is crossed soon afterwards, 
and the road issues on the 1, bank of 
the Laagen. At about 10 kil. the 
Jorstadmoen Camp of Exercise wiU be 
seen on the opposite side of the river, 
and beyond it a Monument to the 
engineer who constructed the road. 
A succession of rapids and cascades, 
with water of a milky blue, will be 
passed as the road continues to ascend 
the valley. 

L»rom Srunlaag (H hr. drive (N.) from 
Lillehammer) a road branches off to the 1., 
crossing the Laagen and ascending the Oaus- 
dal, at the head of which valley is the cele- 
brated Oausdal Sanatorium, reached gene- 
rally, however, by diL or other conveyance 
from Lillehammer (40 ML) in about 4i hrs. 
(see Index). The stats, off the " Kongevei " 
are— Disemd (12 ML), Veisten (16 ML), 
Moen (11 kil.), and Kvisberg (17 Ml.) 
From the road running W. off the Highway 
there are several smaller roads and mtn.-paths 
leading S.W. and W. 

Route 12. — Fossegaarden ; Holmen; Kirhestum,. 76 

The Qftusdal SaoAtorium* (the oldest and 
most elevated in Norway) is perched at a 
height of 2880 ft. above aea-level, on a slope 
of the Skeikampen (8698 ft.), from the summit 
of which, as well aa from that of the Frcesf- 
kampen{4090 ft. ),an extensive view is obtained 
of the Jotun and Rondane mtns. A plateau 
stretches hence to the Jotunheim, affording 
many health-giving excursions on foot and 
on horseback. The fine, pure, and dry mtn. 
air has a favourable influence on derange- 
ments of the nervous system, and is higMy 
beneficial in cases of chronic catarrh of the 
throat or mucous membrane of the air-pas- 
sages, as well as in those of asthma, disorders 
of the digestive organs, anaemia, chlorosis, 
scrofula, hemorrhoids, hysteria, and hypo- 
chondria. The incipient stage of pulmonary 
consumption is often successfully treated, 
but the resort is not suitable for persons in 
whom the disease is fully developed. 

The establishment is well and solidly built, 
with large verandahs enclosed with glass, 
where the sun, even on cold windy days, al- 
ways affords warmth. There are many smaller 
buildings in which quiet rest is available 
to those who suffer from nervousness or 
sleeplessness. 8eaton : from June 5 to 
Sept. 6.] 

Passing later the large Hove and 
the Bdlberg summer Pensions, the 
road runs high above the Laagen, 
which receives the glacial, green 
waters of the Otta before tiie first 
stage is reached at 

Fossegaarden^ (14 kil.) A good 
and large stat., prettily situated, with 
12 horses. Telephone. Below is the 
Hunderfos, a faU of no great preten- 
sions, and interesting chiefly on 
account of the large bttll-trout (Hv/n,- 
derHrret) which, coming up from the 
Mjosen to spawn, are netted in large 
numbers. Attempts to take them 
with a fly or spinning-tackle (by ex- 
ceptional permission of the stat.- 
master) have not been very successful. 
These fish run up to 36 lbs., and are 
as fine in colour and flesh as the 
trout of Lake Saima in Finland, 
where, however, they have not been 
taken above the weight of 24 lbs. 
Above the fall, and up the entire 
course of the Laagen (and in its tri- 
butaries and the lakes that form 
them) small trout can be caught. 

An easy ascent to the cairn on the 
summit of the NceverfjM (E.) can be 
made hence (and back) in about 
2^ hrs. Magnificent view of MjOsen 
and rotn9. Horge, 4-6 kr, 

[The observation under 0au8dal sanato- 
rium in respect of mtn.-paths applies also to 
this stat.] 

On the next stage the road follows 
the considerable bend made by the 
Laagen, and passes through a ravine, 
the sharply defined summit of the 
Hohna (2407 ft.) being seen on the 1. 
Many farms and the district (OieT) Ch, 
and manse, as well as a mtn.-path 
leading into OsterdaUn (rt.), will be 
passed, with pretty views of the river 
beneath and the vaUey beyond, before 
arriving at 

Holmen (17 kil.) Small but com- 
fortable quarters. In the distance, 
up the vaUey, the snow-clad peaks of 
the Bondeme and SGlen come into 
view, but with no great effect. 

Beyond, the road runs past Forma 
farm and Tretten ch., and, crossing 
the Mohsa, comes up to the large 
buildings that constitute Stav, the 
site of the great horse-fair annually 
held there in Aug. during 3 days. 
Some of the finest horses in Norway 
may be seen at it, many of them as 
much as 16 hands high, and beau- 
tifully shaped. The Gudbrandsdal 
horses are in great request through- 
out the S. of Norway. 

Soon the road follows the shore of 
Lake Losna, formed by the Laagen, 
and full of trout, and reaches, through 
pretty scenery, 

Eirkestuen (16 kil.), a small stat., 
with Fodvang Ch» close by. After 
leaving the lake the road crosses 
the Tromsa river, which is about 200 
ft. below. The figures on the rocks 
near the stat. denote the height of a 
flood in June 1860. Up the valley of 
the Tromsa a horse-track turns off to 
the E., across a remarkable bridge, to 
the Glommen valley. The main road 
soon enters a ravine'(^£(^/(;Zet;6n), and, 
ascending a high hiU (^Elstad, to rt.), 
it brings the traveller m sight of the 
red spire of the ancient Bingebu 
Stav ch., and runs along the bottom 
of the valley, now flat and broad, until 
it reaches 

Slqeeggestad (12 kil.) Very good 
and cheap stat., beautifully situated. 
A charming and extensive view can 


Route 12. — Christicwda to Molde. 

be had from the oh. just mentioned. 
The excursion can be made in less 
thui IJ hr. 

[An excursion (about 6 hre.) is also often 
made from this stat. to the Klingenberg mtn. 
(about 3000 ft.), from which a grand view is 
obtained in clear weather. A shorter one 
(about 2 hrs.), with a similar object, is to 
Vaaier Bro^ about 1^ kil. from the stat. 

From Elstad a road runs over the Cfjeld- 
soeter (near which is the Klingenberg) to 
AfudaUaeter (7 hrs.) Thence a sceter-path 
leads (2 hrs.) to the Storfjeldsceter^ from which 
Atna stat. (on the Trondhjem rly., Bte. 14) 
can be reached by road (about 18 kiL) 

There are mtn.-paths In various other direc- 
tions, but as few will use them their descrip- 
tion is omitted.] 

There is sni^' shooting in the 
marshes near the stat. and good trotU- 
fishmg in the river. 

The valley preserves its breadth, 
but becomes marshy. From VcLole 
bridge (from which runs a road up to 
the long Vcenebygt valley to Atnebro, 
in the Bondane mtns., and other 
places) the scenery gains in grandeur. 
Torrents dashing through picturesque 
rooky gorges are passed about mid- 
way on the stage. After crossing the 
J^r^a,the Steig gaardy a farm perched 
on an eminence, will be passed rt. of 
the road. Lars Gram, the baillie who 
led the peasants' attack on the Scot- 
tish expedition in 1612 (of which more 
anon), lived here. Beyond, on the 1., 
is Hundtorp, the ancient seat of Dale 
G-udbrand, the heathen enemy of St. 
Olaf. There are some large tumvM 
near it. Soon after, the traveller will 
pass the brick octagonal oh. of Sbndre 
(S.) Fron, built 1787. Ludvig Hol- 
berg, poet and historian, lived in his 
youth (1694-98) in the adjacent 
Manse, At a short distance from the 
oh. is 

Listad stat. (14 Ml.) (good for 
dinner or night quarters), prettily 
situated, with a view of the broad 
valley and of the Sikilsdalshd. The 
Nautga/rstind is visible on the old 
road (5 min.) 

On the next stage the valleyis more 
cultivated, but the upper parts of the 
mtns. still clothed with continuous 
pine-forest. The Laagen again be- 
comes ver^ rapid, and tqia^ 2 ^ne 

and picturesque cataracts; also the 
Ha/rpefos, which is, however, not seen 
from tiie road, the point from which 
it can be attained being about 2 Ml. 
before reaching (beyond Sddorp ch.) 
the stat. of 

Moen 1 Sodorp (10 Ml.) Good 
and cheap accommodation and food, 
which can also be obtained (3 kil.) 
at Byhre (post-offioe). 

[A pretty and tolerably good road runs off 
to the L a little beyond Byhre, over a long 
bridge across the Laagen, to Evikne and 
Bkaabu, ending at EampessBter (" Seeteren "), 
where quuters are available. Distance, 63 kil. 
(3 stages). Boad hence also to Oauidal (see 
above). Track thence into the Jotunheim. ] 

Close to Byhre a torrent is crossed, 
and the road keeps close to the 
Laagen, the valley narrowing and 
becoming less populous, but finer and 
more wild. Inrigation prevails here 
extensively, and continues for several 
stages — the water being led down the 
mtns. In gullies and wooden troughs 
to the various farms. Sigstad farm 
is a telephone 'St&t, Close to Vik farm 
is (to 1.) a large rough-hewn stone 
slab, on the face of which is inscribed 
(in Norwegian) : " Here was the leader 
of the Scots, George Sinclair, buried 
after he had fallen at Eringelen, on 
the 26 Aug. 1612." 

The story of the so-called " Sin- 
clair Expedition," with which the 
Gudbrands and Bomsdal valleys still 
ring, wiU be told at another stat. 

The stage ends at 

Elefstad hi kil.) Comfortable 
quarters and reasonable charges. 
Situation of the stat. beautiful, on 
the bank of the river, with mtns. on 
either side. 

[An excursion (2 hrs.) can be made hence 
to the IfiUingtberfft the top of which offers a 
fine panorama of the high ranges to the N.] 

On leaving Elefstad, the valley 
takes a westerly direction, and winds 
a good deal, the stream in its precipi- 
tous course forming a great number 
of rapids and cataracts. After pass- 
ing Kvam Ch. a small river is crossed, 
and the road soon attains an altitude 
of Qei^ly 1000 ft, above @ea-level 

Route 12. — Bredevwnge/h, J Formohampen. 


(dOO ft. above the river). At the 
point (Koloen) where the valley again 
turns almost due N., the Sjoa issues 
from the Hedal valley, and joins tiie 

[Here a road runs up the Hedal to Bjolftad 
(37 kil. from Klefstad), an interesting, large 
farm In rococo style, built at the latter part 
of 17th or beginning of 18th cent^ and owned 
by a family claiming descent from the natiye 
kings of Norway, and to Snerle (17 kil.), on 
the road leading W. to the Geiranger and 
Nord fjords (see Section IL)] 

In the vicinity of Evam ch. is a 
ham close to the road (1.), in which 
116 Soots were imprisoned, under cir- 
cumstances related on the next page, 
and either killed in it or shot against 
the N. wall of the bam by the pea- 
sants, after a carousing council of 
war, which determined that, as it was 
a long distance, at harvest-time, to 
Akershus Castle (Ghristiania), and as 
the King of Denmark's resources 
would be sufficiently strained in feed- 
ing the 18 prisoners (out of 134, in- 
cluding 3 officers) whom they had 
spared, the remainder should be 
annihilated in the manner to which 
the bullet-holes at the N. end of the 
bam to this day bear testimony. 
The legendary bravery of the peasants 
of Qvdhrandsdal has, in the absence 
of historical research, survived very 
long, and it will interest travellers to 
see in the testimony offered by the 
bam in question the equal longevity 
of timber buildings in Norway. These 
observations are necessary on account 
of the eager pertinacity with which 
the destruction of "900 Scots" by 
300 peasants is related by old and 
young in the valleys which this route 

An abrupt bend to the K. from 
Koelen brings the • road in view of 
Formokampen (4820 ft.) and past the 
District Prison and Post-office to 

BredevaBgen (16 kil.), a very 
good and comfortable stat., prettily 
situated on the borders of the small 
lake which the river here forms. 

Formokampent a massive mtn., 
forms here the background of a 
grand landscape* 

Gk>od trout and grayling fishing 
(especially around the islands in the 
lake). Trout are also numerous in 
the VcuUaasjO and the FwrusjQ lake, 
near the Bondane mtns. (about 10 
kil.) The reindeer and pta/rmigan 
shooting is also very good in this 
vicinity. Gillies, boats, Ac, at stat. 
From the top of Staagaapiggen (2 
kiL) is a fine view. There are many 
pretty waterfalls in this vicinity, the 
Maehlutnsfos being more particularly 
worth seeing. . 

From Breden, on the opposite side 
of the lake, the road runs N. through 
the contracted valley of the Laagen^ 
which is soon joined by the Otta 
river, the green colour of its waters 
having a remarkable effect. 

At about half way to the next stat. 
a small stone Obelisht "In com- 
memoration of the bravery of the 
peasants " (Bonder), marks the vicin- 
ity of the once dangerous " defile *' of 
KringeUn^ but which a climb from 
the cha/ussie will show to have been 
merely a foot-track or bridle-path 
along the edge of what was, until the 
beginning of the present cent., the 
precipitous bank of the river. It is 
here that the legendary massacre of 
the Scots in 1612 took place. 

[Historical * research within the last few 
years has proved the facts of the so-called 
** Sinclair Expedition " to hare been as fol- 
lows : 

Sweden and Denmark were at war. The 
Danes had in their service about 8000 English, 
French, and Grerman mercenaries; and the 
Swedes, having only 1 foreign regiment^ 
sought reinforcements In the Netherlands, 
then foU of disbanded soldiers and available 
arms, A force of about 1200 men was ac- 
cordingly gathered together at Amsterdam 
by J. von Mbnnlchhofen, an officer of high 
rank in the Swedish service, and sailed in 
4 ships for the coast of Norway. They 
landed near Trondhjem, and made their way 
with some difficulty, not from armed oppo- 
sition, but owing to the difficulty of obtaining 
provisions, to the Swedish frontier, and thence 
to Stockholm, then seriously threatened by 
the fleet of Christian lY. of Denmark, which 

^ History of the SeottUh Expedition to Nor- 
way in 1613. By Thomas Michell, C.B. Lon- 
don and Edinburgh : T.Nelson & Sons. Price 
3». Sold (for the benefit of the Anglican Ch., 
Christiania) by booksellers in tlie principal 
towns in Norway. 


BotUe 12. — Oh/ristiama to Molde. 

had complete oommand of the Kattegat and 
the Belts, and prevented the Swedes from 
reaching the sea. 

Sir James Spens, Laird of Wormiston, had 
simultaneously nndertaken to supply Ousta- 
yns Adolphns with 8000 Scottish soldiers 
" of prored fidelity and brarery," and he en- 
trusted the levying of that contingent to Col. 
Andrew Ramsay, a brother of the fayonrite 
of King James. The name of the Scottish 
king having been unjustifiably used in these 
proceedings, his brother-in-law, the King of 
Denmark, remonstrated, and obtained the 
issue of a proclamation ordering the levies 
already made in Scotland to be discharged 
and the ships provided for them to be seized, 
which was immediately done. A small con- 
tingent, however, of 300 men (embarked by 
force) contrived to sail, in 3 small ships, 
severally from Dundee and Caithness. They 
were " under the conduct of Alex. Bamsay, 
Lieut.-CQl. unto Col. Bamsay, Cfl^t. Hay and 
Capt. Sinclair,** under whom were 3 subordi- 
nate officers (Bruce, Moneypenny, and Scott). 
Failing to combine, as previously arrangeo, 
with the Netherlands contingent (which was 
to have supplied the Scottish force with 
arms), they landed in the lisf jord (a few kil. 
from the present Veblungsnaes), and with the 
aid of a native guide started up the Bomsdal 
and the Gndbrandsdal with the view of cross- 
ing into Sweden. At Kringelen they were 
opposed by about 300 peasants hastily col- 
lected by the local baillie, who caused an 
avalanche of logs and stones to be rolled down 
on the Scots as they were marching along 
the horse-track to which attention has been 
drawn above. This device cemnot, however, 
.account for the destruction of any large 
number of men marching in single file ; and 
a recent military survey of the path proves 
that, even if the men had marched 2 abreast, 
only 26 or 30 of them could possibly have 
been killed or injured in that manner. 
That firearms were used on both sides is 
evident from the few remains of mu^ets, 
swords, &c., that have been preserved as 
trophies. In the mtUe Capt. George Sinclair 
and Capt. Hay were killed, and the other 
officers, having escaped unhurt, were taken 
prisoners. It may be assumed that, in order 
to save their real commander (Ramsay), they 
pointed to the body of Sinclair as that of their 
chief, and hence the event has ever since been 
known in Norwegian legends as the " Sinclair 
Expedition," in which "900 Scots" were 
" crushed like earthen pots." To this day, 
almost the first bit of poetry taught to Nor- 
wegian children is a poem by E. Storm, ex- 
tolling the bravery of the peasantry and 
execrating the invaders for their acts of mur- 
der, piUage, and incendiarism. Danish official 
documents have now, however, revealed the 
fact that the Scots "absolutely neither burned, 
murdered, nor destroyed anything on their 
march through the country." Presumably 
they were for the greater part unarmed, and 
were being driven along as captives by the 
Scottish officers who had forcibly sdzed them. 
The attack by the peasants must in these cir- 
cumstances have been hailed by the great 
bulk of the men as a deliverance ; but un- 
fortunately, as stated under " Klefstad " (see 

above), the victors, after a carouse, put to 
death, one by one, 116 of the prisoners they 
had shut up in a bam. The atrocities con- 
nected with the expedition, common as they 
may have been in that age, even in Sootland, 
were therefore, on this occasion, not on the 
side of the Scots. A balance of about 166 
men remains unaccounted for : many must 
have been thrown into the river or otnerwise 
despatched during the struggle at Kringelen, 
but some few are known to have escaped and 
settled in the country, under the protection 
of kind-hearted peasants. The dexwsitions of 
the 3 officers who were spared at the massa- 
cre were taken later at Copenhagen, and are 
now on record to refute the legendary account 
of the expedition which has hitherto appeared 
in almost every book on travel in Norway.] 

[boad fbom bbedevanoen to the 
geiranoeb fjobd. 

A good road (one of the grandest mtn. 
rout^ in Norway) runs, since 1888, from 
Breden (see above) to Maniak ( Merok) at the 
head of the Oeiranger fjord (Section II.), 
with a branch to BViseim in Biiverdaien (the 
easiest approach to the Jotunheim mtru.)^ and 
another to Hjelle on Strynsvand lake^ from 
which the upper part of the Nordfjord (Sec- 
tion II.) is reached. The main road will be 
bri^y described here as far as Grjotli, wlience 
the branch to the Nordfjord runs off. (For the 
roads leading to that junction, see Section II.) 
As the great majority of travellers pene- 
trate into Norway from its western seaboard 
and fjords, it has appeared advisable to 
supply them with direct routes to the points 
to which their joumeyings are generally di- 

The posting-rate is 15 "d. per kil.] 

Turning to the 1. from Kringelen, 
and after crossing the Laagen, the 
narrow road in question runs up the 
valley of the Otta, and the first 
stat. is 

Aasoren (11 kil.) From Lalum 
bridge the river, hitherto falling in 
rapids and cascades, begins to flow 
gently and smoothly. The stage 
ends at 

Snerle (16 kil.) Near this stage 
a road branches off N.E. to Klefstad 
(see above). Beyond, the view is 
closed in by the Lomsegg (6760 ft.) 
A halt is then made at 

Sorem (7 kil.) Qood quarters. 
In a Ch.j 1^ kil. distant, are curious 
carvings of the 17th cent. Several 
mtn.-paths hence, one partly car- 
riageable to Ojende lake. The 
Tesse river, passed on the next stage, 
issues from the lake of the same 

ttoute H.^tiarmo ; Mom. 


name, in which troiU abonnd, and 
which, amongst other pretty falls, 
forms the fine Oksefos, The road 
follows the bank of the Tesse for 
some distance. 

Garmo (20 kil.) A small hamlet, 
w^ith several large farms, and a Ch, 
are beyond it. The Ottavand will be 
skirted, and the B'&ora river, which 
forms a waterfall in discharging it- 
self into that lake, will be passed 
before reaching the Ch» and Mcmse 
of Lom. This is also a remarkable 
Stav ch. (like those of Hitterdal, 
Borgund, &c.), and is approxi- 
mately of the same antiquity. The 
ancient open roof was, unfortunately, 
in the 17th cent, concealed by the 
present ceiling. Here also the system 
of artificial irrigation is of interest. 
Turning up a hill, to the 1. of the 
high road, the traveller alights at 

Andvord stat. , (15 kil.), from 
which the Jotwn mtns, are most 
easily approached by a branch road 
to Boiseim (14 kil.) Splendid views 
of the Ouldhom and OjwvbrcR^ the 
Glaama river being on the 1. before 
crossing the Stda, 

[The ascent of the Lomspgg begins at the 
Ch. With a guide, the lowest peak (beyond 
wliich few venture) can be reached in 4 hrs. 
The giant Galdhopigg (8397 ft.) and otlier 
peaks of the Jotunheim are very impressive, as 
is also the rising of the sun, to see which 
involves a start before midnight.] 

Hence the road continues up the 
valley, which halfway to the next 
stage is flat and well cultivated. 
Grossing the Otta^ the traveller 

Aanstad (11 kil.) Tolerably good 
accommodation. Shiaher Ch, close 
by, and the windings of the Aura 
on the rt. Keeping along the 
bank of the Otta^ after crossing it 
twice, Nordberget Ch, comes in view, 
and immediately after 

Linseim (11 kil.) Good quarters. 

[A country roail runs hence to the 5raa/«- 
dal^ and mtn.-paths to Joitedalen (Faabergp 
16 hrs. distant) and to Opstryn, in Sundalen.^ 

On the next stage the road con- 

tinues partly along the OUa, but 
soon becomes very narrow, and passes 
next through woods before reaching 
the Heggerbotvand (the mtns. seen 
to the 1. being 3020 ft. high), and 

Heggerbotten stat. (11 kil., pay 
for 14). Lakes and rivers are next 
skirted or passed to 

Follfossen (19 kil.) Pretty good 

[Pedestrians can cross the mtns. in about 
6 hrs. to KyssBter, on the way to Lesja, Gud- 

Here the road rises steeply, the 
Synstaalkirke dominating it at a 
height of 4365 ft. After the BUUng- 
dal is entered the Tora river is 
crossed, the spray of its huge water- 
fall being seen on the heights to the 
rt. A halt will then be made at 

BilUngea {tk scBter), (24 kil. from 
Linieixn, pay for 29). 

Again several ascents before reach- 
ing the flat shore of the Vtdiinxind 
(about 6 kil. long), the Vulu river 
being crossed after passing NyscBter 
(in about 1 hr.) Twisting round hills, 
and then running along a lake, the 
road offers views of considerable 
grandeur, especially of the Skridu- 
laupe. After crossing the S» Grjotaa 
the stage ends at 

GijotU (18 kil., pay for 23). A 
Government Hospice (2843 ft.), well 
recommended. The SkridiUaupe can 
be ascended hence in about 8 hrs. 

Continuation of Main Boutb to 


From Bredevangen the road fol- 
lows the LaageUj and from the foot 
of Kringelen a highly picturesque 
view opens out, both of the valley 
and the river. The JJla is crossed 
at its confluence with the Laagen at 

Moan (i SeT) (8 kil.) Fairly good 
quarters for a halt. In Sel Ch,, 
close by (built 1742), are 2 curious 
altar-pieces, one being of 1681. The 
other (the Lord's Supper in relief) 
is dated 1783. A short walk up 
the valley of the Ula affords an 


Route 12. — ChrisUania to Motde* 

opportunity of viewing the pretty 
cascades and rapids which that river 
forms, as well as the engineering 
contrivances by which its power for 
inflicting damage is controlled or 
arrested. The trout-flsh/i/ng is very 
good in the Bondevand and the 
Ildmand lakes. They are reached 
by a road np the Uladal to My- 
Busaster (11 kil.), and thence by 
a bridle-path. The owner of the 
lakes (who also provides excellent 
reindeer and ptarmigan shooting) 
lives at the Bjbmelien saster, 11 
kil. S.E. of the Bondevcmd* 

[Tracks for pedestrians to the W. fjords.] 

After leaving Moen the road rises 
gradually through scenery growing 
wild and dreary from the absence 
of houses and cultivation and . the 
stunted appearance of the trees, and 
before arriving at the next stat. 
the stream is crossed by a bridge to 
the rt. bank, after which a steep bit 
of road leads to 

laargaard (10 kil.) Excellent stat. 
Near the stat. is Bomundgaard, 
one of the rooms in which will be 
shown as that occupied by "Sin- 
clair " the night before he fell at 
Kringelen, while the large barn to 
the rt. is (no doubt truly) stated to 
have accommodated a considerable 
number of the Scots. The size of 
the timbers attests the antiquity of 
the buildings. Wild^tcck shooting 
is good in the marsh between this 
and Moen. 

[One of the most beautiftd Excursion* in 
Norway can be made (in 7 hrs.) from this 
pl£U}e by driving to the Riuten ravine (N.) 
and riding thence to H5vringen sseter (11 
kil.) The Formokamp (see mention above) 
can be ascended thence on horseback, and a 
beautiful view obtained. 

A small road branches off also (1.) to 
Sorem (21 kil.) on the high road, already 
described, to the Nordfjord^ <fec. (see 
Rte. 11).] 

The high bridge at Laargaard 
must be recrossed in order to con- 
tinue the road northward. The high- 
est point passed on the next stage is 

about 1860 ft. above sea-level, after 
which it descends considerably. 

The road is very hilly, and traverses 
the finest bit on the whole route (the 
Busten ravine), the mtns. drawing 
together, and the river forcing its 
way between precipices of gneiss. 
The scenery is grand and wild, 
especially at the bridge crossed in 
less than 1 hr. from Laargaard. 
Here diverges the road recommended 
above for an excursion. Beyond the 
bridge the road ascends steeply on 
the rt. bank of the river, and after 
surmounting the crest the valley 
opens again, and the journey is con- 
tinued along an old, undulating part 
of the road to 

BrsBndliaagen (Dovre parish) (12 
kil.) Very good stat. The Jetta 
field (6646 ft.), with a splendid view 
of the Dovrefjeld^ the Bondane, and 
the JotwnSi can be ascended hence, 
and there is a saBter-path to Hov- 
ringen (see above). There is a strong 
Ferrugimous spring in the vicinity of 
the stat. 

The road crosses to the 1. bank of 
the river, and continues close to it all 
the rest of the next stage. Numbers 
of small farms up the E. sides of the 
mtns. The soil is light, and the vast 
forests are of pine. The hamlet of 
Dovre is passed through, and its 
pretty ch. is seen on the rt. close to 
the road, shortly before reaching the 
next stat. The Gudbrandsdal is con- 
sidered as ending here, and the f jeld 
begins in reality at 

Toftemoen (12 kil.) Very good 
stat. for night quarters. It is kept 
by Tofte, who claims descent from 
Harald Haarfager. 

[His large gaard is on the hill opposite 
the stat., and is worth visiting if only to see 
a panel above the door of one of the rooms, 
representing the local idea of the march of 
the Scottish expedition. A woodcut of it is 
given in the History already referred to. Some 
few pieces of antique furniture, costumes, 
and uniforms (of a date almost modern) are 
exhibited at the stat. Tofte is the hero of 
the story in which the late King of Norway 
and Sweden was obliged to admit Tofte 
to the royal table when His Majesty stopped 
at the stat. on a journey. On that occasion, 
also, Tofte objected to any royal plate being 

Route 13. — Ohristiama to Trondhjem. 


used, his own plate-ohest being sufficiently 
well stocked — presumably with spoons, for 
forks and knives, except the ^o/^ifcnto (sheath- 
knife), are to this day but little used in the 
Norwegian valleys.] 

The road runs through the mea- 
dows bordermg the Laagen, and 
gradually ascends. The vaJley con- 
tracts, and the soil becomes more 

An intricate system of irrigation- 
pipes, made of hollowed pines, will 
be noticed at various points. 

The trees gradually get more 
stunted as the road ascends until it 
reaches the bare upland, 2158 ft. 
above the sea-level, at 

DOKBAAS (pron. Ikymbds) (11 
kil.) Excellent quarters. Telegraph 
and post offices. Various skins and 
reindeers' antlers for sale. At such 
an altitude the air is, of course, 
exhilarating, but the scenery is wild, 
and in order to obtain a view of the 
neighbouring mtns. it is necessary to 
make excursions. One of about 5 hrs., 
to the Haregg sseter, is recommended 
with that object. 

The Snehcetta can be ascended 
hence, vid Rolaker^ and the descent 
made to Fohsttien or HJerhin, and 
vice versd (see next Boute). 

At Dombaas the main road to 
Trondhjem leaves the valley of the 
Laagen and runs N.E. over the Dovre- 

The remaining section of the road 
to Molde will be described in Section 
II. in the reverse direction, because a 
greater number of tourists ascend 
than descend the Bomsdal valley, and 
the long carriole or carriage drives 
to Molde and Trondhjem (and vice 
versd) are not so frequently under- 
taken as relatively short excursions 
along sections of the roads in Btes. 
12 and IB. 

For the assistance, however, of tra- 
vellers who would have to read back- 
wards the description of the road 
from Veblungsnees to Dombaas, the 
stats, on the road are here given in 
their order westward : 
[Norway — vi. 92..] 

Holager . 
Lesjevasrk . 
Mblmen . 
Flatmark . 
Horgjem . 


. 12 


. 16 


. 10 


. 12 


. 13 


. 10 


. 11 


. 12 




. 110 


(For distance, Ac, between Vae- 
blungsnsBS and Molde, see the head 
of this Boute.) 

ROUTE 13. 


(By rail, str., cuid road.) 

[Although this route is less and less taken 
in its entirety (the Gmcient capital of Nor- 
way being accessible by rail), it is given for 
the benefit of traveUers who desire to enjoy, 
in their leisure, the traditional pleasure of 
posting in Norway by carriole or other con- 
veyance. So many other grand and interest- 
ing parts of the country have been opened by 
the construction of roads and the develop- 
ment of steam communication, that compara- 
tively few are now tempted to avoid the 
railway journey to Trondhjem merely for the 
sake of crossing the Dovrefjdd. 

The several sections of this route are : 

1. Ohristiania to Eids- 

void, by rail . 

2. Eidsvold to Lilleham- 

mer, by str. . 

3. Lillehammer to Dom- 

baas, by road . 

4. Dombaas to StSren, 

byroad . 
6. StOren to Trondhjem, 
by rail . 

Total . 

Dist. Time Cost 

Idl. about kr. 

68 3 hrs. 4.80 

106 7 hrs. 6.SS 

163 2idys. 

164 2 dys 
62 2Jhr8. 4.40* 

f 61.00 


642 6-7 dys. 76.75 

» Expr. 


Route 13. — Christiania to Trondhjem, 

The posMng-rate Is 15 <5. per kil., exclusive 
of fees to drivers. (See Rte. 12 for notes re- 
specting Bennett's oarriages, &c.)] 

In Bte. 12 will be found a descrip- 
tion of sections 1-3 of this journey, 
which therefore begins here witii 
section 4. 


From Dombaas, on the outskirts of 
the Dovrefjeld (for description of 
which see "Geography," in Intro- 
diiction), a very steep ascent com- 
mences, and the limit of the growth 
of stunted fir, a wood of which is 
passed, is soon left behind. Views 
are obtained of the Lesje lake (on 
the Molde rd.) After attaining the 
plateau (1 hr.), the Foksaa^ one of the 
large tributaries of the Glonmien, is 
crossed. In about 2 hrs. (1 hr. in 
reverse direction) the traveller reaches 

Fokstuen (10 kil., pay for 11 kil.) 
This stat. (3247 ft. above sea-level) 
is now a large and good hotel, 

[Tourists from the S. may here ascend the 
Snehcetta, and descend to Jerkin, thereby 
saving the distance between the 2 stats. 
Drive to Nysseter (6 kil.) and walk to Grisungr- 
vand (6 kU.), where the river must be waded 
(if no boat). Thence round the Grisung- 
knatten. At the mouth of the SvonaaeUU 
valley the night can be passed in a mtn.-hut 
(about 6 hrs. from Nysseter) and the foot of 
SnehsBtta reached thence in 1 far. The Fok- 
stue (5823 ft.) caa be ascended from the stat. 
in 5 hrs., there and back. A guide should be 
taken for both mtns., not on account of 
danger, but to save time by using the easiest 

About midway on the next stage 
some desolate-looking lakes, from 
which iheFolla issues, will be passed. 
Small trout can be caught here in 
abundance. The scenery is wild and 
dreary and vegetation scanty — a vast 
undulating moorland, without large 
or fine rocky outlines. A few stunted 
birch are the only trees to be seen. 

[The £k)vrefjeld mtns. afford the finest 
botanical field in Norway, no less than 200 
mosses, 160 lichens, 60 algas, and 439 phane- 
rogamous plants and ferns having been 
found there. Jerkin, Fokstuen, and Eongs- 
vold are the best stats, for variety of rare 

The next stat. is 

Hjerkin (Jerkin) (21 kil.) Excel- 
lent : comfortable, clean, and charges 

It dates as a Fjeldsttie or Hospice 
from the early part of the 12th cent., 
like Fokstuen and Tofteon the S.W., 
and Eongsvold on the N. 

This is a good centre for sports- 
men — ptarmigan, wild duck, snipe, 
and hares being plentiful. B&mdeer- 
shootmg in this neighbourhood. 

[From Jerkin a pretty road runs B. for 
some distance through the Foldaly to LiUe 
Elvedal stat. on the Trondhjem rly. (see next 
Boute). The distances are : to'Dalen^ 17 kiL ; 
Kroghaugeut 17 kiL; Byhaugen, 18 kiL ; and 
Steien (close to Lille Elvedal), 82 kil.] 


Jerkin is an ezo^lent place whence to visit 
this mtn., long considered to be the highest 
in Norway, until careful measurements estab- 
lished the superior height of several peaks in 
the Jotunheim. Horse (also for guide) 6.60 
kr. ; guide 3-4 kr. A day's provisions are 
requisite, and can be procured at the stat. 
Spirits should be brought if required. 

The ascent is so gradual that much of the 
effect of its great height is lost. Its peaked 
summit is only about 8600 ft. above its base, 
Eind about 4600 ft. above Jerkin. 

If the weather be fine, the ascent may be 
accomplished in less than 8 hrs., but 12 hrs. 
should be allowed, 3 to 4 of them being occu- 
pied in riding to the base of the mtn. by a path 
along the course of the Soone river, which 
it crosses several times, rending horses in- 
dispensable (at least for ladies). The horses 
are left (in about 8} hrs.) at a rook called 
the " Station," above which is the •i>.*i»i»afm 
tourists' hut, with 13 beds, where coffee, 
sandwiches, Ac, are procurable. Thence 
about 2^ hrs. tealking to the flat top, most of 
it over the peculiar snow-ice found on the 
highest summits of snow-mtns. The blocks 
of mica-schist, over which the traveller has 
often to scramble, are the d4bris of the mo- 
raine from the eternal glacier at no great 
distance from the summit. The view is fine — 
to the N. a very wild prospect of mtns. ; to 
the E. an immense tableland of moor. Sne- 
hastta forms the N.W. extremity of one of 
those ridges of high snow-mtns. which rise 
out of the great tableland of moor that sepa- 
rates the E. and W. declivities of the Nor- 
wegian mtns. It rises much above the snow- 
line, and contains true glaciers. It is in itself 
picturesque : at the foot lies a little lake, 
backed by glaciers, and those again by black 
precipices, rising above them in the form of 
an amphitheatre.] 

On quitting Jerkin, the nearly level 
road runs along the western i^ope of 

Route 13, — Kongsvold; Drivstuen j Rise; Aune. 88 

the hill which leads to the highest 
point of the Dovrefjeld rd. and of 
the country between Ghristiania and 
Trondhjem. From the old road, which 
rises to 4594 ft. above the sea, a fine 
view of Snehaetta is obtained on the 
1. The road begins to descend, from 
this desolate region, to the iSvone river. 
A deep glen, down which the Driva, 
as the river is called after its con- 
fluence with the Kaldvella (which re- 
ceives the waters of the Svone), forms 
a series of cataracts and falls. From 
the bridge the new road joins the 
old one, and the way continues by 
the side of the Driva, and rapidly 
descends and increases in grandeur 
and picturesque effect. The variety 
and richness of the mosses, lichens, 
and herbage, and the warm colour 
of the rocks, combine to produce a 
charming picture. The stage ends 

KongBvold (13 Ml., pay for 14 kil. 
in reverse direction). An excellent 
stat. 3063 ft. above sea-level. In 
the event of Jerkin being full, this 
is the next best place as head- 
quarters for the fishmg and shooting 
to be had in the region of the 
SnehcBtta, which can also be easily 
ascended hence, as well as the 
KmUshlf (5645 ft.), which is of in- 
terest to botanists. 

The road continues close along the 
rt. bank of the Driva, nearly all the 
way to Bise, and is in many places 
quarried out of the face of the rock. 
After passing (on the 1.) the great 
Troldet rock the Vaa/rstiaa is crossed. 
It joins the Drwa as a waterfall 
rushing down a narrow ravine. The 
old precipitous road {VaarsHen) is 
frequently passed. The scenery is 
grand and picturesque: the valley 
(frequently a ravine) is bounded by 
high mtns. clothed with birch and 
fir, fine in outline, and varying in 
colour. The Alpine character of the 
flora is often noticeable : good sub- 
jects for the pencil all the way. The 
cataracts of the Drwa give life to the 
grandeur of the scenery. After about 
an hour*s drive the valley widens, and 
the hillsides become clothed with vege- 

tation a little before the last (fourth) 
mtn. Hospice is reached at 

Drivstuen (15 kil.) Good stat. 
Good trout-fishing in a neighbouring 
lake, and small fish plentiful in the 
Driva. Hence the road first ascends, 
rising considerably above the river, 
after which it rapidly descends 
through a cutting, exposing strongly 
marked stratified schistose layers. 
The scenery is splendid, and the 
ravine narrow towards the end 
of the stage. When the river is 
again joined, a pretty view of the 
valley behind is Obtained, with snow- 
capped mtns. in front. A short dis- 
tance below a picturesque bridge the 
traveller should leave the carriole 
and walk a few yards off the road 
to the Maagaalaupet a remarkable 
narrow fissure in the rocky bed of 
the river, through which the water 
has eaten its way and now foams 
and rushes along at a considerable 
distance below the original surface. 
There are also some fiine Waterfalls 
close by. Hence the road winds to 

Bise (12 kil., pay for 17 kil.) SmaU 
stat. At about 1 kil. hence the Tin- 
stra river is crossed, the road being 
mostly flat, the valley widening out, 
and the Driva becoming a fine stream. 
At the hamlet of Ojpdal (where the 
elevation is 1640 ft.) the road quits 
the river and runs on to 

Aune (10 Ml.) An excellent stat., 
and good quarters for fishing and 
shooting. The Dovrefjeld is con- 
sidered to end here. Fine views from 
the Vangsfjeld and Aaalmenberg 
(4428 ft.) ; both easily ascended in a 
few hours. 

[Here a good but hilly road, with grand 
mtn. scenery, branches ofi, and continaes 
down the str^un, through Sundalen, towards 
Ohriatianwiiid (see Section IL) The stats 

AaOni (11 kU.) ; Sliper(U UL, pay for 18 
and 91 kU.) ; Cfffhra (10 UL, pay for 14 in 
reverse direction); atorfaU (17 UL, good 
stat.); uidaundaMrm (19 Ul.). Posting-rate, 
16 0. Henoe by str. (8| hrs.) or by posting 

The road continues N.B., leaving 
the valley of the Driva to L, and 



Route 13. — Chriatiarda to Trondhjem. 

follows the coarse of the Byna nntil it 
joins the Orkla ; the soenery becomes 
flat and tame, the mtns. lower, with 
much birch and scrub. 

The stage ends at 

Stuen (14 kil.) Glean stat., in a very 
pleasant situation, commanding a 
fine view over the forest. Near this 
the top of Snehffitta is visible. 

After leaving Stuen, the foaming 
Oi&na is crossed and followed to^ its 
confluence with the OrltUiy which, 
spanned by a fine bridge, forms a 
waterfiJl here. After a steep ascent, 
the traveller alights at 

TTsBberg (Austbjerg) (11 kil.) Very 
fair accommodation. In the distance 
are seen mtns. (partly snow-tipped) 
piled above each other, and covered 
with dark pine and fir. 

ik. good road (71 kil.) branohea off to 
ToMet (dsterdaien) on Trondhjem rly. (See 
next Boute.)] 

The road continues to ascend 
through a scanty pine-forest that 
clothes the sides of the grand ravine 
through which the Orkla flows, 1700 
ft. below. 

Half-way to the next stat., at a 
bend in the road, the date of its con- 
struction (1858) is carved in the rock, 
while a cross marks the spot from 
which a workman fell (1861) into the 
ravine. The view over the giddying 
precipice of the roadside, and up and 
down the Orkla valley and to the 
distant snow-mtns. (S.W.) is magni- 
ficent from this point. 

After passing a couple of small 
streams, and lastly the Skawna 
(whence there is a short road to the 
Undals mines) 1 the traveller comes to 

Bjerkaker (12 kil.) Good stat., 
finely situated on the watershed 
between the Orkla and the Quia. 

[A good rood (posting, 16 5.) leads down 
the valley of the OrklOy and joins the high- 
road between Molde and Trondhjem by the 
following stag^ rlz. : Haamtad (14 kiL) ; 
poor stat. At Hoel farm, before reaching 
this stat., is a drinking-horn presented by 
Christian V., out of which the first 3 
sovereigns of the reigning house drank on 
their way to coronation at l^ndhjem. There 
is aJso a birch-tree 9 ft. in circumference. At 

tJf farm (beyond) is an ancient wooden build- 
ing, the carving on which is attributed to the 
finger-nails of giants. Omt (14 kil.) ; cheap 
but poor stat. Kalstad (11 kil.) ; and Oar- 
bei^ (17 kiL) (Forrest of route to SurendcUs- 
dreftt Christianntndf and Moldey see Section 
n.) From Ealstad the road runs N. to Trond- 
hjem, vid Aaarlivold (16 kil.) {sdLmon-flihing 
in Orkla) ; Bak (12 kil.) ; "Sexym^OrieddUdren) 
(8 kil.), whence str. for Trondhjem in 3| hrs. 
Comfortable Hoiel^ and good trowt-fiihing in. 
lakes ; Eli (BSrsen) (16 kiL, pay for 19 both 
ways). Magnificent drive, but stage hilly. 
Accommodation for about 4 travellers at Sli 
farm, beautifully situated. Baltnaaaanden 
(10 kiL) ; good level road hence to Trondhjem 
in 2\ hrs. EaWS idL)(ffeimddl rly. stat. 1 
kU. off) ; and TTBONSHJEai (14 kil.) (See 
Sections II. and IIL)] 

The road now turns N.E.» and tra- 
verses tame and park-like scenery by 
the side of the sluggish Igla, to 

earUe (llj kil.) This stat. (very 
good quarters) is some distance off the 
road, up the side of the mtn. on the 1. 
The horses may be ordered to wait 
below. Beyond, the road keeps along 
the very lugh banks of the Igla^ and 
enters the SoknedaL Grossing the 
Sokna river and passing a Ch,, the 
stage ends at 

PraBsthuuB (10 kil.) Inferior stat. 

Many small farms in all direc- 
tions, with much cultivation. The 
soenery continues park-like until a 
rapid descent leads down the mtn., 
through the wild, picturesque valley 
of Ouldaly past StGren Gh. and Bly, 
stat. (see next Boute), to 

Engen rstoren) (14 kil.) Excellent 
Hotel and good Restaurant at rly. 
stat. Bermett's Agency close by. It 
is better to drive straight to the rly. 
stat. and deposit luggage. The sal- 
mon-fishing (generally let to British 
anglers) in the Oula^ and higher up, 
about Rogstadt is excellent. 

The post - road continues to 
Trondhjem, vid Ler (19 kil.) ; Gimse 
(MelJvus) (11 kU.); Esp {Heimdal) 
(7 kil.); and 

TBONBHJEM (14 kil.) 

Nothing is gained by further post- 
ing, and the country is quite as well 
seen from the rly. as from the road. 

(For continuation by rail (62 kil.) 
see next Boute.) 

Route 14, — Christiania to Trondhjem. 


EOUTE 14. 


(By rail.) 


1. Christiania to BidsTold 68 
S. EidBTOldtoTrondhjem 494 



} 17ihri 


a 43.74 

S62 ir^hrs. 43.74 

[The scenery upon this route is not so in- 
teresting as that over the Dovrefjeld, but, for 
reasons given at the head of the preceding 
route, the rly. is rapidly gaining on the old 
posting arrangements, levellers will, how- 
ever, find some compensation in the beauty 
of the Olommen valley, the wildness of the 
fjeld watershed between it and the Ghila. 
river, and the grandeur ol the ravine through 
which the line passes before reaching Trond- 
hjem. Until Rena stat. is reached, the 1. idde 
offers the best view.] 

1. For route to Eidsvold, see 
Bte. 12. 

2. From Eidsyold the stats, are — 
Mixme (76 kil. &om Christiania). 

The Vonnent which flows out of the 
Mjdsen lake, is here crossed by an 
iron bridge, 1180 ft. long, with a 
height under the largest span of 
about 47 ft. above ordinary summer 
level. A tunnel (131 yds.) is passed. 

tnven (84 kil.) The Skreifjeld 
to the 1. 

Espen (97 kil.) Curve made round 
a long bay of the Mjdsen. 

Tangen (102 kil.) Ch, passed. 

Stange (114 kil.) Well-cultivated 
district. Landscape pretty. The 
Helgd island in the Mjdsen to 1. 

Ottestad (119 kil.) The Akersvik 
(bay) crossed by a long embank- 

HAXAB^ (126 kil.), 417 ft. Buff. 

(For description of tours, Ac, see 
Bte. 12.) 

[lUy. in oonstraotion to Lillehammer and 
8el in GudbrandsdiJ, to which a post-road 
nms henoe (Bte. 12).] 

Carriages are changed 'here for the 
narrow-gauge (3J ft.) line beyond. 
The 6 succeeding stats., at which 
the express does not stop, are of no 
interest, the train ascending a thinly 
populated and only partly wooded 
region of Hedemarken. 

Elvemm ^ (168 kil.), 613 ft. Bujf. 
This is the first stat. in l£e 
valley of the Olommen, the longest 
river in Norway (see Bte. 2), which is 
here crossed by a fine iron bridge (300 
yds.), resting on 7 stone pillars from 
76 to 140 ft. apart. It is a place 
of some importance, and the site of 
one of the largest fairs in Norway 
for the sale of horses and timber (in 
March). There are many town-like 
houses around the Ch, 

The traveller is now in Osterdalen, 
a prefecture distinguished for the 
well-being of its stalwart yeoman 
farmers, who have amassed wealth by 
the products of their vast forests. 
The ancient characteristics of their 
dwellings, &o., are well maintained, 
and exhibit a relative luxury and re- 
finement that has no doubt been 
derived as much from affluence as 
from contiguity with Sweden. 

[A road (5 stages) runs hence K Jl. towards 
Tiysil (73 kiL), on the river of that name, 
and to the Swedish border. Posting-rate 
11 6. per UL (Pay for 98 kiL) Another 
high-road leads S. to Konysvinger (99 kiL) 
on line to Stockholm.] 

On leaving Elverum, the remains 
of ChristiansQeld fortress (1683- 
1742), the sole survival of the forti- 
fications that once defended the pas- 
sage of the Glommen at this point, 
will be passed to the rt. The train 
runs through 2 small stats., near 
the second of which the Aasta falls 
into the Glommen, now on the rt. 

Bena (190 kil.), 736 ft. Bvff. 
Near the junction of the Bena, which 
runs out of StorsjQ lake. The streams 


Route 14. — Ghristiania to Trondhjem* 

and lakes in this district afford 
tolerably good trout-fishmg (end of 
July and in Aug.) 

The blackgame-sAoofinof is also 
good in the vicinity. Bportsmen will 
find accommodation in the Iwns near 
the Ch. (Acmot). 

[A poet-rood nuis off to DUoBi (26 kiL) ; 
Lbset (8 kil., but pay for 11 kil.) ; hence to 
Stored lake (4 kiL) ; Andraa in RendcUen (30 
kiL from I^set, pay for 88 kil.) ; hence aoro€« 
the lake (6 kiL) to BuruMi, whence the road 
mns N. to T6nset (see below), aa well as to 
0$en^S lake.1 

The line crosses the Glommen, 
and proceeds on its eastern side 
through a richly wooded valley, 

Stenvig^en (204 kil.) First stat. in 
style of Osterdal architecture. On 
leaving, the mtns. begin to rise and 
the valleys to contract. 

After running through Ophus and 
Basta stats., a pretty part of the 
route is reached at 

Stai (237 kil.), 863 ft. After 
a considerable ascent, a short tunnel, 
and a high stone wall on which the 
line is built, with a pretty view of 
the many branches of the Glommen, 
the train reaches the centre of the 
Storelvdal and runs into 

Koppang« (247 kU.), 1158 ft. 
Buff. Although a good view of the 
valley is obtained from the stat., it 
is best from Koppanghammer hill 
(about 1400 ft.), which can be as- 
cended in about ^ an hr. 

[A road mns hence (1.) to the Stored, where 
trout'flshing is obtainable (see above), as well 
as to Kendalen and Tdnaet The great 
* Fcsmund lake can be reached hence by the 
hardy, but is more easily accessible from 
Bbros (see below).3 

On leaving Eoppang the rly. parts 
company with the post-road, the 
latter ascending the Marafjeld^ and 
descending on the other side to the 
valley of the Bena, 

Continuing to ftfloend the wooded 
valley of the (?iowwte»i, which, crossed 
successively by 2 bridges, is seen 
running below at a great depth, the 
train passes through 

Bjoraaneset stat. (262 kil.) Much 
reindeer moss and Epilobium (of 
which the roots and young shoots 
are locally eaten after having been 

Atna (272 kil.) GKmxI quarters 
at stat. To the 1. will be seen the 
mouth of the Atnedah down which 
flows the Atna river, after issuing from 
the Atnsjtf, in the Bondane mins, 

[The Atrug'S can be reached in abont 10 
hrs. by driving across the OUmimen and up 
the Atnedal. The road is good to Hirbroen 
(bridge), whence it is bad to StorQeldaseter 
(a summer Peruion. about 20 kiL from 
Atna) and to MorbcBkaioen (21 klL) After 
passing BoUien Ch. (5 kiL), the road is 
again good to Atnebroen (bridge), (21 klL) 
Here the Solen^eld (6173 ft.) is visible. The 
road continues N. to KroUiaugen (33 klL) 
between Jerkin (Bte. 13) and LUle Elvedalen 
(see below). Pedestrians can reach Gnd- 
brandsdalen also by several mtn.-paths.] 

HaneBtad (285 kil.), 1253 ft. The 
OrbHngsbrattm (8903 ft.) to the 1. 

.. [A road hence over the mtns. to LSkken, in 
Ovre Hendalen, 22 klL] 

After passing (previously in view 
of 2 tops of the Bellmgen) the Bar- 
kalden-io^ of the Olommen, the stat. 

Barkald (304 kil.) Good road to 
Midtskogen, in TyldaUn (6 kil.) At 
a short distance on it a path runs 
off to the remarkable Jutulhugget 
gorge, open only on the E., and sepa- 
rated from the Glommen by a low 
ridge, which terminates in precipi- 
tous sides. Locally, it is reputed to 
have been formed by a giant, who at- 
tempted to divert the Glommen into 
the Tysla (in Tyldal), 131 ft. below 
the former. The gorge, with its fan- 
tastically shaped rocks, is worth visit- 
ing at sunset (about 1 hr. required). 
The valley widens and farms increase 
in number along the flat banks of the 
river before a stoppskge is made at 

LiUe Elvedal stat. (824 kil.), 1660 ft. 
Buff, Comfortable quarters at Steien 
posting-stat. This place is at the 
foot of the TronfjeU (6707 ft.), the 
highest peak of which is seen soon 
after leaving the stat. Several fine 
views and ascents in the neighbour- 

Route 14. — Timset; Borot; Jensvotd. 


hood ; also trout a.nd grayling fishing ^ 
and shooting. Healthy spot for in- 

[A road hence np the Elvedal to Jerkin 
(Bte. 13), and its posting communications 
with the W. coast, &c. The stats, are : 
Byhaugen (82 kil.) ; Krokhaugen (18 kil.) ; 
Balholen (13 kiL, pay for 17); Jerkin 
mjerkin) (17 kil.) Posting-rate, 11 o. per 

Hence 2 bridges are crossed, the 
base of the Tronfjeld skirted, and the 
other side of the Auma river reached at 

Anma stat. (337 kil.) Dreary 

ToBset * (347 Ml.), 1617 ft. Buff, 
Prettily situated at the confluence of 
the TlSnna with the Olommm, The 
hills recede on either side, leaving a 
broad expanse of fertile meadow-land 
in the midst of a wide and compara- 
tively populous valley. 

[A post-ioad runs hence through Evikne 
to ITssbezg {AiLstljerg) on the high-road to 
Trondhjem (Rte. 13). The stats, are : Fos- 
bakken (14 kil., pay for 17) ; Nytroen (10 kil., 
pay 12) ; 8t5en:(10 kiL, pay 17) ; Frengstad 
?near Kvikne), (14 kil., pay 17) ; Naaveraalen 
(12 kil., pay 17 in reverse direction) ; TJss- 
berg (11 kil.)] 

TelneBet stat. (358 kil.) The train 
ascends rapidly, woods becoming 
small and pasturage more extensive. 

Tolgen (368 kil.), 1781 ft. Many 
farms, and Ch, on opposite side. 
Keeping along the rt. bank of the 
Glommen, now small and very rapid, 
the train passes through 

Os stat. (385 kil.), 1975 ft. The 
Hummdfjeld (5150 ft.) is kept in 
view (to rt.) while crossing the Raa- 
elv and traversing a sandy region to 
the first stat. in the " Stift ' ' of Trond- 

SdBOB ^ (399 kil.), 2060 ft. Buff 
This is a town of about 2000 inhabi- 
tants, on a barren plateau watered by 
the HiUer-eh), the Glonmien making 
a bend W. of it. It was founded 
in 1646, after the discovery of the 
neighbouring Copper-mmes. 

The Mines, which are in private 
hands, are no longer so prosperous 
as formerly. Nevertheless they yield 
about 300 tons of metal, the ore 

being smelted with British coal since 
the exhaustion of the forests in the 
vicinity. As the lodes run nearly 
horizontally, some of the workings are 
accessible by carts. There are also 
shafts that descend to nearly 300 fms. 

There is but little husbandry, on 
account of the altitude and severity 
of the climate, but cattle-breeding 
is largely pursued, the detritus of 
glaciers and the sandy soil having 
been converted into good pasture by 
much labour and manure. Mercury 
has been known to freeze here in the 
winter, of which the length is quite 
8 months. 

The Smelting-house, the Mines, 
and the Ch, are objects of interest. 
In the ch. (built 1780) are portraits 
of discoverers of lodes, and of man- 
agers and ecclesiastics. 

[A post-road runs henoe (E.) to the elevated 
FcBtnund lake (56 kil. long), which is worth 
visiting, especially for the purpose of taking 
the fine trout in it. The N. end is the best, 
but experienced British anglers are generally 
in occupation of the limited accommodation 
(and boats) available. The stats, are S»teren 
(17 kU.) ; Langen (18 kil.) Walk thence to 
Sonderviken ($ hr.) to str., whioh runs down 
the lake, stopping at several places. At 
Fssmundsenden is a good Hotel, and a road 
into Sweden. 

Another (good) road (more northerly) runs 
to Uahnagen in Sweden. Stats. : Jensvold 
(17 kiL) ; Bkotgaarden (18 kil.) ; and Ual- 
magen (22 kil.) In this direction, on the 
Viffel fjeldy Lapps are oocasionaUy found 
encamped, but inquiries should first be made 
and gruides procured, the pursuit of such 
encampments being difiicult and laborious. 
From Bkotgaarden an excursion can be made 
by road to the pass of SkardSren and the 
Stue^6 lake (7 hrs.), at the S. end of which is 
Stuedalen, 11 kil. from the previous stat. 
At Storelvoldaater 5 beds for tourists. Fine 
view of the Vigel peak, the SkarvdOtt fjeUiy 
&c. From Stuedalen there is a good road 
down the 7\fndai valley to Selbu, whence 
Trondhjem is easily reached.] 

In its course from Boros the train 
stops at 

Nypladsen (406 kU.), 2057 ft. 
The turbulent higher waters of the 
Glommen are crossed before the next 
stat., not far from which (rt.) is the 
Auarsund lake (2283 ft.) from which 
that river issues. 

Jensvold (412 kil.), 2093 ft. After 
passing a lake (1.), a stone pillar is 


Route 14, — ChrisUaTida to Trondhjem. 

seen on the same side, indicating the 
highest point of the line ^2198 ft.) 
on the watershed between tne Olom- 
men and the Quia. The valley of the 
latter is later descended as far as 
Melhus (see below). 

Tyvold (420 kil.), 2178 ft. To the 
1. is a branch line to one of the 
mines. The most interesting part of 
the line begins here. Best views on 
the 1. A viaduct (107 ft.) over the 
Gula brings the train to 

Beitan (432 kil.), 1774 ft. Through 
cuttings, with peeps of the well-cul- 
tivated Guldal valley, the bottom 
of which soon becomes wooded and 
rocky. Aalen Ch. to 1. The next 
stat. is 

Eidet (442 kil.), 1381 ft. Buff, 
Reindeer are to be seen in the neigh- 
bourhood of the Qa/raaen (reached 
through Hesjedal), where they are 
almost daily driven in to be milked. 

The rly. now runs at a high level 
through several short tunnels and cut- 
tings, and, traversing the DrlHUemet 
crosses (after the fifth tunnel) the 
DriHa by a bridge 144 ft. high. With 
the parish Ch* to the 1., the train soon 

Holtaalen (454 kil.), 987 ft. A 
picturesque assemblage of farm 
buildings. Native costumes have 
partially survived in this district — 
red jackets, leather breeches, and 
peaked woollen caps being sometimes 
still worn by the men. The scenery 
of the Gula valley develops as the 
train proceeds to 

Langlete (463 ML), 774 ft. 

Beitstoen (472 kil.), 672 ft. 

Singl3aas (480 kil.), 677 ft. Buff, 
A pretty Waterfall beyond to 1., and 
parish Ch, The mouth of the Forra- 
dalf with terraces of debris on the 
same side. 

Bjorgen (486 kil.), 482 ft. 

Boenaes (499 kil.), 316 ft., and 

STffBJEar (610 kil.), 210 ft. Buff, 
The Dovrefjeld post-road here joins 
that from the Glommen valley. 

Keeping N., the rly. continues 
along the bank of the Ofula (crossed 
at Storen), which winds its rapid 
course through a dark ravine; the 

mtns. on either side and in the dis- 
tance being clothed with pine and fir 
to their summits. The scenery is 
remarkably fine. Numerous lateral 
valleys pour their tributary streams 
into the Gula. 

Glimpses of the distant lakes from 
which the rivers of these side- valleys 
flow are obtained here and there on 
the horizon in clear weather. 

[The gaJmon-fishingin. the G!-ula,both above 
and below Stbren, is good, but the best reaches 
are generally occupied by British tenants on 
long leases. Inquire at Trondhjem for yacan- 
cies or facilities.] 

The unimportant stopping stats, 
between Storen and Trondhjem are — 

Hovin (617 kil.), 174 ft. 

Lundemo (624 kil.), 108 ft. Near 
this the stream expands into a small 
lake, and a smaU river is crossed. 

Ler (630 kil.), 79 ft. The line 
continues along the winding Gula, 
mtns. becoming more rounded and 
decreasing in boldness, but still 
covered with forests along the higher 
points. Numbers of farms on both 
sides of the valley. 

Kvaal Stat. (636 kil.), 161 ft. 

Sdberg (638 kil.), 102 ft. GUmpses 
of the Selbu lake and of the valley 
of the Nid are obtained on the rt. 

The line now recedes from the 
Gula and passes Melhus Ch,f ascend- 
ing rounded hills and broken, pic- 
turesque ground, highly cultivated in 
places. Turning E., it enters the 
valley of the Nid. 

Melliiis (641 kil.), 76 ft. The 
stat. is beautifully placed on the 
crown of a small hill, with fir-clad 
mtns. towering above each other 
in the background, and the valley 
winding away into the far distance on 

The ascent is continued, with 
pretty views to the 1. of the Orke- 
dais fjord and the Gulosen branch 
of the Trondhjem fjords into which 
falls the Gula, now 1. Terraces of 
glacial origin. 

The next small. stat. is 
Nypan (646 Ml.), 230 ft. A snow- 
capped mtn. visible W. After a steep 

Route 15. — Gh/ristiama to Chrisiianscmd, 


ascent the line attains an altitude of 
462 ft. at 

Heimdal (551 Idl.) The line is 
here almost level, and passes many 
farms and villas. In the valley of 
the Nid will be seen (rt.) the Lille 
Ler-fos (salmon and sea-trout fisfdng 
Bometinies available), and, following 
the 1. bank of that river, the train runs 
round the N. side of the city by a 
bridge, with views of the old Fortress 
of Christianstent Hen ch,^ and the 
fjord, and enters its terminus at 

TBONBHJEM (562 kil.) (For de- 
scription, &c., see Section ni. of 

ROUTE 15. 


(By str.) 

[Distance, 889 kiL (89 Norwegian nant* 
m.) Time, 13 to 30 hrs. (according to size 
of str. and the number of ports called at^. 
Fare, 18.45 kr. Redaction for a family, wife 
paying half &re. Food, 5 kr. per day, if not 
separately per meal. By the Wilson line 
direct in 13-16 hrs. Fare, 20s. 6d. A Kor- 
wegian mail str., with excellent accommo- 
dation, leaves Gl^stiania nightly in summer 
for Bergen, stopping generally at places 
mentioned below before reaching Ohristian- 
sand. (Ck>nsnlt time-tables.) This rente is 
▼er^ enjovable in summer, and being almost 
entirely (by the Korw^ian strs.) within the 
** Skerries,*'^ or rocks and islands girding the 
coast, gives no opportunity for the develop- 
ment of sea-sickness, even when exception- 
ally incurred at the few and short stretches 
open to the waves of the Skagerak. 

Travellers who desire to break the voyage 
will find local strs. available between most 
of the intermediate ports, in addition to the 
larger daily mail-packets.] 

The scenery in the upper part of 
the Ghristiania fjord has been de- 
scribed in Bte. 1. Stopping-places : 

Horten ^f * IT 4 hrs. / ^^^ ^^' ^^' 
VaUo*, „ 4 » (seeEte. 4). 

Thence S. round Ndterd and, 
generally, through the small but 
pretty Vrcengen Sound, between the 
latter island and that of Tj&mo, 
which the str. leaves on the 1. before 
steering out to Fcerder lighthouse 
(Bte. 1), where the Ghristiania fjord 
is considered to commence. There is 
a short bit of open sea here (fre- 
quently rough). The TOnsberg Tande, 
a high rock polished by the action of 
the waves, and with a beacon on it, 
will be seen, as well as the mouth 
of the Sa/ndefjordf passing which the 
str. turns into the fjord of 

Laarvik«(7i hrs.), (see Bte. 4). 
There is generally a stoppage here of 
about ^ an hr. for the discharge and 
loading of cargo. In ^ an hr. after 
starting the str. touches at 

Frederiksvism (see Bte. 4). 
Here, again, the str. proceeds to sea 
along the unprotected coast of Bnm- 
laugncBset, and in about 1^ hr. enters 
the rocky Lamgesund fjords and, 
taking one of the two available chan- 
nels, calls at 

langesimd (141 kil.) Brit Vice- 
ConsuL for this port and Brevik. 
This is a wretched-looking little place 
with about 1200 inhabitants. No 
decent accommodation. 

[A local str. waits to convey passengers, 
&c. to Porsgrund and Skien (see Rte. 4), in 
about 2j^ hrs., vid Brevik,* a forettily situated 
town (about 2000 inhabitants), which is 
reached in ^ an hr., opposite the pretty ship- 
ping place of Stathdle. There are also post- 
roads to Brevik, Skien, and KragerS (43 


After a short run (again in the 
open sea) across the Bognsfjord, 
the str. returns within the islands 
and rocks (mostly bare), and enters 
either the Langaarsund {Langesunds 
Kr^ppa), a strait so narrow that it 
seems possible to jump out on the 
rocks, on either side, or (in the case 


Route 16. — Ohristiania to Ohristiansand. 

of a large vessel) the broader channel 
nside the Jomfrulandf a long and 
narrow island, on which is a light- 
house. In about 1^ hr. it is moored 


Kragero^ (153 kil.) Bnt Vice- 
Consul. This is a cheerful-looking 
and prettily situated town (pop. 
5800), with a background of wooded 
hills. It has a considerable trade, 
and owns much shipping. It boasts 
of a Monument (a bust) to Prof. 
Sohweigaard, a native of the place 
whose statue is in front of the 
university at Ohristiania. In the 
neighbourhood are some iron and 
apatite (phosphate of lime) mines. 

[The post-road westward, a continuation 
of the road from Langesnnd, is not good. 
Mail or local strs. preferable. 

Telemarken can be reached from EragerS 
by a good new road (114 Ml.) to Kirkebo 
(Hviteseid) in about 20 hrs. It leads through 
a thinly populated district, with large forests, 
the scenery, however, being in many places 
yery fine. A carriole must be used, as the 
road is narrow. The quarters [are poor, and 
provisions should be taken. The stats, 
are — 

Stoen (10 kil.) 

Hatrkebak (12 kiL) A fine road runs 
hence (24 kil.) to Kjeaasen, but it is best to 
cross the pretty Tokevand by one of the small 
strs. that ply on the lake, which is 187 ft. 
above sea-level, about 12 sq. m. in area, and 
dotted with many islets. Its N. part is called 
the Hoseidvand. In 1^ hr. the str. reaches 
^ieaasen, where posting ia resumed to 

118, in Tttrdal (21 kiL) The road runs 
through large forests along the F&mces^lv 
and the JEiJorvand (where there is trout-fishingt 
although better sport is obtainable in the 
Kleppevandy a mtn.-lake 7 kil. from Bb). The 
next Stat, is 

Strand (33 kil.)> the stage running through 
a pretty valley hemmed in by mtns. on either 
side. The route ends at 

KIBKEBO (Hvitewud) (14kll.) See Rte. 5.] 

In about 2 hrs. the str. reaches 
Bister * (Osterrisor). Brit Vice- 
Consul, A quiet little seaport town 
(3000 inhabitants) close to the sea, 
the breezes from which in summer 
are refreshing. Apatite is raised 
in the neighbourhood. The con- 
tiguous 8l5ndeUd fjord^ with a 
river issuing from a lake, is worth 
visiting by the local str. There is 
trout-fishmg in the lake, but the 
river is generally too much obstructed 

by logs. There is a pretty, old Oh. 
(11 kil.) at the head of the fjord (good 
sea-fishing^ also salmon and sea-trout 
in it), and several farms at the moath 
of the river with good accommoda- 
tion. Much shipping owned here. 

[Oommnnication by local str. with Aren- 

The next place stopped at, without 
anchoring, is 

lyngor, a land-looked basin in 
which (July 1812) the "Dictator," an 
English battleship (64 guns), de- 
stroyed the Danish frigate "Naja- 
den " (42 guns). A conmiemorative 
pillar seen on tne rocks. 

Winding next between wooded 
islands, the str. disembarks passengers 
and goods at Dyngo for Tvedestrand. 

[Only the small strs. run into Tvedestrand 
pop. 1700), where there is a post-road to 
^elemarken, more easily taken from Arendal 
(see below, and Bte. 16).] 


In 2^ hrs. more the mail str. 
reaches (early in the morning) 

Arendal « (233 kilJl BrU. Vice- 
Consul, Pop. 4500. This is a pretty 
town (enfranchised 1723), built partly 
on the mainland and on rocks pro- 
jecting into the channel formed by a 
belt of islands, and near the mouth 
of the Nid, 

From the quay at which the 
str. stops, ascend by some steps 
(rt.) to a terrace with trees (Ovre- 
Batteri)t from which an excellent 
view is obtained. Ten min. suffi- 
cient. There is also a good and 
pretty road {Ca^stel Veien) up to it. 

The principal street is broad and 
well laid out. The handsome red- 
brick Ch., which occupies a com- 
manding position, was built in 1889. 
The citizens own more sailing-ships 
than any other port in Norway, and 
do a considerable trade. They have a 
Mu^seum (^some pictures, porkaits of 
local oeleDrities, antiquities, &e,), a 
Theatre, and an Art-association, In 
the neighbourhood are some iron and 
other mines. 

A small str. ascends the Nid, bor- 

Route 16. — Arendal to Telemarken. 


dered by villas, for about 13 kil., 
through pretty scenery. Above Hello 
(its terminus) is the Rygende-foSy 
which is worth seeing. There are 
pretty walks in the Hove-skov (wood), 
on Tromb island, which, with JSisG 
island, borders on either side the 
channel taken by the str. on her 
further course. 

[Local strs. run to CQuistianBaxid and 2 
post-roads to Orimstad (19 and 21 kfl.) 
There is also a post-road to Faret in SoBters- 
dalen (90 klL, 5 stats.) 

(For road to Telemarken^ see Bte. 16.)] 

After passing 2 lighthonses (To- 
rungeme) a short stretch of open sea 
will be traversed before shelter is 
again found inside the JSesnestkr, 
forming a splendid harbour well 
known in the middle ages, and where 
Christian IL of Denmark landed, 
1531. In about 1 hr. the str. calls at 

Orim8tad,«in the Qrosfjord, also 
a shipping and trading port (pop. 
3200), incorporated 1816. There are 
ironworks, shipbuilding'y£u:ds, &c., in 
the neighbourhood. 

[A splendid, luotnresque road runs to the 
Hejrtfo^jord, passing 2 other lakes, one of 
which (Soule) is surromided by high cUfte. 
It branches off to HSxtei, sitnated in the 
middle of a forest, on a oonsiderable eminence, 
from which is a beantifnl view of 7 lakes. 
From Hbrte a good, new road leads to Aren- 
dal, which can be visited in 6 hr& (there and 

The coast scenery is dreary as 
far as 

Lilleiand, «a port (1600 inhabi- 
tants) at the head of a small bay. 
The country around it is pretty, and 
close by are the harbours of Hom- 
hoTgBgrjuidf Braekkesto, and Gamle 
Hellesnndi with pilot and Customs 
stats., and excellent mctckerel- fishing. 
On the sea-coast between this point 
and Christiansand a Bussian Mgate 
was lost with all hands (except one) in 
1842. Soon after passing through the 
long RandGsundfihe smaW Lighthouse 
on Orbnningen is sighted, and, more 
to the W., the more important one of 
Okso, with a semaphore signalling 
apparatus. The eastern harbour of 

Christiansand next opens, with the 
valley of the Torrisdal river in the 
background ; and, after passing 
OddertSen light and rounding an old 
fortification, the str. lands passengers 
(4 hrs. from Arendal) at 

CHfilSTIAHSAin) (see Bte. 1, and 
next Section). 

ROUTE 16. 


(By road.) 

[This rente (distance from Arendal 150 kil.) 
has not yet been taken frequently, but de- 
serves exploration, especially in combination 
with the good trovU-fiihing in the fine NUter- 
vandf 34 kil. long. ] 

The stats, from Arendal are 

Brekke (11 kil.) 

Tvedestrand (15 kil.) (See Bte. 15.) 

Uberg (15 kil.) 

Simonstad (Aamlid) (18 kil.) 
Beautifully wooded country. One of 
the places in Norway where colonies 
of the heaver are still found. Con- 
tinuing along the bank of the Nid^ 
by a road partly flat, partly excavated 
out of the hillside, and crossing the 
Stikvas-elv, the traveller reaches 

Kergaarden (13 kil.) Gk>od quar- 
ters. Hotel to 1., above stat. A 
narrow valley is then entered with 
steep mtn.-sides on 1.; after which 
the road runs along a heath and past 
the Olstad farms (rt. side of the 
river), at the foot of the Olstadfjeld, 


Route 17. — Christiansamd to Telemarken. 

More heaths, and bridges across 2 
rivers near their oonfluenoe with the 
Nid, which is then partly followed. 
Crossing a brook ^curU-eVo) beyond 
a long stretch of plain, the road 
ascends to 

01 stat. (16 kil.) Good quarters. 
The brook is followed, and then over 
m£u:shes and heather. Beyond, the 
Nid is kept to the 1., and crossed by a 
ferry. The HGgfoa is then seen from 
the road, and also another, smaller 
waterfall. The Bau-elv is crossed at 
its junction with the Nid, and, a little 
beyond, on the 1., a road runs off to 
the Fyresdal, leading to a lake of the 
same name. After passing Eids- 
Ijemet, Aasen, and Treungen C^., the 
stage ends at 

Tveitslaa (19 kil.), close to 
Tveitstmd, at the S. end of Nisser 
lake {trout-fishmg). 

The road now runs along the shore 
of Lake Nisser to 

Bakka (Nissedal) (19 kil.) Two 
further posting-stages can be saved 
by taking the small str. which runs 
several times a week to the head of 
the lake, from which Strand (in 
Vraadal) is quickly reached. A rapid 
descent brings the traveller thence 
(7 kil.) to 

HVIDEBEID, on the Hvides^d, con- 
nected with the Bandak lake (see 
Kte. 5). 

BOUTE 17. 


(By road.) 

[Seatersdalen will well repay the present 
relatiye, but fleeting, disooniorts of the tour 
here sketched, which can even now be 
easily done by ladies. It is watered nearly 
throughout its entire length from N. to S. 
by the Otteraa (Tarriidal8-elv)j which falls 
into the sea at Ghristiuisand, after a course 
of 226 kil., and forms a chain of lakes, 
large and small. Including that of lateral 
valleys the pop. of Saetersdalen numbers 
about 23,000. The ancient dress and 
habits of the people, almost exceptionally 
preserved, are not among the least 
of the attractions. Although the winter 
dwelling-houses are genenUly not older than 
the 17th cent., the rough cabins with an 
aperture in the roof in lieu of a chimney (to 
this day found also in Russia) are of the 
middle of the 17th cent., the oldest being 
interesting types of almost aboriginal local 
habitations. Much folklore is current and 
superstition still rife. The dialect is peculiar, 
and its aflOnity to the Scottish is attributed 
to a supposed infusion of Scottish blood at a 
remote period. 

A rly. (171 kil.) in construction to the 
Byglandsfjord (see below) will, from about 
1895, greatly contribute towards removing 
most of the objectionable features that 
render SaBteradalen a somewhat exceptional 
district in Norway. 

The posting is at the usual rate of 16 '6, 
per kil. at fast stats., and 11 'o. at others. 
The journey from Ohristiansand to Dalen 
in Tdemarken can be easily done in 5 days. 

Provisiaru and ifueet-poteder should be 

The distance to Viken, the last 
posting-stat., is 155 kil. (pay for 
164 kil.), but it is somewhat re- 
duced by recourse to strs. on lakes. 
The stages are — 

Mosbo (11 kil.), can be reached by 
str. &om Ohristiansand. 

Route 17. — Beiersdal; Ose; ViJcen. 


JEleierBdal (17 kil., pay for 22). 
The Langevand is left to the rt., also 
2 other lakes and the small Ch. of 
Hcegeland. After driving for about 
1 kU. along the shore of the Kile- 
fford (460 ft.), the end of the stage is 
res/jhed at 

Kile (13 Ml., pay for 17). Good 
quarters supplied by master of str. 
This point is generally reached direot 
(6 hrs.) from Ghristiansand in a 
carriole or carriage and pair. A halt 
here for the night is recommended 
by one of the most recent travellers 
by this route.^ The next posting- 
stage is 

Faret (21 kil.) ;' but a small str. 
plies almost every day from Eile to 
the Eije Nickel-vjorks^ stopping at 
Faret and Daasnes, about 3 kil. 
below the Fenne/oat where there is a 
good hotel. There is Another hotel 
(" Dolen ") above the waterfall, on 1. 
side of the river. There is fairly good 
trout-fishmg in the lake. The 
scenery on the Kilefjord (20 kil.) 
is pleasant and attractive to an artist 
or photographer. From Faret the 
posting-road runs along the rt. bank 
of the river, through a broad valley 
bordered by low mtns. The Vaalefos 
is passed, and to the rt. is visible the 
Aardalsknut (2480 ft.) After a short 
stretch of bog and moor is 

Ooldsmedmoen stat. (14 kil.) 
Inn kept by the master of the str. 
that runs in about 4 hrs. up the 
Aardalsfjordy the Faanefjordy and 
the Bygiandsfjord (to which the rly. 
in construction will run) to 

KsBset, and thence in 20 min. to 

Seeterdaleni Somxnerlgem ^ ("Sum- 
mer home "). This is a healthful, 
pleasant resort, affording excellent 
accommodation on an extensive scale. 
Good trout-flsMng in the neighbour- 

Bygland stat. (2 kil. from NsBset) 
is a good place for anglers, who 
should make the " Sommerhjem " 
their headquarters. 

If the depth of water in the river 

» " The Seatersdal and S. Norway." By 
Alice Ogilvie. Ediuburgb, 1891. 

permits, a small str. runs up to 
FriHsncBSy and 6 Ml. beyond, to Ose. 
But it is most frequently necessary 
to post from the " Summer home" 

Ose (17 kil. by road from NsBset, 
42 kil. from Guldsmedmoen, and 
79 Ml. from Kile). The str., how- 
ever, under favourable circumstances 
continues its course to StrGmmen 
(22 Ml.), to TJrdvikj where a sluice 
is passed, and to Fr^isnms, where the 
Ghristiansand Tourist Association has 
flshmg quarters. 

At Ose are 2 old carved Stdbttra 
(storehouse), one with stairs formed 
of a single huge log, in which the 
steps have been hollowed out by fire. 
A bridal dress, silver ornaments, and 
various other curiosities are exhibited. 
There is a mtn.-path hence to 
Fyresdal, The atolkjcBrre will take 
the traveller to the next stat., 

Helle (20 kil.) Tolerable accom- 
modation. The valley again runs 
W., with steep mtn.-sides on the rt. 
and large farms on green patches to 
the 1. HyUeatad ch. is passed before 
turning N. and crossing the Faraaen 
river, which forms a waterfall, and is 
later passed by a bridge at the point 
where it opens from the small, wild- 
looking Flaaen lake. With the Hal- 
landafoa on the rt., the road runs 
over to the rt. side of the river, open- 
ing a view of VaUe "church-town.** 
Soon after passing Aakre, where 
some remarkable giant's cauldrons 
can be inspected (to the 1.), the stage 
ends at 

Yiken (20 Ml.) Comfortable quar- 
ters at the storekeeper's. In Valle 
Ch. the altar-piece is interesting, as 
are also the more or less ancient 
farms in the vicinity. 

[There is a road hence to Bpklum (31 kil.), 
▼i& J^Omeraa and TrycUU, Tolerable accom- 

Here, saddle-horses and guides 
must be engaged for Dalen (20 kr. 
per horse and guide). Ladies' riding 
appliances defective, horses some- 
wl^t scarce, and luggage must be 


Route 17. — Gh/ristiansand to TelemarJcen, 

limited to what can conveniently be 
carried on horseback. 

The bridle-path begins at Flate- 
land (1} hr. from Viken). It is 
strewn with rocks and stones. A 
ravine, many hundred ft. deep, is a 
short distance off the track. As at 
the Bavngjw) (see Bte. 5), the current 
of air is so strong that it throws up 
twigs, &c. that are cast into the 
abyss. After a bivouac for refresh- 
ment, the traveller wiU, after scram- 
bling over rocks and plunging through 
marshes, reach (in about 5^ hrs. 
from Flateland) the Btor BjGmeyand, 
over which a Doat will ti^e him, in 
\ an hr., to the Tourist hut (2 cabins, 
with 6 berths). There is trout-fish- 
ing in the lake and in many of the 
neighbouring waters, to which mtn.- 
paths lead. 

After passing the night at the 
relatively cheery hut, the traveller 
will be taken by boat to the point 
where the horses are in waiting. 
After a halt early in the afternoon, the 
tramp is continued over a still worse 
part of the route, being a continuous 
scramble over rocks and across bogs 
and streams. Occasionally lakes and 
views of distant blue mtns. render 
the scenery beautiful. In 8 or 9 hrs. 
froih the hut a good road will be 
reached from which the great Bandak 
is visible. Descending towards the 
northern extremity of that lake, rest 
and perfect comfort will be attained 

DALEN. (For description, and route 
to the Hardanger, see Bte. 5.) 

Section II 



98 Route 18. — Christiansand to Egersund and Siavanger. 

Undal, and Lyngdal riyers (see chap- 
ter on " Angling ' '). The neighbouring 
lakes are also well stocked with trout. 
A good and pretty road runs along 
the Mandal river to Aaseral « (82 
kil.), where a Sanatorium has been 
established in picturesque scenery. 
Exceptionally good trout-fishing. 

The voyage will be continued with 
Mandal and BisGr Bank to the rt., 
and the open sea will be passed round 
Cape LindesncBS (the Naze), on which 
stands the oldest Norwegian light- 
house, originally established in its 
immediate neighbourhood in the 
middle of the 17th cent. In about 
3 hrs. the str. stops for a short time 

Farsnnd « (pop. 1650. Brit, 
Vice-Consul)y a seaport town with 
no attractions, and affording only a 
view of the Lyngdalsfjord (rich in 
salmon) and its branches, hemmed in 
by mtns. In that fjord is one of 
the largest Government Nv/rserieSt 
from which the S. and E. of Norway 
are supplied with young trees. 

To Farsund, however, belongs a 
large amount of shipping (sailing 
vessels of an aggregate burden of 
40,000 reg. tons), employed in the 
foreign trade. It is also one of the 
principal places in Norway from 
which fresh fish is exported in ice. 
On leaving, the str. passes through a 
short stretch of open sea, skirts the 
low Listerland, on which is a tall 
lighthouse, and, turning into the lAs- 
terfjord and later into the Stolsfjord 
and the FUkkefjord^ reaches (in 
about 4 hrs.) the quay of the shel- 
tered harbour of 

Flekkeijord. « Pop. 1652. Brit. 
Vice-Consvl, The town is prettily 
situated with mountainous surround- 
ings. Its chief industry is the tan- 
ning of Brazilian ox-hides. The 
salmon^ m/ickerelj and lobster fisheries 
are important. Fedde, in the fjord 
of that name, and into which the 
^vina river (rich in salmon^ and leased 
at a high price) falls, is about 10 kil. 
S.E. of the town. To the N. is the 

Siredal and the Siredalvand (a la^e 
25| kil. long), which falls into the 
Lundevand (a long lake W. of the 
Flekkefjord). A str. plies on these 2 
lakes, from which the Sire discharges 
its waters into the sea as a fos. A 
splendid ladder has been erected here 
by the Aaen Sire Salmon Fishery 
Co, to enable salmon to ascend, and 
large quantities of salmon-fry are 
annually hatched. There is good 
trout-fishing in the upper lakes of 
this district. Beyond is 

BsegeQord, the stat. for Sogndal 
(about 5 kil.), where there are Iron, 

Unsheltered again, the str. is 
steered along a wUd, rocky coast, and, 
after passing Yibberodden Light, ter- 
minates this section of her voyage at 

Egersnnd^ (141 kil.) Pop. 2960. 
Brit. Vice-Consul. The town is well 
situated on the mainland, opposite the 
large Egerd island, which has a light- 
house at its S.W. extremity. A con- 
siderable trade in mackerel, salmon, 
and lobsters is carried on here, and 
much shipping belongs to the port. 
The town is famed for its potteries, 
and more especially for its fine Stone- 
ware workSy which are worth in- 
specting. Many of the lakes and 
rivers in the district afford good 
trout -fishing. Salmon and trout 
abound in the Ogne river (18 kil.) The 
Hoar and the Sogndal rivers (39 and 
32 kil.) are good salmon streams, de- 
pendent, like other rivers on the 
Jsederen coast, to a great extent upon 
the condition of the water. The 
TengSy only 3 kil. from the town, is 
also a good salmon river, and part of 
it can be fished by permission of the 
lessee. (Inquire locally.) A sahnon- 
ladder has been put up near the 
Fotlandsfos on this river. 

Tourists who do not fear the rock- 
ing to which strs. are generally 
exposed on the low, open Jcederen 
coast, can make the voyage to Sta- 
vanger in 5 to 7 hrs. from Egersund. 
This is essentially a sea voyage, with 
little to gratify the eye until the 

Boute 19. — Egersund to Siavanger. 


mouth of the Hafsfjord is reached. 
Here Harald Haarf ager was victorious 
over the last of his opx>onents in 
872. Entering the HoMstemsfjord^ 
with HviUngsd Light to the 1., and 
rounding TwngencBSy the str. enters a 
bay of the great, much - ramified 
Bukhenfjordy in which lies (237 Ml. 
by sea from Christiansand) the city of 

STAYANOEB. (See next Boute, 
by rail from Egersund.) 

ROUTE 19. 


(By raU.) 

[Distance, 76 kil. ; time : mail, 2 J hrs. ; 
fare, 2iid cl., 4 kr. The departure of the 
trains at either end is timed in such a 
manner as to admit of the mail str. being 
rejoined after it has passed the exposed 
Jeederen coast.] 

The principal stats, on this line 
are — 

Helvig (9 kil.) On leaving Eger- 
sund, the river of that name is 
crossed, and later the Tengs-elVy 
which flows out of a lake to the rt. 
The Nysund is then skirted amidst 
wild and rocky scenery. Beyond 
Helvig is another lake to the rt., 
and, tnth the open sea in view, the 
Ogne river is passed. Ogne ch. and 
farm will be seen to the rt. before 

Ogne (17 kil.) Sand-dunes pre- 
vail, after which the Jeederen coast 
will be seen strewn with boulders. 
Many Norwegian and other artists 
are found here, at every season, 
studying marine views, &c. 

Yigrestad (26 kil.) The open sea 

is now at a greater distance. On the 
coast will be seen the hamlet of Haar^ 
where seaweed is extensively burned 
and kelp prepared for the manufac- 
ture of iodme. Trout-fishing to be 

Yarhaug (32 kil.) Scenery still 
more desolate. Leaving NoerbQ ch. 
to the 1., travellers will have time for 
refreshment at 

NsBrbd (38 kil.) Buff, The large 
farm is called Nceshevm. Wide 
stretches of bog-land, with fields 
interspersed. Several small streams 
are crossed before reaching 

Thime (46 kil.), a small hamlet, 
with a good inn. Trout-fishing 
good. The country gains in fertility 
of aspect, and, after running along 
the shore of the Froilandsvandy the 
train draws up again at 

Klep (51 kil.) The line now runs 
considerably inland. The Figgen river 
{troutj and sahndn late in summer) 
will be crossed before reaching 

HdUand (57 kil.) Thence the line 
follows the Oanddal (with some fine 
farms), and at the outflow of the 
Oa/nd river into the Ocmdefjordy the 
train stops at the prettily situated 
harbour of 

SandnsBB (62 kil.) A Woollen mill 
is close by, and several large Brick 
and Tile works on the opposite side 
of the fjord, which is skirted to 

Sinna (69 kil.) Pretty view over 
the fjord. After a momentary stop- 
page at 

Hillevaag (74 kil.), the train runs 
through the suburbs and into the 
stat. of 

STAYANGEB. ^ Brit, and Amer. 
Vice-CanstUs. Pop. 25,000. Very 
prettily situated on a branch of the 
Bukkenfjord. This now important 
commercial city is supposed to have 
been founded in the 11th or 12th 
cent. Its real history and progress 
began in the middle ages, after a 
bishopric had been established in con- 
nection with its fine cath. Fires in 
1633 and 1684 devastated Stavanger 
and gave Christian V. the oppor- 
tunity of withdrawing its privileges 



Route IQ.'^Egersund to Stavanger, 

in favour of Christiansand, to whioh 
he also removed the episcopal seat. 
It began, however, to rise again 
in 1B(%, when the spring herrings 
returned to this part of the coast, 
and especially after the pacifica- 
tion of Europe. Next to CShristiania 
and Arendal, Stavanger owns the 
largest amount of shipping tonnage. 
In 1889, 50 strs. (16,790 tons) and 
469 sailing vessels (88,353 tons) 
hailed from the port. The value of 
its imports in 1890 was 865,5002., 
and that of its exports 123,000Z. (one 
half fish). As a port of call for 
strs. from and to Newcastle, Hull, 
&0.J on account of its easy commu- 
nication, by sea and land, with the 
Hardanger fjord, Stavanger is be- 
coming more and more a starting- 
point for tourists, of whom 3500 
(and 19 yachts) visited the place in 

The city stands on the N.E. 
side of a large penin., and com- 
mands beautiful views over the Sta- 
vanger fjord and the mtn. -ranges 
to the E. and the N.E. A small 
island acts as a breakwater, and gives 
perfect security, to the 2 harbours 
of Vaagen and Ostervaagent sep£u:ated 
from each other by the HoVmen 

Passengers have generally ample 
time for a visit to the 

Cathedral. 1 With the exception 
of that of Trondhjem, this is the 
most perfect specimen of the archi- 
tecture of the middle ages in Nor- 
way, and is very interesting. The 
original edifice (founded about the 
12th cent.) was almost completely 
burned down in 1272, after which its 
high tower and main porch were not 
re-erected. The older portions that 
have survived have considerable 
affinity with the architectural fea- 
tures of Winchester Cath. This is 
explained by the fact that the builder 
was Reginald (Beinhaldr), a Benedic- 
tine monk of Winchester, who died 
(the first Bishop of Stavanger) in 
1135. He obtained from Sigurd 

^ Keys at the Fire-brigade stat., ]. of main 

Jorsalafarer the means of sending to 
England for workmen and complet- 
ing the building. The king had put 
away his wife, Malmfrid, in 1128, in 
order to marry a younger woman. 
The bishop protested and refused to 
sanction the marriage, but finally 
consented to perform the service 
after the king had marched to Sta- 
vanger and paid, as a fine, a suffi- 
cient amount to defray the expenses 
of finishing the cath. It was dedi- 
cated to St. Swithin, bishop of Win- 
chester, and an arm of the saint, 
whose body was then preserved at 
Winchester, was sent as the first and 
chief holy relic of the Stavanger 
sanctuary. About 1540 the cath. 
was plundered of its treasures and 
nearly deserted. It was " thoroughly 
whitewashed " about the middle of 
the 18th cent., and finally restored 
in 1867. 

The total length of the present 
edifice, whioh is of a greyish stone, 
with pillars, lintels, <&c., of soap 
stone, is about 197 ft., 66 of which 
are occupied by the chancel, which 
is Gothic, of the Early English cha- 
racter, while the nave, built before 
the fire of 1272, is Norman, like the 
porches on the S. and N. sides. The 
arches between the pillars have zig- 
zag ornamentations, in some parts 
replaced by old Norwegian dragon- 
tracery. In the S. aisle is a fine old 
oak pulpit, carved by Lawrence 
Smith, a Scot, and presented by a 
lady who was buried in the cath. 
in 1678. The windows in the chan- 
cel are filled with stained glass, the 
4 Evangelists being represented 
in the centre. A stone staircase 
leads from the chancel to an octan- 
gular tower in the corner b64ween 
the nave and the chancel. Einar 
Eongsmaag sought refuge here in 
1205 from the Baglert or Episcopal 
faction, but was murdered in the 
churchyard. On the N. and S. sides 
of the chancel, at its E. end, are 
2 contemporaneous towers, with 2 
vestries, in which are hung some 
monumental tablets of the 16th and 
17th cent., and a portrait on panel 

Route 19. — Stavanger, 


of the third bishop after the Befor- 
mation (1571-1604). 

Alongside of the cath. is the 
KoTigsgaard, in which the Bom. 
Gath. bishops resided, and now 
the "Latin School." The cellars 
alone are ancient. On its N.E. side 
is extsbnt the private Chapel of those 
bishops, which must have been built 
at the same period as the chancel of 
the cath. Used now as a library, it is 
entered from the school. 

Conflagrations and consequent re- 
constructions have left few other 
traces of ancient architecture. 

The Museum, established in 1877, 
is of some interest. The large col- 
lection of fishes includes a rare and 
remarkable specimen (in spirits) of the 
Sild Kong^ or King of the Herrings 
(Oym/netrus glesne or grUli)^ about 9 
ft. long, with a curious cord attached 
to the ventral fin and terminating in 
an integument shaped like a thong. 
Traditionally the cord was used for 
the allurement of fish on which the 
king fed. The royal title is assumed 
to have been gained by the spikes 
which crown the head. The speci- 
men was found without its tail in 1884, 
at SkudensBs, on Eartnoen island. 
Strangely, the same defect existed in 
the only specimen of the same fish 
that has been found on the English 
coast, at Newlyn, Cornwall. In the 
Museimi at Penzance is a rough 
painting of the Ceil Conin,^ that was 
washed ashore there in 1788, minus 
its tail, which has been depicted from 
imagination, since its shape is very 
different from that of the preserved 
tail of a similar fish shown at the 
Museum in Bergen. The length of 
the Cornish specimen was 8^ ft. 
without the tail, its width 10^ in., 
thickness 2 J in., and weight 40 lbs. 
B is depicted as having 2 cords 
issuing from the foremost fin. The 
attention of visitors will also be drawn 
to a specimen of the curious " Trunk- 
fish," from the East India Islands. 

Among other curiosities may be 
mentioned the only known specimen 

of a blcLck seal, shot near Stavanger 
in 1890 ; 2 joined calves' heads from 
Madagascar, with 4 eyes and 2 snouts ; 
2 white calves (in a glass case con- 
taining a stuffed bison) with 1 head 
and 7 legs, of which one hangs use- 
lessly ; Norwegian brown bears, glut- 
tons, &Q. 

In the upper storey is a good col- 
lection of stone implements, pike- 
heads, ancient swords, Indian and 
Chinese objects, coins, unique silver 
spoons, &o. 

The Market Place, neat which the 
Museum stands, is worth seeing in 
the morning (especially on Wed. 
and Sat.) for the lively traffic 
in fish and other produce. A 
walk should also be taken to the 
pretty Bjergsted Pa/rk, reached by a 
road running to the rt. of the gas 
w<yrks, in the N. part of the city. For 
a fine view of the city and its en- 
virons, the fire yfdXah-tower on the 
Valbjerg, in the centre of the 
town, and the Vaalandspibe (330 
ft.), B.W. of the city, should be 
ascended. The still higher (460 ft.) 
XJllenha/ug, more to the W., affords 
a still wider and more beautiful pro- 
spect. At its base is a Fish-hatch- 
ing establishment. 

[Excursions, by road and local strs^ can be 
made very enjoyably in many directions. 
Places on the Jaederen coast can be visited 
by rail for trout-flshing. Assistance and 
advice will be given by the local Tourist 
Association or at Bennett's Agency. 

The drives are — 

(1) To Sole, a hamlet on the Jasderen 
coast, about 11 kil. S.W., where a ruined Ch. of 
the 11th cent, has been converted into an 
artist's studio. 

(2) To TungenesB and its lighthouse, return- 
ing vid Kvcemevig, an oasis in that otherwise 
treeless district, past Revem ch., and along 
the shore of the Hafsfjord. 

(3) To Bevem, thence across the Hafsfjord 
to Meling and Tananger. Prom the latter. 
Rot island, the southernmost point in Norway 
for the gathering of »ea-birds* eggs, is acces- 

Local strs. will convey the excursionist to 
one or more of the following places : 

(1) Homersand, in Hetland. Thence on 
foot or drive through Lutsi and Vaine to 
SandnoBs rly. stat., returning in the evening 

* Evidently a corruption of the Norwegian by rail to Stavanger. 
"Sild Kongen." I (2) The LyseQord, stopping at mie ^nd 



Route 20. — Stava/nger to Bergen. 

Fouan^ near which a large *< giant's cauldron *' 
is shown. Thence up the fjord (b6 klL long, 
but scarcely 2 kil. broad^ to the Lysebunden^ 
or the head of the fjord, which is one of 
the narrowest and wildest gorges of the 
Norwegian fjeld masses, with sides rising in 
some places to more than 3300 ft. from the 
water's edge. 

(3) The Eastern and the Western ^orda will 
occupy, severally, an entire day, which can 
be pleasantly passed on board the str. 

(4) On certain days of the week (inquire 
locally) a str. runs to ITdstens Kloater, to 
which visitors will be attracted by the fine 
ruint of an Augustine abbey (13th cent.), of 
which the chancel only has preserved a roof, 
and is still used for Divine service. The 
architecture of the abbey and the materials 
used in its ornamentation are the same as 
those of the Stavanger cath. It formed a 
square, the ch. being in the N. wing, and the 
kitchen and refectory in the S. The central 
building is now the dwelling-house of the pro- 
prietor. Tourists can return to Stavanger 
the same evening. 

On all the above excursions more or less 
good quarters are obtainable, but it is advis- 
able to carry a few provisions.] 

(For communications with G-reat Britain 
and Norwegian coasts and fjords, see time- 
tables and following Routes.) 

ROUTE 20. 


(By Str.) 

[Distance, 25 Norweg. naut. m. ; time, 
about 10 hrs. ; fare, 10 kr. Mail coasting 
strs. daily, and frequent other opportimities 
by Norwegian and British steamships.] 

On leaving Stavanger, strs. take 
a northerly course down the Bukken- 
f jord, past Tunge, with Bragen rock 
and Eime island to the 1., and the 
Fjeldb, with a lighthouse, to the 
rt. To the rt. will be seen Master 
island and the old Udsten ch, (see 

last Route). Steering over the broad 
and open Bukkenfjord, the largest 
strs. take the channel between 
Kajmben and Store Bukken islands. 
On the latter is seen the sharply 
defined Bukkenfjeld, At the S. end 
of Earmoen is SkttdencRSj a small 
port. The island is of considerable 
size. Vigsnces Copper-works are situ- 
ated on it, and it is rich in upright 
stones and other monuments of anti- 
quity. Utsi/re island, beyond it, is 
much frequented for the mackerel- 
flshmg afforded in its vicinity. In 
one of the two large caverns on it the 
pop. found refuge and concealment 
on the approach of British war-ships 
at the beginning of the present cent. 
The str. (in about 2 hrs.) touches 

Eopervik, another small harbour 
on the island, after which it passes 
HGieva/rde Light. Avaldsnces ch. 
is next sighted. One of 14 royal 
chapels in the middle ages, and 
subsequently allowed to fall in ruins, 
it was entirely rebuilt in 1840. 
Alongside is the Virgin Ma/ry^s 
Needle, an upright stone about 23 ft. 
high. Tradition expects the world to 
come to an end when this monolith 
falls. Beyond, the Karmsufid nar- 
rows, and becomes more smiling. At 
a ferry place will be seen to the rt. 
5 MonolithSf known as the "Five 
Foolish Virgins," one of which, how- 
ever, now does duty as a telegraph- 

IKarmSen is of some interest to British 
travellers. James Bothwell was seized here 
as a fugritiye by a Danish ship of war in 
Aug. 1567. He was taken with his com- 
panions to Bergen, and 4 weeks later to 
Denmark, where he died after 10 years' im- 
prisonment. He had been sent, in 1660, by 
Queen Mary to France for aid; and pro- 
ceeding thence to Denmark, he fell in loye 
with, and married, Anna Busting, daughter 
of Christopher Busting, a- celebrated Nor- 
weg^ian partisan. Breaking all vows, he left 
his wife in the Netherlands. On his arrival, 
however, at Bergen, in 1567, he was recog- 
nised by Anna, who had taken up her abode 
in that city. Eventnally, he promised to 
send her from Scotland 100 dollars a year, but 
his capture by the Danish Oovemment in 
Norway practically cancelled that arrange 

Route 21. — Stavanger to Odde, 


In another hour the str. enters 
the well-sheltered harbour of 

Haugesund. ^ Pop. 5870. Brit 
Vice-Consul. To the N. of the town 
are Shaanre ch. and the red granite 
Obelisk (56 ft., including the pedes- 
tal) erected 1872 to the memory of 
Harald Haarfager, on the spot where 
the king is supposed to have been 
buried. It is surrounded by 31 upright 
stones (Fylkestene)t representing the 
districts (Fylker) which the king 
subjected to his sway. The Storthing 
has voted money for the enclosing of 
the obelisk with a stone wall. The 
tumulus originally erected over the 
king's remains has disappeared, but 
the large stone that covered his grave 
has been preserved. 

A good road runs inland from 
Haugesund to the Fdresfjord^ the 
stats, being: Aksdal (11 kil.); Lid 
(13 kil.); SjnrBoike (13 kil.); to 
Olen (11 kil.) ; and to Sandeid (9 kil.) 
Several pretty lakes (trout) are 
passed on the way. 

The voyage is continaed, first, 
along a short stretch of open sea, in 
close proximity to the wild Eyfylke 
coast, and then past LynghoJmen, 
where King Magnus ^mek was 
drowned in 1374. Soon after, the 
B&mmelfjordt between the mainland 
and B&rmnel island, is entered. British 
capital has been employed in work- 
ing the gold veins that have been 
found on that island. The larger strs. 
do not stop at Langevaagy on 
Bdmmelen, but proceed to 

Mosterhavn, on an island of the 
same name, with the most ancient Ch. 
in Norway. It was built by Olaf Tryg- 
vass5n (995-1000), but its architec- 
tural features are of no interest. 
The smaller strs. next stop at 

Lervig, on the pretty Stord island, 
on which the mtns. rise to 2600 ft., 
but the l£u:ger mail-strs. take the 
sound between Bdmmelen and Stordd, 
or more frequently the channel be- 
tween Stordo and TysnesOen, StordS 
is a large island at the entrance to the 
Hardanger fjords steered for by strs. 
from the southward, and it is at Ler- 
vig that tourists proceeding to that 

fjord from the S. generally change strs. 
In the more frequent course taken by 
the large strs., Reksteren island wiU 
be passed to the rt. and Hofteren to 
the 1. before reaching the Bjomefjord, 
and subsequently the Korsfjord. To 
the rt. of the latter is the Fane- 
fjord, with Fane ch., and to the N. 
of it the small Bukken island. Coast- 
ing along the large island of Sar- 
tor, passing Bjorden, and later 
Haahmshellen (where Haakon the 
(rood was bom, and where he died 
in 961), the Ulvikken and the Lyder- 
hom come in view. On rounding 
Kvan^ert, the N. spur of the Lyder- 
horn, the terminus of the voyage is 
sighted, and after crossing the Pudde- 
fjord and doubling Nordnces passen- 
gers are charmed, when there is no 
rainfall, with the aspect of 

BEBGEK. (For description, see 
Bte. 22.) 

BOUTE 21. 


(By str. and road.) 

[Sinoe Lakes Suldal and imidal have been 
connected by a rood magnificent in execution 
as it is beautiful in scenery, this is a favour- 
ite Route between Stavanger and Odde, and 
vice vertd (in S| days.) It is more especially 
attractive when travelling towards the 
Hardanger fjord. 

Strs. run almost daily from Stavanger 
to Sand (Byfylke) in about 5 hrs. (10 Norweg. 
nant. m.) ; fare, 4 kr.] 


(By str.) 

The direct course to the Sands- 
fjord runs between several islands, 


Route 21. — Stavanger to Odde. 

afFordinR a ohanniiig view of the 
BjHreimskjcBfttWiih. CfufUanuten^eak 
(2742 ft.) to the 1. of it. The first 
stoppage is made (in 1 hr.) at 

Tfl^d, on which, in the 14th and 
16th cent., existed one of the best- 
known manorial estates in Norway. 
Thence (in ^hr.) the str. touches at 

Belf tad, on FmnJQ island, prettily 
situated. The shore of the island is 
skirted up to Judeberget, after which 
several islands will be kept to ihe rt. 
Behind HdUnO island wiU be seen to 
rise to a great height that of Bandd. 
After sighting the mouth of the 
JdaenfjordtWiih Om&o island to thert., 
the str. crosses over to the SjemerO 
group of islands, in the background 
of which rises the Heimakono mtn., 
and (in f hr.) stops a few minutes 

Kirkeben. Winding through the 
pretty, well-wooded islands of the 
group (of which 7 are inhabited), 
and then crossing the Ncerstrands- 
fjordj the str. touches again (in f hr.) 

Kaerstrand, at the entrance to the 
Vmdefjordf a favourite summer re- 
sort. A direct E. course brings the 
str. (in ^ hr.) to 

Jelse, at i^e mouth of the Sands- 
fjord (enclosed by wooded hills of no 
great neight), which is then entered, 
the first stopping-place in it being 

Marvik, a pretty place. The 
scenery becomes more and more 
pleasant with a mountainous back- 
ground. The fjelds around Saude 
(at the head of this fjord, worth 
visiting by the str., which proceeds 
to it) are sometimes partially covered 
with snow, even early in Aug. In 
about 1^ hr. from Jelse the voyage 
terminates at 

Sand, if a charming little place 
(the capital of Byfylke) on the shore 
of a bay, into which the Laagen 
(Logen) river falls. (For river of same 
name, see Bte. 4.) Travellers gener- 
ally sleep here when coming from 

[After calling at Sand the str. sometimes 
runs into the Hyl^ord and calls bX, Hylen 

(24 kil.), where travellers can leave the str. 
and walk to ▼ftMTO (& ^1*) through the 
exceedingly wild Hylskaret ravine, from the 
highest part of which is a splendid view of 
the Suldal lake. At Vaage (good quarters) 
the traveller may take the small str. that 
caUs there on its way to Nces."] 

2. SAND TO M£S. 

(By road and str.) 

Engaging a carriole, or some other 
conveyance (at 15 d. per kil., the 
remaining stats, being at 11 o.), 
the traveller will drive to 

Osen ^ (19 kil. ; 2 J hrs.) The road 
from Sand is very good and slightly 
hilly. At about 8 kil. from Sand the 
valley narrows to a ravine through 
which the Laagen rushes (with some 
faUs). Some pretty fishing-boxes 
belonging to British anglers will be 
passed (at Scmdy SkotifoSj and Sule- 
dalen ch,)j the saXmon-fishing in the 
river and at its mouth being rented by 
them. Beyond the Skotif os the road 
crosses the river to its level rt. bank. 
To the 1. wiU soon be seen Suldalen 
ch, and Mehus posting-stat. (fast)\ 
after which, in less than an hour, the 
traveller arrives at Osen, at the 
point where the Laagen issues from 
the SuldaTs-va/ndf or lake. Straa- 
bekoUeny a curious pyramidal rook, 
rises opposite Osen. 

After passing the night here, a str. 
(almost daily) takes the traveller up 
the lake to NceSy a trip of about 2 hrs. 

At a distance of about 5 kil. from 
Osen the str. passes through a grand 
Chasm, known as the SvMaXsporty 
with steep cli£Fs (300 ft.) on each 
side, appearing as if they touched 
each other. The first stopping-place 
is Evildal, where the lake is widest ; 
but, narrowing again, it has steep 
mtn.-sides to the rt. and 1., while in the 
background to the N. will be seen 
towering the snow-capped Mcelen, 
The str. stops next at 

Vaage, from which the head of the 
Hylsfjord can be reached by a short 
road. This is approximately the 
centre of the lake. Beyond, the str. 
stops at 

HanurebS, where a small river rushes 

Route 22. — Oreat Britain to Bergen. 


down in cascades. There is a mtn.- 
path hence to Breikvam in Saude. 
From the farms on the E. side a track 
leads to Yatndal, one of the upper- 
most valleys in SsBtersdal (40 kil.) 
Travellers leave the str. (unless pro- 
ceeding to Boald Kvanif and thence 
by difficult paths to HaukeU sceter 
(13 hrs.), or to Breive in Scetersdal 
(12 hrs.) 

KsBB^ (NsBsflaten), on the 8ul- 
dalsvand. This is a cosy little place, 
with a Ch.j and surrounded by im- 
posing mtns. and foaming streams. 


(By road.) 

The splendid chatcssie (pay for 29 
kil. to Qrytting in Boldal) now avail- 
able through Bratlandsdalf celebrated 
for its impressive grandeur, rises 
gently from Nsbs by the side of a 
rushing torrent that forces its way, 
from pool to pool, through narrow 
rocky chasms. It passes at one point 
through a tunnel, and at another 
under an overhanging rock. Beyond, 
the valley widens and becomes less 
interesting. After passing dvrebo and 
ThomeBB (5^ kil.) farms, the road 
crosses to the 1. bank of the Brat- 
lands-elVf which rises in the Boldals- 
vand. Opposite the farm of Brat- 
land (on a slope to the rt.), the old 
Bridge should be looked at. A water- 
fall descends from a considerable 
height on the 1. Four more farms 
(on the slopes of the Kaalaas) 
and a narrow ravine will next be 
passed before regaining the rt. bank 
of the foaming river by means of 
Hcegerlands-bro (bridge). The rock 
formations are here very curious. The 
shore of the narrow Lone-vand 
(4 kil. long) is then reached and 
Lone farm passed, a bridge of the 
same name crossed, in charming 
scenery (with the small Hundefos to 
the 1.), at the outlet of the BdldaU- 
vand, and the shore of the latter 
beautiful lake skirted to the charm- 
ingly situated Hotel at 

Boldal. ^ The road thence to Odde 

(54 kil.) is continued (after a night's 
rest) in accordance with the directions 
given in Bte. 5. 

BOUTE 22. 


(By sea.) 

[For oommunications from ports in Eng- 
land and Scotland, see " Access to Norway " 
in the Introduction ; and, for days of sailing, 
adyertiaements in Bradshaw and local 
time-tables. The intercomrae with Norway 
is increasing so rapidly that any special in- 
dications as to the means of reaching Bergen 
from the United Kingdom would become 
obsolete year by year. Assuming that, as 
regards the bulk of British tourists bound 
for the W. coast of Norway, they will make 
use of the exceUent Wilson Line from Hull 
or London, or of the strs. of yachting com- 
panies (Norwegian or British), the following 
short description of the easy and generally 
pleasant sea-voyage is given for their edifica- 
tion while on board ship.] 

At about 80 m. from the Hummer, 
the str. bound for Bergen (generally 
vid Stavanger) passes the N.W. edge 
of the Dogger Bank, in the vicinity 
of which the fishing-fleets from Hull 
and Grimsby may be seen, especially 
during the early summer months, fol- 
lowing their occupation of trawling 
in a depth of 13 to 18 fms. On a 
bright day their tanned sails afford 
a very picturesque sight. After pass- 
ing over the Dogger (20 Eng. naut. 
m.), and a run of about 16 hrs. (230 
m.), the Norwegian coast is sighted. 
About 3 hrs. later the Hvidmgsd 
Lighthcmse, the leading light at 
the entrance of the Skudences and 
Bukken fjords, is passed and a 
Norwegian pilot embarked. Sta- 
vanger (Bte. 19) is reached ftn how 


Route 22.' -Great Britain to Bergen. 

later, after a total run of 413 Eng. 
naut. m., in 28 hrs., the distance 
thence to Bergen by the channel for 
large strs. (see Bte. 20) being 100 m. 
more. The entire voyage is made in 
36-38 hrs. 

From London (36 hrs. to Sta- 
vanger), the strs. have an interesting 
run down the Thames, through the 
Swin Channel, passing Harwich, 
Orfordness, and, the Suffolk coast. 
At about 225 m. from London the 
S. edge of the Dogger Bank is 
reached, where fishing craft ply their 
occupation in large numbers almost 
throughout the year, principally by 
trawling. In the autumn, fleets of 
herring-boats from Lowestoft, Yar- 
mouth, (fee, will be seen drift-fishing. 
The distance across the Dogger Bank 
in this direction is about 80 m., with 
a depth of 12 to 18 fms. After leav- 
ing it, a run of 170 m. brings in sight 
the Norwegian coast, and Stavanger 
and Bergen are reached as described 
above in the voyage from Hull. 

From Scotland the course to Sta- 
vanger is 323 Eng. naut. m. from 
May Island at the mouth of the 
Firth of Forth, Leith being 25 m. 
higher up. About 80 m. from the 
Forth a patch called the Forties is 
crossed for a distance of about 60 m. 
Between Orangemouth and Stavanger 
the distance is 364 m., and that from 
Aberdeen to the same port only 308 
m. The depth of water across the 
North Sea on the route of the Scottish 
strs. varies from 30 to 50 fms., until 
within 50 m. of the Norwegian coast, 
when it suddenly deepens to 100 and 
150 fms. 

BEBGEK. « Lat. 60'>24' N. ; long. 
5°17' E. Pop. 53,686. Brit, and 
Amer. Vice-ConsiUatea. 

History. — ^The city, now the second in 
population and commercial imxMrtance in 
Norway, was founded between 1070 and 1075 
by King Olaf Kyrre, and was originally 
called BjGrgvin. Within a cent, later, in 
consequence of the advantageous position of 
its harbour, it was yiaited bv a great number 
of English, German, and other traders. The 
English and the Scots were probably the 
first to resort to Bergfen, where the early 

Norwegian kings frequently resided. Haakon 
Haakonson, who died 1217, made with Engr- 
land a treaty of commerce, remarkable as 
having been the first compact of the kind 
enter^ into by England. The trade thus 
established gradually fell off under German 
opposition until, in 1435, the English traders 
were driven from Bergen by their competi- 
tors, who, in the middle of the 14th cent., 
had already established in it a FaeLory^ 
which for 2 cents, monopolised the trade 
of Northern and Western Norway. The (Ger- 
mans formed a Quild (with St. Catherine and 
St. Dorothea as patrons), which already in 
1357 was a component part of the great 
Ilanseatic League. Towards the close of that 
cent, the city and its native inhabitants were 
harassed and plundered by fieets of German 
pirates. These depredations were continued 
until the year 1429, and resulted in the 
Hanseatic Factory dominating the entire 
city and the northern waters of Norway. 
In 1455 those all-powerful traders put to 
death the governor whom the king had ap< 
pointed, the Bishop of Bergen, and many 
other notable persons, and burned down 
the ch. and monastery of Munkelly, on 
Nordnees point. In the 16th cent, the Nor- 
wegian citizens began to resist the Grerman 
supremacy, and after the power of the Han- 
seatic League had been broken (1633-1536), 
native burgesses established themselves at 
Bergen, as wedl as in other Norwegian towns. 
The Factory maintained, however, its posi- 
tion (as a separate community) until the 
dissolution of the League in 1630. Gradu- 
ally its warehouses and other property fell 
into the hands of the Norwegian merchants, 
and the last German house was sold to a 
Norwegian citizen in 1764. 

Eeverting to the political history of Ber- 
gen, it may be mentioned that in 1135, Mag- 
nus Sigurdson was taken prisoner at Bergen, 
and his eyes put out, by Harald Gille, one of 
the competitors for his throne, and who was 
Iiimself put to death in the same place, 1136. 
In 1164 Magnus ErlingsSn was crowned here 
(the first ceremony of the kind in Norway) 
by Archbishop Eystein, and in the follow- 
ing cent, both King Haakon and his son 
Magnus Lagaboter were successively en- 
throned in the old city. In the 12th and 13th 
cents, the city played an important part in 
the internal dissensions of the country, and 
was frequently the scene of sanguinary en- 

In 1665 the Earl of Sandwich pursued into 
the harbour of Bergen, with 14 war-ships, a 
Dutch fleet of 60 East Indiamen, commanded 
by Commodore Van Bitter, which sought 
efficient refuge under the guns of BergeDhus 
Castle. Although the English minister at 
Copenhagen (Gilbert Talbot) succeeded in 
obtidnlng permission to seize the Dutch 
ships, the Danish commandant of the castle 
was compelled, in the absence of other orders, 
to protect them, when the English admiral 
threatened an immediate attack. The earl 
and Admiral Tiddiman, his second in com- 
mand, were thereupon, by the combing 
efforts of the Dutch fleet and the Danish 
garrison, compelled to retire, Severfil of the 

Route 22. — Bergen, 


sh.ots fired by the English squadron are 
still visible on the walls of the Bosenkrans 
To-wer and other buildings in the city. 

Trade and Shipping. — The com- 
mercial importance of Bergen may be 
judged &om the fact that in 1890 its 
imports were valued at 2,281,000Z., 
and its exports at l,204,0O0Z., of which 
85 per cent, was represented by fish 
and fishery prodticts. In regard to 
shipping, the city comes after Chris- 
tiania, Arendal, and Stavanger in the 
tonnage locally owned. In 1890 this 
amounted to 103,936 tons, of which 
77,809 was steam tonnage(159 vessels) , 
and 26,127 that of 191 sailing-ships. 
The shipbmlding yards and engine 
factories^ in which strs. of large size 
are constructed, are the most con- 
siderable in Norway. 

Topography. — The principal part 
of the city lies between the Vaag, or 
harbour for merchant ships, at the 
head of the By fjord and the Pndde- 
f jord, in which anchorage is given to 
yachts. The isthmus thus formed 
has a high ridge, crowned by the 
Port of Frederiksberg, erected about 
1665, but now used as a fire look-out 
station. About half-way between the 
fort and the northernmost point 
of the penin. (Nordmces) is the Ab- 
tronom. Observatory (open almost 
every evening). Bergenhns Castle, 
which will be seen immediately to the 
1. on entering the harbour, is intended 
for the defence of the latter. It 
consists of 3 bastions and a ravelin 
towards the town, and of 3 bastions 
and 2 batteries to command the ap- 
proach from the sea. At the back of 
it will be seen, among some trees, an 
old wall — all that is left of the original 
fastness raised by King Sverre, at the 
end of the 12th cent., for defence 
against the Bagler, or Episcopal fac- 
tion, and which to this day gives the 
name of Sverresborg to the small 
height on which the Uttle park of the 
same name is planted. Pretty views 
are obtained here of the harbour on one 
side and the Sandmken quarter of the 
city on the other. Almost contiguous 
to the castle are the Bosenkrans Tower 
8^Qd libe Eongehall, which will be 

described later. The steep mtns. in 
the background are the Damsgaards- 
fjelds (with the Lyderhom, 1300 ft.) 
to the S.W., LGvstaken (1660 ft.) to 
the ^,,Aal/rehen (2140 ft.) totheS.E., 
and the FliUfjeU (984 ft.) to the N.E., 
which, together with the Blaamanden, 
Sandvik, and Askd fjelds, are sup- 
posed to have given the name of 
BjHrgvin, or " the Pasture among the 
Mtns.," from which " Bergen " has 
been derived. 

The city is supposed to derive 
from the same mtn. also a humidity 
of climate exceptional on the W. 
coast, or in fact in any other part of 
Norway, the average annual rainfall 
(on about 200 wet days) being 72 in., 
while at Ghristiania it is only 26 in. 
Umbrellas and waterproofs oxe there- 
fore very generally required. Proxi- 
mity to the sea renders the climate 
at the same time very mild, the mean 
annual temperature being 45° F., 
and that of July 58° (against 41° 
and 62° at Ghristiania). In winter 
the cold is usually slight and of short 
duration, the thermometer rarely fall- 
ing below 16° or 20° F. These con- 
ditions render the vegetation in the 
vicinity of the city very rich. 

Frequently devastated by fire, Ber- 
gen will appear, on landing, to have 
a modem aspect, but there are never- 
theless more traces of antiquity and 
nationality in it than in any other 
Norwegian town. It bears almost 
the same relation to Ghristiania and 
Trondhjem as Moscow does to St. 
Petersburg, with the great advantage 
of a pop. that has mixed (mostly 
German) blood in its veins, and there- 
fore less racially stereotyped. The 
" Bergenser " is acknowledged to 
be the most cultivated, energetic, 
vivacious, and enterprising repre- 
sentative of the Norwegian people. 
Except to the S. of the harbour, where 
the city has been rebuilt since the 
last great fire in 1866, many pictu- 
resque wooden, whitewashed houses, 
with red tiles, will still be found. 
The wide, open spaces, shown on the 
plan of the city as ** Almenningen," 
were designed to oppose the spreacl 


Route 22. — Or eat Britain to Bergen, 

of conflagrations. They afford good 
views. The wide Market place, sur- 
rounded as it is by handsome buildings 
and shops, among which BenneWs 
Tourist office is conspicuous, appears 
too vast for the place, but it did good 
service in 1855 by arresting further 
conflagration. At the top of it is a 
StattAB (hjBorch) to TP. F. K. ChrisUe, 
a Norwegian of British lineage, who 
was president of the first Extra- 
ordinary Storthing, which, in 1814, 
drew up the Norwegian Cionstitution 
and concluded the union with Sweden. 

In the *< Vaagsalmenning," con- 
nected with the Market place, stands 
a Statue by Bdrfesson (erected 1844), 
to Ludvig Holbergt titxe dramatist, who 
was bom at Bergen in 1684. Con- 
tiguous are the Town-Hall, the Post- 
Office, the Branoh Bank of Norway, 
and other Banks, while in the Vetter- 
slef square is the handsome Baaaar, 
or covered market, erected 1877, con- 
taining a small but interesting Fish- 
eries Museum (specimens of nets, 
fishing-tackle, &c.), and the PubUc 
Library, of about 60,000 vol& 

At the N.E. end of the Market 
place is one of the great attractions 
in Bergen — namely, the TrUmgelent 
or quay, on which is held the 

I. Fisii Market. This is always 
viewed by travellers, especially on 
Wed. and Sat., when, between 8 and 
10 A.M., fish in great abundance and 
variety (a staple article of food) is 
brought and sold by fishermen and 
fisherwomen, typical in appearance, 
and worthy of the pencil or the lens. 

In order to view the wholesale 
traffic in fish prodmctSy on which the 
prosperity of Bergen so greatly de- 
pends, a walk must be taken along 

II. Tyskebrygge 1 ("German 
wharf"), lined, on the E. side of the 
harbour, by the quaint Hanseatio 
Warehouses, rebuilt in their present 
form after a great fire in 1702. The 
quay is crowded with picturesque 
Nordland boats (Jcegts), high-prowed 
like the Viking " dragon-ships " of 

* BrmMnff is not aUowe4 oq thia qua^. 

old, discharging their cargoes of cod, 
dried or salted, train-oil, roe, and 
other produce of the great Norwegian 
fisheries, of which much is shipped 
hence to the Mediterranean. 

The first (from the Market place) of 
the Hanseatic buildings on this quay, 
the Finnegaard (mentioned in the 
first years of the 15th cent.), has been 
restored and converted into a 

III. Hanseatio Museum, which is 
open daily and shown by the pro- 
prietor for a small fee. Visitors 
will see here all the details of the 
dwelling-rooms and business pre- 
mises of the ancient Hanseatic mer- 
chant, whose bed, or rather " hunk,** 
is curious in arrangement— for the 
apprentice or servant, who was never 
allowed to enter the dwelling-room of 
his master, was required to make 
his bed through a small hole with 
shutters in the partition-wall. (Con- 
sult the descriptions sold on the 
premises, and listen to the explana- 
tions given by the enterprising pro- 

Hence the stroll can be continued 

IV. Eongehallen (King Haakon*s 
Banqueting-HaU), next to the Bosen- 
krans Tower. This is in course of 
restoration, after having long been 
used as a granary. From the lower, 
arched storey, narrow stone steps 
lead to the Hall, which, with its 
groined roof and open hearths, will 
give an idea of the internal architec- 
tural arrangements of the earliest 
part of the ISth cent., when King 
Haakon Haakonson caused the build- 
ing to be erected. The king's seat is 
at the N. end, with a gallery above it, 
entered by means of a narrow flight 
of steps, which leads also to a parapet, 
and thence to the roof, from which a 
beautiful view of the city and Fort 
Frederiksberg is obtained. A similar 
gallery exists at the other end of the 
Hall, from the windows of which will 
be seen the Commanda/nVs Mousey in 
which the king stays when he visits 
Bergen. It bears the date of 1727, 
but other contiguous buildings were 
raised in 1714, 

Route 22. — Bergen. 


Behind the Hall (visible at any 
time on application to the " ArseneJ 
Vervalter," or keep^) is the 

y. Boienkrans (misoalled Valken- 
dorf) Tower. VaJkendorf began the 
baUding (to overawe the Hanseatio 
merchants), but Bosenkrans finished 
it. The most ancient part of the 
tower is supposed to be 700 years old, 
but the arms of Bosenkrans, with the 
date of 1565, bear testimony to the 
history of its present condition. 
Restored some years ago, it is an in- 
teresting remnant. 

Entering a small hall of solid 
masonry, and ascending some steps, 
the visitor is shown 

BooH 1. Colours of 1st Bergen 
regiment, temp. Christian VI. (1699- 
1730) ; a Brass mortar (Frederick IV., 
end of 17th cent.) ; Colours of Bergen 
regiment, with the arms of the city 
(7 mtn. tops), 18th cent. ; and a col- 
lection of old Mu>skets, 

Boom 2. The "Bosenkrans ''room. 
The arms are over the old hearth. 
Stands with Eifles and 2 artillery 
Colours (18th cent.), embroidered with 
gold thread. 

Boom 3 above, with " Valkendorf 's 
hearth," old Muskets, regimental 
colours (18th cent.), and 2 Mortars. 
Alongside is 

Boom 4. Loopholed room, with 
the oldest regimental colours (Fred- 
erick IV., 1670-99). The Fireplace 
was built by Bosenkrans. In 

Boom 5, the uppermost room, are 
exhibited old Dani|(h military Water- 
cans, From it stone steps (117 from 
the basement) lead to the Parapet 
at the tower. The guns originally 
mounted on it were directed towards 
the quarter inhabited by the Hanseatic 
merchants. It affords a magnificent 
view of Haakon's Hall, the fjord by 
which Bergen is approached, the 
Sandviken suburb, in which the 
Lunatic asylum (consisting of 7 large 
buildings) is conspicuous, and the 
city generally, with the crowd of 
strs. and other vessels moored off 



long the Chubches that 
ived conflagration and the 

devastation of time (out of 32 which 
Bergen once possessed) only a couple 
are worthy of some notice, viss. : 

1. The Maria (also called the 
Tysk, or " German ") Kirke/ to the 
rt., after passing, in the direction of 
Bergenhus, the warehouses on the 
Tyskebrygge. Founded in the 12th 
cent., enlarged in the 13th, it came, 
in 1408, into the possession of the 
Hanseatio League traders, who re- 
tained it until 1766. The 2 slender 
Tbtoersare modem, and altogether the 
exterior of the edifice bears testimony 
to recent renovation. Visitors will, 
however, admire the S. porch with its 
fine Norman arch, elaborate mould- 
ings and arcade work. The Boman- 
esque t^ave has square piers, with 
round arches resting on capitals 
ornamented with grotesque figures 
of animals. The Chared is Early 
Pointed, with full-sized figures in 
stone around the walls. Visitors will 
notice the Altar-piece of carved wood, 
in the form of a large triptych, sur- 
mounted by a representation of our 
Saviour on the cross. On the back 
of this triptych are remains of a 
medifidval depiction of scenes from 
the life of Christ. Probably of 
similar Dutch work of the 16tb 
cent, is the elaborately carved Pulpiti 
resting on a globe of the world. 
Sermons are no longer preached here 
in German. 

2. The Domkirke (cath.), to the 
1. of the S. end of Eong Oscar's 
st. In the middle ages a ch. 
attached to the Franciscan monas- 
tery of St. Olaf, it has frequently 
suffered from fire, and was entirely 
restored in 1870. The interior, con 
sisting of Nave only, with an ex 
crescence on the S. side, and lined 
with a double row of pews, is pecu 
liar. The Gothic windows and the 
portal in the lower storey of the 
tower are of some little interest, as 
may also be the Font, in the form of 
an angel, suspended in front of the 
altar. When required for use it is 


* Keys at the Parsonage, 6 Oyregade close 


Route 22. — Oreat Britain to Bergen, 

drawn down and a basin of water 
placed in the laurel crown. 

In the neighbourhood of the 
cath. are 3 large School buildings, 
the Lepers* hospital (existent in 
1475), and several other public insti- 

At the S. end of Eong Oscar's st. 
is the Stadsport, or old entrance 
gate, of the city, a simple archway 
built about 1630, and surmounted 
by 2 English cannon-balls (1666). 
The municipal archives are preserved 
in a room within it. Close by is an 
Almshouse for Widows, erected 1881 ; 
and beyond the gate, in a pretty 
quarter called Kalfa/rety many of the 
richer citizens reside in handsome 
houses. Here is also another, the 
largest. Hospital in Norway for 

As regards the Eorskirke, or Ch. 
of the Holy Cross, in HoUcender gade, 
the only interest now attaching to 
it is its proximity to the 5 streets 
called after the same number of 
handicrafts (shoemakers, bakers, &o.) 
pursued by the Germans who resided 
there in olden days. 

YII. Museum and Picture -Gal- 
lery : 

1. The MtrsEUM. This is a hand- 
some building well situated on an 
elevation at the W. end of Christie 


The vestibule contains 2 carved 
ch. portals of about the 16th 
cent, and some Bunic monuments. 
In the first 3 rooms (1.) of the 
lower floor are stone implements, 
flints, &G., and objects illustra- 
ting the Iron age. The fourth 
room holds wood carvings, fonts, &c., 
from chs. of the middle ages. In 
the fifth are exhibited, inter alia, 
harpoons, and bows with poisoned 
arrows for shooting small whales. 
Such arrows are still used in the 
Skogsvaag district, near Bergen. 
Ancient domestic furniture fills the 
sixth room. The Dutch marqiieterie 
bedstead is a fine specimen of 17th 
cent. work. A French wardrobe in- 
laid with ivory, and a curious writing 
desk (of 17th cent.), are worthy of 

notice, as are also the bride's chests 
and carved cabinets, &o. The seventh 
room contains a collection of old 
Norwegian bowls, a case with drink- 
ing and powder horns, <ftc., and 
tankards that belonged to the old 
guilds of Bergei^ 

A collection of Norwegian Coins 
from the 10th cent, is interesting. 

The highly instructive Zoological 
collections are located in the second 
and third storeys. Visitors will 
notice the musk ox from the E. 
coast of Greenland, the polar bears, 
seals, sea lions and sea bears. The 
specimens of Norwegian and Arctic 
seals are more especially complete. 
Of no less interest are the skeletons 
of whales ; one of the now raxe blue 
whale (the largest of such mamma- 
lia) measures 76^ ft. Their maxi- 
mum known size is 80 to 90 ft. The 
collection of the embryos of whales 
in the several stages of development 
is very curious. Fishes are well 
represented, and the Museum shares 
with that at Stavanger the pride of 
being able to exhibit a specimen of 
the Sild hong (king of the herrings), 
but without the cord mentioned in 
the description of the rival museum. 
Noticeable also is the sword of a 
sword-fish, with the 2 planks of a 
ship through which it had penetrated. 
Small specimens of the blue shark, 
extinct on the Norwegian coast, will 
also be pointed out. 

The collection of Norwegian Birds 
is very complete, and contains 
several unique specimens of cross 

In the uppermost floor are cases 
with R&ptiles in spirits, branches of 
coral fished up near Bergen, shells, 
&o. « 

The pretty Nygaards Park, com- 
manding fine views, spreads out 
behind the Museum. 

2. The Piotube-Gallbuy of the 
Art Union, in Engen sq., contains 
chiefly modern works, Norwegian 
artists being well represented by 
Tidemand, Bodom, and Eckersberg. 
Amongst the few pictures by old 
masters may be mentioned a portrait 

Route 22. — Bergen. 


of " Mary, Princess of England," by 
Van Dyck ; " The Entombment," by 
T. Mengs. A drawing by Carstens 
(1779), representing " The Inhabitants 
of Biigen Island (Baltic) seeking to 
purchase their liberty from the 
Holsteiners," is curious. In connec- 
tion with this gaUery is a collection 
of pictures belonging to the munici- 
pality of Bergen. 

VIII. Walks, Drives, &c. — 1. 
Walks. — Before visiting the pic- 
turesque environs of the city, 
travellers usually stroU from the 
Market -place up the quaint and 
busy Strand gade, in which, as well 
as at the Fish-market, men and 
women of the rural class will often 
be seen in their national dress. 
Ardent sightseers will repair quickly 
to the Tyskehrygge, St. Mary's Ch.y 
and Haakon*s Hall and the Rosen- 
krans Tower ; but explorers will as- 
cend the Strand st, to its extreme 
end at NordnceSy where they will en- 
joy a view of the fjord from the small 
Park which is being laid out here. 
By taking the road to the 1. skirting 
the fjord, they will pass the old fort 
of Frederiksberg and the Observatory, 
and ultimately reach a mound which 
is all that is left of the ancient Munk- 
eliv Monastery, (For description of 
these places, as well as of the Mu- 
seumsj &c., see " Topography.") The 
Nygaard Park, at the W. end of the 
city, is within 20 min. walk. To the 
E. of it is the Store (great) Lunge- 
gaards-vand (lake), an arm of the 
Puddefjord connected (N.) with the 
*< small" lake of the same name, and 
to the W. of which, off Christies st., 
is the pretty Rofn. Cath» ch. Small 
strs. ply on those waters from a point 
opposite the Voss rly. stat., at inter- 
vals of 16 min., and \ an hr. can well 
be spent in viewing the picturesque 
Villas that dot the larger lake. 

A walk generally taken is that 
from the cath., past the St. 
Jacob cemetery to the Stadsport, or 
city gate. Beyond it (rt.) is the 
principal Cemetery, affording pretty 
views of the^ills behind tiie lake 
above mentioned. At about 2| kil. J 

from the gate is the Svartedike 
("Black-dike"), a lake enclosed by 
bleak rocks, and from which Bergen 
is supplied with water. Isdalen, a 
picturesque gorge, can be reached in 
|- an hr. from it. 

Those who enjoy mtn. climbing 
can easily ascend any of the hilh 
that frown over the city. The pano- 
rama from the highest of them in- 
cludes not only the fjord and the 
country inland, but also a grand 
view of the Folgefonn glacier. In 
any case visitors who do not care to 
toil up the zigzag road that leads to 
the large iron vane at the summit of 
the Fmjjeld (984 ft.) should walk or 
drive half-way up the mtn. by the 
beautiful road constructed in recent 
years, and popularly known as the 

Dramvei (Dram-road). This ap- 
pellation originates from the fact 
that its cost was defrayed out of part 
of the proceeds of the monopoly for 
the sale of spirituous liquors granted 
by the city to a company in pur- 
suance of the so-called " Gothen- 
burg," or local option, system. The 
sellers of spirits are servants of the 
contractors, and have no pecuniary 
interest in the traffic. After payment 
of a dividend of 5 per cent, to the 
shareholders, the surplus profits are 
devoted to municipal, public, and 
charitable objects. This system is 
very generally adopted in the towns 
and rural districts of Norway, and, 
in addition to other benefits, confers 
on consumers the advantage of being 
able to procure good, unadulterated 
wines as well as spirits. 

Pedestrians reach this road (from 
which a magnificent view is ob- 
tained) by ascending some steps in 
Ovre-gade, at the bottom of the 
Market place, and bearing off to the 
rt. The descent is by the Kalfaret 
(" Calvary ") road, past the Leper 
hospital, whence a turn to the rt. 
leads back to the city. This walk 
can be accomplished in 1 hr. 

An easy and pleasant stroll in a W. 
direction is to the Snkkerhnsbrygge 
(Ni^stet), on the Puddefjord, which is 


Routu 22. — The Hardanger Fjord. 

oroBsed by a Bteam ferry (every 10 
min.^ to LaoDevaag pier, whence, 
passing the large Mechanical works, 
there is a charming walk along the 
OfWfdal road to AioOen paper-miU, 
under the Lyderhom. The same 
trip may be made by walking or 
driying from the Nygaard Park, over 
the bridge at the inlet to the S. 
Lungegaards lake, and thence by 
the road running along the Pudde- 
f jord, past Damsgaard and a number 
of villas, to Laxevaag ch. and pier, 
where the ferry can be taken. The 
hills in the background are those of 
the Damsgaard f jelds. 

2. Drives. —The Dram/vei should 
be one of the first objects. This will 
occupy a couple of hours if, on re- 
turning by the Kalfaret road, the 
Store Lungegaards vand be skirted, 
and the Nygaard Park visited. A 
somewhat longer drive (2^ hrs.), and 
one of great beauty and interest, is 
to Fanix)ft, the property of Mr. Gade 
(U.S. Consul), to the grounds of 
which the owner has transferred the 
ancient Stav-ch. of Fortttn (Sogne- 
fjord), and restored it to its original 
appearance, which is that of the 
quaint ch. at Borgund (see Bte. 8). 
This can also be visited by train to 
Fjoscmger stat. (Bte. 24) in 15 min., 
the waUc thence occupying only ^ an 
hr. The country around' Hop, the 
following stat., is very pretty, and 
the walk or drive may well be pro- 
longed in that direction. 

3. A pleasant Excursion can be 
made in 1 hr. by str. to Askoen, a 
large island among the *' skerries " 
(rocks) to the N.W. of Bergen. A 
walk of ^ an hr. brings the traveller 
to the Udsigt (view), or Dyrleigen, 
commanding a magnificent survey of 
the sea and coast. 

[For eommunications by sir. with fjords to 
the N. and 8. of Bergen, and by rail with the 
interior of the country, see the Routes that 

BOUTE 23. 


[This great inland sea-lake, with its numer- 
ous branches penetrating far into the land, 
and presenting so many of the grandest and 
most characteristic features of Norwegian 
scenery, is a very important and interesting 
route to travellers. An entire season might 
be occupied in exploring it thoroughly, for 
the total waterway available to strs. in 
various directions, including the fjords by 
which it is approached, is not far short of 
480 kU. 

The present itinerary must necessarily be 
limited to the routes leading to favourite 
headquarters, such as Eide, Utne, Ulvik, Eid- 
fjoriy Lofthuty and Odde. The great toater- 
faXU, glaciers, &c., will be pointed out in ap- 
propriate parts of this Boute. 

The accompanying map shows that in 
applying the name of " Hardanger " to the 
whole of these ramified waters a certain 
amount of geographical licence has been 
used. Its approaches from Bergen are re- 
spectively named the Kors fjord, and the 
BJGme fjord (with a long N. branch, the Sam- 
nanger fjord). Another seaward opening is 
the ScelbG fjord ; and below that, again, the 
Bommel fjord. These join in the central body, 
named in most maps the Hardanger fjord, 
of which the principal S. branches are the 
Aalfjord, the MaUrefjord, and the Akre fjord ; 
while to the N. the main body receives the 
names of HUfjord and Saml^jord. The latter 
is divided into Ytre (outer) and Indre 
(inner) Samle fjord. Its prolongations are 
respectively the Graven, Ulvik, Ose, and Eid 
fjords (to the N. and E.) ; while from the E. 
it sends down abruptly a long branch called 
the S&r fjord, of which the S. extremity is 
at Odde. 

It is on the shores of this latter fjord 
that the true Earing (Hardanger) type of 
the pop. (total in the Hardanger fjord 
about 14,000) is to be found. They are a 
powerfully built, dignified, and self-reliant 
people, and are very courteous to strangers 
who exhibit the same quality. Compara- 
tively few of the men now wear the ancient 
national dress, and even the women are 
rapidly exchanging their old picturesque 
costumes for modwn gowns and head-cover- 
ings. Nevertheless at most of the hotels 

Route 23. — Bergen to Odde. 


and stats, the female servants are dressed in 
becoming red bodices and gaily trimmed 
skirts, the head being covered with a snow- 
white linen " skaut " (a kind of cap), when 
the luxuriant tresses are not left to fall in 
2 plaits half-way down the back. 

Ancestral silver ornaments have gradually 
been transferred to the dealer, and by him 
retailed to travellers and collectors, so that 
the shining round brooches, <fcc., worn with 
the local, national dress are disappointing to 
lovers of the antique. It is the same with 
the gorgeous wedding-crowns so frequently 
represented in pictures. They are now 
mostly replaced by tinsel, or even paper, 
imitations, and the traveller is fortunate 
when he meets a wedding party in a fjord 
boat with a fiddler in the bows and a huge 
wooden tankard of strong Hardauger ale in 
the stern. 

Communications.— Points in the Hard- 
anger fjord can be reached by land : Eide 
from Bergen by rail and road, and Odde from 
Stavanger (Ete. 21) and from Telemarken 
(Rte. 5 ) by road. The great bulk of travellers, 
however, start for the fjord either from Sta- 
vanger or Bergen, by str. (See Rte. 20 for sec- 
tion between Stavanger and Lervik (7 hrs.), or 
fferSen (9 hrs.), where the Bergen-Hardanger 
str. is met.) The fare from Stavanger to 
Odde (260 kil.) is 14.10 kr., and from Bergen 
to the same place (193 kiL), 10.40 kr. 

From Bergen, strs. leave daily for Odde, 
the voyage being direct 3 times a week, in 
about 13 hrs. It is made in the daytime, to 
enable passengers to enjoy the scenery. The 
return is generally at night, but until the 
end of July the nights are light enough 
throughout. The trip to Odde and back to 
Bergen can be made in a couple of days, 
with some fatigue, and a week suffices lor 
visits to the more interesting points and 

Consult time-tables and advertisements 
for sailings, especially in regard to the local 
strs., of which the arrangements VEury as the 
tourist traffic increases. 

Hotels.— These wiU be mentioned in the 
Index under the names of the places at 
which strs. stop. They are often full at the 
chief points of interest, and it is therefore 
advisable to secure accommodation by tele- 

I. Bebqen to Odde. 

(By the more direct mail strs.) 

The route (variable as to stopping- 
places) taken by the mail strs. is 
generaJly as follows : 

On leaving Bergen, the str., after 
a short course to W., turns into the 
narrow sound between Sa/rtor6 and 
the mainland, and proceeds S. to 

Bukken, or Bokk (1^ hr.) ; thence 
by the Korsfjord^ to 

Lepso (1 hr.) After passing that 
island, the mouth of the Samnanger 

[fforway—vi. 92.J 

fjordf in the BjQmefjord, will be 
crossed. The former fjord runs N. to 
Aadlandy whence there is a good road 
to a stat. ontheBergen- Vossrly.jwhich 
can also be reached by a road (30 kil.) 
from Os ch.j on the W. side of the 
branch fjord, opposite Fttse, (Local 
strs. from Bergen ply on this fjord, 
the trip there and back occupying 
only 1 day.) 

The next stopping-place of any 
importance is 

Oodosund (2 hrs. from Bukken), 
a sea-bathing place. Thence througn 
the Gk)ddsund Channel, studded 
with beautiful -wooded islands. Here 
the short-route strs. join those of the 
longer route, which touch at Sc&rvold 
(N. end of the Bjornefjord) and en- 
ter the Loksundt a narrow strait be- 
tween the mainland and TysnasG^ 
the mtns. on which rise to 2295 ft. 
All strs. stop in this channel at 

Einingevik (1 J hr. from Saervold ; 
4 an hr. from Godosund), and pro- 
ceed S. to 

TeroeiL (Jhr., about 6 by the short- 
route strs. foom Bergen) . Pretty view 
of the f jeld on which the Folgefonn 
lies. Here the main body of the 
Hardanger fjord is entered, and is 
crossed due S. to 

Heroen (i hr.), where the Stavanger 
str. is usually met. Some low islands 
will be seen to the W. 

The course is now along the main- 
land, inside Skorpen, a small island, 
partly of interesting formation. Look- 
ing back over the island, a pretty 
view will be had of the TysncBsaata^ 
on TysnaBS island. The hiUs of the 
mainland aore mostly green, but nearly 
treeless. A stoppage is made at 

XTskedalen (\ hr. from Heroen), at 
the mouth of a valley leading S., up 
to the f jelds of Sondhordland. Mtn.- 
paths lead thence to the head of the 
Matre fjord and to Holmedal ch»<, 
near its opening in the Skonevigs 
fjord. There is also a road (only partly 
good) between Uskedal and OlfamcBS 
(close to Hobnedal), when the fjord 
is crossed in order to gain a carriage- 
able road from Skonevig to Hatige- 
8tmd, Continuing along the main- 


Route 23. — The Ea/rdanger Fjord. 

land, and passing inside Snilstveit 
Island, with the dark rocks of Solfjeld 
on the rt., the str. reaches 

DimmelBvig (i hr.), at the mouth 
of a rich valley, the Omvikedal, where 
there is also a mtn.-path (circuitous) 
to the head of the Matre fjord. 

On leaving this place, a fine 
view opens of high mtns., with the 
grand Melderskin (5182 ft.) in the 
background. The mouths of 2 
more valleys {Guddal and Hatteberg- 
dal) will be passed before the engines 
are stopped at 

Sosendal « (^ hr.), at the base of the 
high Andersnut, the Malmangemut 
(2880 ft.), and the Melderskin mtns. 
This is one of the most beautiful 
spots in the Hardanger. At the head 
of the valley (Hattebergdal) is the 
Bingerifos, a fine waterfall at the 
foot of the Folgefonn glacier, pre- 
senting a rare combination of stem 
grandeur and smiling fertility. Sur- 
rounded by a park is the baronial 
mansion of Hosendal, curious as one 
of the few manorial houses left in 
Norway, but of not much architec- 
tural interest, although founded 
about 1678 by Baron Ludvig Rosen- 
kranz. In default of heirs the pro- 
perty fell to the Danish Crown, 
and, after some mutations, was con- 
ferred on Baron, subsequently Count, 
Rosenkrone, whose arms are carved 
over the gateway. The noble title 
became extinct in 1837. The collec- 
tion of Pictures is good. In the 
vicinity of the mansion is Kvinheired 
ch., an old Early English Gk)thic 
edifice of stone. 

[The Melderskin maybe ascended in 6 lirs. 
from Rosendal by following a bridle-path up 
the Melsdal to the Midtsceter^ and thence by a 
steep but not difllcult path past the Myrdais- 
vand to the summit, the view from which is 
very fine and extensive, taking in the Folge- 
fonn, the whole of the fjord to Strandebarm, 
and the islands and skerries of the coast, 
with a sea-horizon beyond. 

There is a good road (6 hrs.) between 
Rosendal and Dimmelsvik.'] 

Leaving Rosendal, the long-route 
strs. cross to 
Skjelnes (J hr.),on the S. extremity 

of Varaldsd (the largest island in the 
fjord), while the short route is direct 
to Gjermundshavn (1| hr.) on the 
mainland, N. of Hatlestrand^ a pretty 
spot with a Ch. and smiling farms. 
Almost opposite SkjelnsBs, on the 
mainland, is iEnaes Ch., at the foot 
of the Oygrastol (3100 ft.) and at the 
mouth of the Mauranger fjords run- 
ning hence inland for about 13 kil. 


Two or three times a week the long-route 
strs. call at Sundal, at the head of the 
Mauianger Fjord, but when a str. is not 
available a posting-boat must be engaged 
from SkjeluBBs or MmB%. On the way 
will be passed (1.) the steep Skodberg 
and the fine Fureberg^os, The Bergsfjeld 
will be seen rising within the NordpoUen 
creek. Hence round a point at which the 
Bondhusddl opens, and, with the Nip^jeld to 
the rt. and the Husafjeld to the 1., a magnifi- 
cent view of the Bondhus Olaeier will be 
obtained just before reaching Sundal.* (For 
excellent accommodation and guide, see 
Index.') Prom Bondhus (5 min. hence), a 
beautifully situated farm, with old " rdgttuer " 
(huts without chimneys), the guide will lead 
up the valley, along the 1. bank of the stream 
through it and past rocky remains of ancient 
moraines, to the Bondhusvand (in f hr.), 
where perched up (1.) will be seen Qarham~ 
mer, the Soeter of Sundal farm, which can be 
reached from Bondhus on horseback. Splen- 
did view here of the glacier. The roar of the 
Br-uSoi is deafening. The lake (many water- 
falls on each side) is crossed in ^ hr. to its 
upper end, strewed with huge rocks, and a 
path (partly made, but rough) will then be 
taken to the foot of the Bondhusbrce (]| hr. 
from Sundal). This is one of the outlet 
glaciers of the Folgefonn, and pours down a 
valley between the Selsnut and the Bonddals- 
nut. Its lower end is only 1060 ft. above sea- 
level . On a summer night the glacier presents 
a fairy scene that cannot be forgotten. 
This excursion should be made by all 
those who have the time for it. 

2. AcBoss THE Folgefonn to Odde. 

The Folgefonn is a great glacis-bearing 
fjeld. There are several small outfalls of its 
ice on the £. side, of which the chief is the 
Btier glacier, especially interesting on account 
of its recent growth. The snow and ice-covered 
area of the Folgefonn and its glaciers is 
estimated at 108 Eng. sq. m., while its highest 
point is 5512 ft. above sea-leveL Fine views 
are obtained on crossing it. The Ringedais- 
fos, on the opposite side of the Sbr fjord, is 
plainly seen in fine weather. '^ 

(1) The best track to be ti^en on this journey 

is that which leads from Gjerdefarm. Odde 

can be reached by it, even by ladies, in 10 hrs., 

, and in favourable weather good pedestrians 

Route 23. — Across the Folgefonn to Odde, 1 1 5 

have not taken more than 7 hrs. to effect the 
crossing. From Sundal (reached as above 
described) a boat (| hr.) is taken to Ojerde, 
the owner of which is a guide, licensed by the 
Norwegian Tonrist Association. Crossing a 
bridge, a yalley is ascended along the rt. bank 
of the river that rushes down it. The high 
Hardangerskar (1.), with the Sundefos below, 
will be among the first landmarks. Hence a 
long ascent ; later by steps cut in the rock, 
towards the jfysevasskar^ahex which the path 
is level before descending to the Myse-elv, 
crossed by a bridge. Pretty view here of the 
fonn, a branch of which descends to the 
Mpsevand. After another ascent and then 
a descent to the Urabot valleys, and passing 
several small lakes, the traveller reaches a 
Tourist hut, established 1889. Ascending 
again, the first traces of snow will soon be 
reached, and later a snow-field (fonn). To 
the 1. will be seen, coming down to the Jitkle- 
vand, the glacier, which here attains an 
altitude of about 5460 ft. The course hence 
is towards the Tokeimsnut (peaks), and later 
down the Tokeinudal, with the Blaavand to 
the rt., from which the descent is more or 
less steep to Odde. 

In Nov. 1891, Mr. West, special corre- 
spondent of Land and Water, crossed 
on snotDshoea the Folgefonn by this route, 
with 2 guides. 

(2) Kie Folgefonn may also be crossed by 
climbing the Bondhus glacier (see above), 
but, while of greater interest, the journey is 
more fatiguing. 

On both these tracks siedges, at posting- 
rates, are provided. The charge for a guide 
from G-jerde is 8 kr. (12 kr. with a horse>, 
and from Bondhus 12 kr. (15 kr. with a horse), 
and 5 kr. additional if he be required for the 

From SkjelnaBS the str. generally 
proceeds through the Bondesundy 
between the level shores of FastUrnds- 
strand (1.) and VaraldsiS (rt.), and, 
passing the month of the fertile 
Mundheimsdaly makes a stoppage at 

dierhavn (^ hr. from Skjelnses, 
1 hr. from Gjermundshavn). This 
stat. is prettily situated on Varaldso, 
in the vicinity of copper-pyrites 
mines. The HUs fjord is now tra- 
versed, and beautiful scenery pre- 
sented by its W. shore and by the 
opening of the bay of Strandebarmt 
close to which is 

Bakke (1 hr.) Good quarters. 
Beautifully situated in magnificent 

[Tourists who have time to spare may rest 
here, and make an easy stroll along the shore 
(3 kil.) to the Strandebarmsbygd to witness the 
contrast of its almost Italian luxuriance with 
the ice deserts of the Folgefonn just left 

behind. The background is formed by tlie 
snow-clad TveUe Kvi and Vesholdo mtns. 
(4190 ft. and 3520 ft.) The Bergsenden mtn. 
(1540 ft.) is easily ascended from Strande^rm 
eh., and its summit commands a fine view. 
There is a mtn.-road across to the fair valley 
of ffacUandsdal, from which the Skogseids- 
vand may be ferried to Kalvences, whence the 
distance is about 8 kil. to Ekelandtoien, or 
Osen, in the Ekelands Qord.] 

From Bakke the str. keeps along 
the wooded coast, and in | an hr. 
stops at 

VikingsnaBS. ^ Large Hotel and 
numerous small houses, prettily 
situated in a wood. Then, crossing 
the HUs fjordf it reaches, in another 

Jondal (Jondals&ren) (1 hr.) Large 
slate quarries in the neighbourhood. 
Boat-building pursued rather exten- 

[The JondalsbrsB, one of the Folgefonn 
glaciers, is the chief object of interest for 
tourists here. From Jondal ch. a good road 
leads up the valley to Brattebff farm (12 kil.) 
A sceter-Tp&th is then taken from Birkeland. 
A guide should be taken from Jondal to 
FreidcUstOlen farm, beyond (3 kr. and 2.50 kr. 
for horse). The glacier is about 11 kiL due S. 
of FkUebe farm, and comes down to the shore 
of the Juklevand, below which is the splendid 

Leaving Jondal, the str. rounds the 
JonancBS promontory, and crosses to 
AhsncBS, then turns to the W., pass- 
ing Yihor ch.f and on to 

KoreimBand * (1 hr.) Telephone to 
Bergen, The scenery of this narrow 
branch of the fjord is very fine. 

The Steinsdal, which runs up from 
Noreimsund, is another and very fine 
example of the luxuriantly beautiful 
valleys that abound on the W. side 
of the Hardanger fjord. 

[There is a carriole-road here to Steine and 
Birkeland farms (6 kil.) About half-way up 
the valley is the Ovsihutfos, falling from its 
N. side. It is but a small fall (about 98 ft., 
and only 66 ft. perpendicularly), but it is re- 
markable from the fact that it is possible to 
walk under it. The Eikedaltvand, a lake about 
1000 ft. above the sea, may be reached by a 
well-defined iceter-'psAla. starting from the 
uppermost of the above-mentioned farms, and 
continuing N.W. and W. for the first part 
through pine-forests (17 kil. ) A little to the 
W. of the lake is the Eikedals-fos, reached by 
descending a steep goat-track down the face 
of the rocks. By making a long ddtour this 



Route 23. — The Hardanger Fjord. 

track may be avoided. The waterfall is yery 
toe (nearly 282 ft.) About 6 kil. farther is 
TOsse, in the Aaiiland fjord, the upper part of 
the Samnanger, at which Bergen strs. oalL*] 

Beyond Noreimsund another bay 
is entered at 

OstensS ^ (^ hr.) Prettily situated, 
with a ch. close by. f^om this stat. 
may be made an interesting 



The FUuMund, the narrowest branch of 
the Hardanger, is not naaally entered by strs., 
but may be visited by boat direct from 
OstenaS to Botnen farm, at its northern end. 
The course is inside Kvam»d island, and up 
the sound to Staare (11 kil.), which can also 
be reached by road from the ch. at Ostens5 
(about 4 kil. ) The row from Skaare to Botnen 
is 6 kiL 

Botnen and FkUebd, a short way beyond, 
are situated at the lx)ttom of the curious 
narrow valley or pass, the FlatebiSgjelet, 
through which, by a difficult and almost 
perilous path, succeeded by an easy mtn.- 
track (with the Kaldenut (4400 ft.) on rt.\ the 
Vosse sceter at the N.B. extremity oi the 
HanOegrffvand (1908 ft) is reached. The 
distance from Botnen is about 11 kil., and 
there is no difficulty in keeping the path. 
The ,fi*hing ou this lake is good. Sater aeeom- 
modation obtainable. Following the river 
that flows from the Torflnnvand^ on rt., a path 
leads to S^feldalen farm. The road then 
turns eastward through pine-forests to Orime- 
stad, on the Vangsoand (6 kil. farther), from 
which there is a drive of about 9 kil. to 
Vostevangen (Bte. 24). 

Hamlegr&vand may also be reached direct 
by a mtn.-path from the ch. at Ostensb, 
leading up to the W. end of the lake, and 
continuing to BolstadOren and Evanger, in 

From OsteiiBb the fjord is crossed 
to RcBrand (J hr.) (The short-route 
str. usually passes the mouth of the 
Fiksesund, and along the N. shore to 

Leaving Hasrand, and rounding 
SamlencBSf the str. ascends the Indre 
Sanden fjord^ with the high Mjolvefos 
(1.), to 

Vinees (\ hr.) ; then, rounding the 
promontory that separates the main 
fjord from the Sorf jord, steams (1 hr.) 

Utne^ (Tcleg.-stat.)y beautifully 

' For various other mtn.-paths consult 
Prof. Yngvar Nielsen's RHsehaandbog ower 

situated on the TJtne fjords at a point 
from which 4 fjords radiate to the 
cardinal points of the compass. The 
tourist should rest here, and make 
excursions by the road on either side 
of the Sor fjord, or row or sail at his 
leisure up the branches that run N. 
and W. in these and in the SGr fjord 
is the grandest scenery of the Har- 
danger. The hills around Utne com- 
mand magnificent views of the fjord, 
the grandest of which is that from 
the Oksen fjeld, which rises opposite 
Utne to a height of 4120 ft. The 
view from this is comparable with 
that from the Bighi. It is best 
ascended from its S.E. side. Those 
who are not equal to the climb (an 
excursion of 5 to 6 hrs.) may take 
the road (in ^^ hrs.) E. from Utne 
across the Hanekamh (3590 ft.), for 
a grand survey of the Utne fjord. 
Bid fjords and SGr fjord. 

From Utne the str. proceeds due 
N. up the narrow frowning Qraven 
fjord to 

Eide*(lhr.) {Teleg.-stat.) (The 
short-route str. usually proceeds di- 
rect from Aalvig to Eide, which it 
reaches in about 10 hrs. from Bergen.) 
Prettily situated, this is one of the 
great tourist centres, as well as a place 
where families from Bergen reside in 
summer. Tolerably good trout-fish- 
ing in the neighbourhood and up the 
river to Vossevangen. 

The trout are very fine in the 
Espelcmd lake, 8^ hrs. from Eide, 
vid Graven ch., whence there is a 
climb of nearly 3 hrs. 

Communications. — Local strs. 
daily to Ulvik and Vik in connection 
with mail strs. on the main fjord 

[1. BoAD FBOM Eide to Vossbvangen 


Distance, 30 kiL ; carriage and pair, 13 kr. 
for 2 persons ; dil. dally. Posting-rate, 
1 1 tt. per kil., or 4 kr. for a caftHole^ and 6 kr. 
for a StollOferre, 

This is a very pretty drive of about 
4 hrs., including a halt. Ascending 
the lovely valley, along a road that 
follows the river, and which is in 

Boute 23. — Road from Hide to JJlvik, 


[some places carried under over- 
langing rocks, Qraven ch, (4 kil.) on 
le pretty Oravensvcvnd will soon be 
cached. A road (to rt.) runs hence 
Ulmk (see below). Continuing 
[ong the shore of the lake (280 ft. 
)p), dotted with farms and orchards, 
lew will be obtained of Neseim- 
rgen (3762 ft.) on the 1., and, look- 
back, the Oksen (see abovej will 
}een towering in the direction of 
le. Beyond, the Jonsberg and the 
mut (with caverns worth visit- 
-20 min. from Seim) rise on the 
[A pretty posting-stat. will then 
;hed (or passed) at 

(Ovre Yasenden)^ (8 kil.) 

over a level bit of road up a 

wooded valley, passing the 

\efos on the rt. A long, steep 

(at which travellers can 

I and cut off comers by ascend- 

foot) leads to the SkjervsfoSj 

refreshments can be taken and 

id scenery enjoyed while the 

are being rested. A further 

is then made until the last 

are passed, and the water- 

iched at an elevation of 856 ft. 

ihorg (4562 ft.) is seen to 

The rest of the journey is 

bde, in charming scenery and 

the Langskog^ one of the few 

lests in the Vestenfjeld dis- 

Ihe first view of Voss with its 

Lver, on the opposite bank 

will be seen the wooden 

of the TvUdemoen mili- 

ircise-ground, is very en- 

TANGEN ^ (Voss) (22 kU. f rom 

)ay for 25 kil. and 15 o. 

^n reverse direction). (See 

for description and rly. to 

raoM EiDB TO Ulvik. 
kil., but pay for 82 ; time, 

ection to Graven ch.j see 
)ad, steep road diverges 
tr about 6 kil., but a cart 
a the whole way, if only 
The scenery being very 

beautiful, walking is enjoyable, and 
almost an hour can be saved by 
taking (with a guide) a bridle-path 
that passes Kjelland farm and joins 
the road from Graven at the Anger- 
kleVf a steep pass. Beyond is a pine- 
forest, and a height affording a view 
of the Graven and Samle fjords, the 
Samlenut, &c. At VatncBSt on the 
pretty Mja4Jivand (lake), refreshments 
are procurable, as weU as trout-fish- 
ing. The highest point of the route 
(1900 ft.) is then soon reached, and 
the descent opens out a landscape of 
extraordinary beauty. The On«ro will 
be seen rising in the direction of 
Ulvik, and, at a great distance, the 
Ddgerfos, which falls from it (1500 ft.) 
The most prominent of the mtns. 
seen on the N. is the Vasfjceren 
(5350 ft.) Another steep pass is 
surmounted before the first farms 
are reached at the head of the valley 
that terminates at Ulvikt^ where 
the river is crossed by the bridge.] 

From Eide the str. returns down 
the Qravensfjord^ touches again at 
Utney and ascends the S&rfjordy stop- 
ping on its W. shore at 

Oriinoi^ (Xvaale). 

[Pedestrians can reach Utne hence 
in 1^ hr., and enjoy the grand view 
from the Hanekamh. The fjord can 
be crossed in a boat to Kinservik ch.y 
at the mouth of the HusdcUetii in 
which are many waterfalls, the near- 
est being the Tveita and the NyastQl- 
fos. The largest of all is 12 kil. up 
the valley.] 

The Sdrf jord now gains in beauty. 
S. of Kvnsefrvik (1.) is a pretty tongue 
of land, from wnioh is a succession 
of farms to TJUm^oang {Lofthvs), 
The str. crosses the fjord, and reaches, 
in 1^ hr. Ir/^m Eide, 

LofthoS) « near the parish oh. of 
Xlllensva/ng, This is another of the 
fertile districts of the Hardanger, 
with hills rising directly above it, 
commanding beautiful views of the 
fjord, including the icy wastes of the 
Folgefonn a*d of the AgaruU (4684 ft.), 


Route 23. — The Hardanger Fjord. 

and glimpses of the dreg,ry bogland 
to the £. The climate is very salu- 
brious, especially for weak chests. 
An abundance of fruit testifies to its 
mildness. This prevails even in 
winter (with W. winds), when the 
fjord is never frozen. The Conva- 
lescent home is much frequented at 
ail seasons. 

The Ch, is early Gothic, with a fine 
portal, but destitute of a tower. Above 
the Gothic window, at the end of 
the chancel, a bishop is represented, 
weeping on one side of his face and 
laughing on the other. 

From the hill, S. of the ch., falls 
perpendicularly (but not in much 
volume) the Skrikjafos, formed by 
the Skrikjor, More water is pre- 
cipitated by the lower, Bjomeboksetf 

The Bmrestol, a prominent crag, 
a short distance beyond the oh., is 
worth ascending. 

[From UllensTang tbere are roads N. to 
Kmservik (about 6| Ml.), and S. to Fresvik 
(about 14 kll.), both following the fjord, the 
second skirting its shore, and both passing 
through a beautiful country, inhabited and 
cultivated by characteristic specimens of 
the Hardanger race. From both Ullensyang 
and Einservik there are mtn.-paths oyer the 
waste moorland through the Nordmandi 
Sheb to the Numedal and the Tinned in Tele- 

Some fine excursions may be made on the 
other side of the fjord by crossing from 
TJUensyang to Ftiure, whence a road skirts 
the fjord northwards to Utne (about 8 kil.), 
and southwards to Aga (within easy reach by 
boat), a large farm-house, celebrated for its 
apple-orchards, and with an old haU lighted 
from above. This road follows the shore 
southwards to Aapaaldo. Other roads run 
W. to Herand fmd AUaker (on the Samlen 
fjord), nearly opposite the Tyssedal,} 

On leaving Lofthus, travellers will 
admire from the deck of the str. the 
grand peaks, Haawuti Solnut (4831 
ft.), Torsnut (5163 ft.), and many 
other fine mtn.-tops with patches of 
blue glacier ice between them. The 
str. continues S. and stops at 

Borve (1^ hr.), a pretty place, from 
which the Folgefonn is seen. The 
foliage of the trees stands out in 
strong contrast with the frowning 
mtns. and the glaciers behind. In 
another ^ hr. a stoppage is made at 

Naa, on the W. side of the fjord. 
The slopes of Torsnuten^ covered 
with farms up to a height of 1000 ft., 
rise above it to the N.W., with the 
glacier looking down on them. About 
1 kil. S. of Naa is Bleie farm. 

[From Bleie a wild mtiu-road may be 
followed to Jondal (8 or 9 hrs.), ascending 
first to Reis Sceter (1080 ft.), then northward 
to an elevation of 4500 ft., and passing ^Soit- 
seklep with Torsnuten to the rt. ; thence 
gradually descending with a "W. and south- 
ward sweep to i^uKBtf then following the 
river to Brattebd, whence there is a road 
(12 kil.) to JondaUdren in the Hiis fjord (see 
above, "Jondal").] 

On crossing the fjord from this 
point, other pajHis of the glacier open 
out, and the traveller will notice a 
waterfall above Naa, which seems to 
issue straight out of the mtn. The 
next stat. is 

Espe (^ hr.) on the E. shore, with 
another (see ante) " Hanekamh * ' (3590 
ft.) behind it. Farms lying in an 
amphitheatre are enlivened by green 
trees, and a river falls in cascades 
down to the fjord. 

Passing next the mouth of the 

Tyssa (1.) and Eitrei/m and Tokeim 

, farms, tne end of the Hardanger route, 

above described, is reached in 1 hr. 


ODDE,^ finely situated at the 
head of the Sorfjord. This is the 
chief goal of visitors to the Har- 
danger, and no new-comer will be 
astonished at the predilection, when 
he views both the peaceful beauty 
and the solemn grandeur of the 
scenery around him. 

Moreover, Odde is the starting- 
point not only for journeys to Tele- 
marken and to Stavanger, through 
some of the finest and most interest- 
ing parts of Norway, but also a basis 
from which many charming excur- 
sions, long and short, can be made 
with ease and comfort. 

The journeys are described, in a 
reverse direction, in Btes. 5 and 21. 
As regards excursions, their objects 
will be to view waterfalls and glaciers, 
or to climb mtns. 

1. Watbrfalm. — (1) haaitfosy Skar^oi^ and 
Espeland^foi, The traveller who has not come 

Route 23. — Odde — JBxeursions. 


from Telemarkenor Stavanger will, even if not 
disposed to make the entire stage to Roldal (54 
kil.) described in Rte. 5, engage a convey- 
ance of some kind (StolkjaBrre for 2, 3.40 kr.) to 
the Laatefoi and Skartfos (5 to 7 hrs. there and 
back). Pedestrians walk to the Sajidven- 
vand, and along its shores, or, taking a boat 
to its upx)er end at Sandven farm (7 kiL from 
Odde), and perhaps stopping to visit the 
Buarbrae (see *' 2.Glaciers"), proceed to HUdal^ 
where there is a waterfall of the same name. 
About 5 kil. beyond are the Laatefos* and the 
Skarsfos, and opposite to them the Espelands- 
fos (see Bte. 5). Instead of returning by the 
same road, the more enterprising will ascend 
the mtn. by the side of the Laatef os to Laaie 
*arm^ beautifully situated on the lake from 
which the waterfall issues. From the farm, 
a bridle-road nms to BrcBkkey and thence to a 
point on the main road near Hildal. 

(2) SkJoeggedal^os and TysteUrengene falls. 
This is a highly attractive excursion 
(feasible also by ladies in dry. weather) of 
9-11 hrs. there and back, with a guide (4-5^ 
kr.) from Odde, where a luncheon-basket 
should be procured. The guide (with assist- 
ance when necessary ) takes the traveller in a 
boat down the wild E. shore of the Storfjord 
to Tyisedal (6 kU. ; 3 hiss.), the landing being 
at Tyssedal farm, on theN. bcmk of the Tyssa. 
Keeping well along the path on the high N. 
bank of the river, a pine-forest and 2 
cascades wUl be passed ; and after a some- 
what steep ascent over loose stones and 
trunks of trees, a hay-bam will be reached at 
the foot of the Svelberg (in U hr.) This is 
the highest point (about 1800 ft.) attained on 
the way. Fine retrospective views of the 
fjord and the Folgefonn. The TysaedaUnut 
will be seen to the N., and the TveitniU to the 
S. Hence, the track more or less descends 
(over steps and logs) to the Fladberge (for- 
merly a very difficult part of the excursion) 
and leads to Skjceggedal farm (2^ hrs. after 
landing), where coffee, trout (and even a bed) 
are procurable. To the L is the Mogel\fos 
(descending from the Mogelinut\ and to the 
rt. the Vatienden fos^ formed by the waters of 
the Ringedals vand (or Skceggedals vand), a 
lake (about 1475 ft. above sea-level) which is 
reached in 10 nun. after crossing in a boat 
the Vetle vand tarn at the foot of the Yas- 
senden. The scenery on this fine sheet of 
water (about 6 Ml. E. to W.) is grandly 
picturesque. Bare, sombre, grey cliffs rise 
abruptly from the edge of the exquisitely 
blue water. Embarking again in a boat with 
1 or 2 extra rowers (fee 1 kr. for each pas- 
senger), the lake is traversed (providing a 
high wind has not suddenly risen and ren- 
dered waiting necessary) in about IJ hr. 
About half-way, the Folgefonn will be seen to 
the W., and to the L the fine twin TysteUren- 
gene falls, which unite midway on the face of 
the rock (600 ft. high). Shortly after, the 
^ceggedals fas comes into view, leaping down 
nearly in the centre of a semicircle of bare 
rock, making a clear bound of more than 530 
ft. over the dark wall that terminates the 
valley in which the lake lies. 

Landing at the E. end of the Ringedals- 
vancl, close to the low second fall by which 

the waters of the cascade make their way to 
the lake, a few hundred yards' scramble over 
rough fallen rocks, in the face of a blinding 
spray, leads to the huge basin which the 
avalanche of water has worn for itself. 
Although not so imposing as the Y<3ring-f os, 
for the volume of falling water is somewhat 
scanty in summer (except after heavy rain), 
yet the Skjaeggedal is certainly more grand 
and picturesque than any other waterfall in 

If the strength and time of the tourist 
permit, he should not fail, when returning, 
to land and to climb to the Tyssestrengene. (\\ 
or 2 hrs. should be allowed for this ditour.) 

This should not, however, be attempted by 
ladies unless well accustomed to hard mtn.- 
climbing. In many places the ascent is dif- 
ficult. It is dangerous to venture on the 
mass of ice at the base of the fall, as it is 
slightly inclined and very slippery. Beauti- 
ful rainbows will be observed. 

2. Glacier. —The Buai^hrce, If not combined 
with a visit to the waterfalls above mentioned, 
this isof itself an interesting excursion of about 
5 hrs. Walking or driving to the Sandven- 
vand (in which trout can be caught), a small 
str. will be taken at Vastun (return ticket 
1 kr.) for the splendid Buardaly where the 
Jordalmut will be seen on the rt., and the 
Eidenut on the 1. The landing is at Jordal 
farm, on the N. side of a small stream that 
runs down from the glacier, and which is 
crossed by a bridge. No guide is necessary, 
for the path upwards is well defined. On 
reaching Buar farm, from which the glacier 
derives its name, the stream is crossed to its 
1. side, and a short way beyond is an eleva- 
tion formed by large blocks of stone, from 
which the glacier is visible in all its gran- 
deur. A small Inn will be found at this 
point. On the S. side of the valley are the 
outbuildings (1060 ft.) of Buar farm, the 
fields of which have been endangered by 
the rapid rate at wliich the glacier descended. 
In 1870 it advanced about 260 ft., and in 1871 
about 13 ft. in one week. It has since re- 
ceded 100 to 130 ft. The foot of the Buarbras 
is now about 1000 ft. above the level of 
the fjord, or 700 ft. above the lake. 
Divided into 2 arms by a ridge of rocks, 
it has an unusually large central moraine. 
Visitors can come close up to it and chip off 
ice for the cooling of liquid refreshment, but 
they are warned against entering the ice- 
grotto by which they may be attracted. 

By those who are accustomed to such ex- 
ercise the rt. side of the glacier can be as- 
cended to the great Folg^onn (of which the 
Buarbrae is one of the finest outlets). Skirting 
the Eidenut and the RGklenut, and passing 
the Tokeimsnut, the descent is to Tokeim farm, 
near Odde. About 10 hrs. must be allowed 
for this ditour {guide about 8 kr. ) 

With a good guide, the Folgefonn can be 
crossed in 10 hrs. (guide 15 kr.) to the Mau- 
ranger fjord. (See above, on this route, 

3. Mountain Olimbino.— (1) The Sanenut 
Thi»* mtn. (about 4000 ft.) can be ascended 


Route 23. — The Hardanger Fjord. 

from Odde in 1 day (there and back) from 
Or&nsdal farm, at the edge of the Folgefonn. 
The view from the summit is very extensive, 
finely displaying the Odde district and the 
mtns. beyond. 

(2) The MSfnlMkardene (about 3950 ft.), E. 
of Odde. This ascent can be accomplished 
in 6 hrs. with a guide (5 kr.) Splendid 
panorama of the Bingedalsvand, the Sbr- 
fjord, and the Folgefonn. 

II. Beboen to Ulvik and Vik in the 


[This section is given separately, as most 
of the strs. proceeding to Odde leave the 
communication between Eide and the Ulvik 
and Eid fjords, to local daily strs. For the 
voyage to Eide see above (Section I. of the 
present Route).] 

From Eide the str. ascends the 
Oravensfjordt rounding the Oksen 
promontory, and crosses the Eid- 
fjord to 

BingoexL (1 hr.) Fine view of the 
Folgefonn. Steering N. between the 
dark rocky walls of the Eidf jord, the 
Ulviks fjord (richly wooded slopes) 
to the 1. is entered. It is separated 
by the low Osen ridge from the Ose- 
fjordf which the mail strs. do not 
enter. In 3 hrs. from Eide the str. 

Ulvik. « Ulvik is in the midst of 
scenery both grand and beautiful, 
and is one of the most charming 
places in the Hardanger for a tem- 
porary sojourn. BrakenceSf with its 
ch. and hamlets (a waterfall close 
by), constitutes Ulvik. A short walk 
along the fjord brings the visitor to 
HagestadfBJid then, on theN.E. shore, 
to Lekve farm, anciently a royal do- 

[ExcuBSiONS.— (1) Va^Jcerent a mtn. 5668 
ft. ; feasible in 12-16 hrs., with a guide (5 kr.) 
The ascent begins at Lekve farm (reached by 
boat) by a good broad path with steps. The 
Sceberg is then surmounted, and the JonstOlene 
(about 5 kiL) reached. A path on the W. 
bank of the stream leads to the SolUsceter^ on 
the N. side of the Yasf jser, to which the less 
hardy climber should walk on the evening 
before the ascent. Trout-flihing in the 
Espelandsvand, 7 kil. (1^ hr.) to the N.W. 
In 1 hr. thence, the Vcudela sceter is reached. 
Splendid views. Then a winding ascent 
between Vasf jasren and Vetlefarfjceren (E.) 

Thefonn sends out a branch here, a rivulet 
tumbling down the glen. If there be snow, 
some climbing must be done ; if not, the 
stream can be jumped over. Then a steep 

ascent. On reaching Savehotnen, a deep 
hollow between high mtn.-walls full of snow, 
the ascent of the Va^joerfond begins. It is 
possible, but difficult, to ascend the mtn. from 
its N. side, from Soli-saeter, passing the Sveig 
Meter to the Strvelvand. The front of the fjeld 
has been ascended by daring climbers, but the 
attenipt should never be made by tourists. In 
5 hrs. from the Saster, the Top is attained. It 
coromands a grand panorama, including all 
the inner portions of the Hardanger district, 
the fjord, and the islands beyond, the Folge- 
fonn, the wild, lake-dotted, boggy, desolate, 
and little-trodden region called the ifardangfer 
or Stor vidderiy lying between the Sbr fjord, 
Telemarken, and NumedaL 

Another flue view can be had from the 
summit of the Garhaugy on the SoUirvand. 
This can be accomplished in about 3 hrs. 

Travellers should not ftiil to visit (in 
1 day.) 

(2) The Osefjord. This magnificent arm of 
the great fjord, in some respects the finest of 
all, may be reached by rowing down the 
Ulvik f]ord, round the headland, and up the 
fjord to Ose (14 kil.), or by a path from Br<i- 
kences along the shore, past the ch. and 
Lekve farm, where the effects of a great land- 
slip may be seen, and thence across the 
isthmus to 0«c, where fair but rough accom- 
modation is afforded. It is, however, more 
prudent to bring a supply of provisions. 
Within a short walk from the fjord, amidst 
great lumps of tumbled rock, are the Kolde- 
huller^ deep cavities in which are some 
curious x)erpetual glaciers, or ice-i)ools that 
remain frozen throughout the summer. Kear 
to these is a marsh, which, according to local 
accounts, never freezes in winter, and is 
swampy in dry weather and dry when the 
weather is wet. The gorge between the MpcL- 
hSgd and Vasf jeer mtns., leading up to the Om 
Miter ^ is well worth a visit. Very wild mtn.- 
paths branch off from this (B.) to the Finse 
vand^ and through the Finsedal to Aal in 
HalUngdal, and (N.) through Kaldevcuaadal, 
with Otekavl and Vossekavl on the rt., and 
OangdaUkavl on the L ; then across the 
OravnhaU (3700 ft.) down to Kaardal and 
the Aurland branch of the Sogne fjord. 
Either of these is a hard day's journey on 
foot. Better toke 2 days, and rest at one 
of the Meters. There are other grand mtn. 
excursions from Ose to Rundalf Hoi in 
Upper ffallingdaly &c. (Consult Prof. Y. 
Nielsen's Reitehaandbog and G-uide at Ose.)] 

From Ulvik the str. returns to the 
rock-walled Eidfjord. On the S. side 
of this fjord wiU be seen rising (S.) 
the lofty Buwut, on which the sun 
never shines in winter. Beyond is 
Erdaly a hamlet with saw-mills and 
several old moraines and primaeval 
beaches. The BtUlenut towers over 
it. On the N. side of the fjord rises 
the Onen (5150 ft.), the highest peak 
of which is, however, not seen from 

Route 28. — Bergen to Vhnk wnd Vik. 


the water. The str. next leaves to 
the 1. the Simodal, which receives a 
torrent fed by the melting snows of 
the great plateaa called the Hardan- 
gerjakel, A glimpse of the latter is 
obtained. The str. stops, in 2 hrs. 
from Eide,at 

Vik » (in Eidfjord or CHfjord)^ 
situated in a small bay on the S. 
side of the fjord, at the month of a 
small river, of which the BjoriHay the 
source of the VSringfos, is a tribu- 
tary. The small stone ch. is attri- 
buted to the 12th cent., the lancet 
windows and portals being apparently 
of that age. Behind the altar is a 
well-preserved tombstone, on which 
is represented Bagnasad (who founded 
the ch.) in the act of offering to St. 
Peter a model of the edifice. There 
is a long Bunic inscription on it. The 
principal object in visiting Vik is to 
see the 

[1. YdBiKG-Fos, one of the finest waterfalls 
in Norway, although its sheer fall is only 
630 ft. The ezcTirsion occupies 8 to 10 hrs. 
Guide from Yik 3.50 kr. 

A good carriage-road runs from Yik to the 
JBicifjordsvand (a lake 6 kH in length and 
245 ft. in depth, with tolerably good trout- 
/UMnghi ItXand along its shore to <SEor&0 farm 
(1^ hr.), where saddle-horses are procurable. 
The girths, especially of side-saddles, should 
be carefully inspected. Walking is, however, 
genei^y preferred. The ascent begins at 
88Bb5. To the rt. of it is the Syelmadal 
and to the 1. the MaabUdai. The track, im- 
proved by the Tourist Association (which 
charges 80 9. per head for its maintenance), 
first leads up a hill and then down to the 
bank of the IfforMa, which is kept to the 1. 
for a short time. (In descending, care must 
be taken, on reaching the level moraine in 
this vicinity, not to take the broader track 
to the 1., but the one to the rt., which runs 
straight down to Selbb.) The valley increases 
in wildness, its precipitous sides being in 
many places 2800 to 2600 ft in height. In 
about ^ hr. ham Bdbb the first bridge over 
the Bjor'bia is reached, and then the small 
Tveito farm. Thence the track leads up the 
MaaMkleVf ^eat a waterfall, to MaabS. Here 
the river is crossed. When in flood, a branch 
of it, the Maabifkvist (in which Jon Saabo, 
a well-known guide, was drowned in 1881), is 
very dangerous to pass. The Tourist Asso- 
ciation track is kept along the 1. bank. It is 
more or less hilly, and the glen becomes 
grander stilL The Dalberg is passed on the 
rt., and steps are cut here to fiurilitate the 
ascent. A small Inn supplies at this point 
solid and liquid refreshments (ale, milk, and 
seltzer water). 

A wire suspension-bridge (toU 60 '6.) over 

the BjorSia is next crossed. The top of the 
VSringfoB is now attained in 10-15 min by 
some rudely formed steps, beyond which the 
spray arrests further progress. A path has, 
however, been made from the suspension- 
bridge to FoMe2i, whence another view can be 
obtained of the f alL A small Jnn has been 
built here by the excellent local guide and 
deer-ttdlker. The entire distance from Saebb 
is about 10 kil. (2^ hrs.) 

The direct and easy return is by way of 
the Dalberg (| hr.) Passing over some 
flat marshes, MSI farm (accommodation) is 
reached by ascending some steps. A splendid 
view down over the &11 rewards the climber 
who is not subject to giddiness. 

Intrepid explorers can, with the help of a 
guide, explore the old track to and from the 
Y&ringfos and the places lying off it, but 
their number wUl be so small that we must 
refer them to the more detailed information 
given in Nielsen's Rei»eha4mdbog,jBlboyB quoted, 
and much used in the foregoing account of 
the fos. Hallingdal can be reached by good 
pedestrians from the YQringfos, passing 2 
nights in rough huts. A guide and provisions 


Waterfalls.— This deserves more attention 
than has hitherto been given to it, especially 
as the activity of the Tourist Association 
develops in the direction of road-making or 
improving. If the local str. be not available, 
a boat can be engaged from Yik to Simodal, 
which is reached in 1 hr., the landing being 
^ected at Natutene^ whence a road leads up 
to Seed farm, which lies on a moraine. The 
valley hence is very 'grand, its base being 
strewed with large rock masses that have 
tumbled down. As in so many other parts 
of Norway, wires will be seen running from 
the heights for the sending down of hay. 
The road is good up to a bridge, beyond which 
is Mehu$ farm, where the vaUey narrows to 
a gloomy gorge. Passing over another bridge, 
the traveller soon reaches (in an hour from 
Simodal) Tveit farm (the highest in the val- 
ley). A steep path runs hence to StSlen and 
over to Hdl (see « Ydringfos"). The gorge 
again contracts more and more. A small /o« 
^dll be seen falling into it. Eventually (in 
2 hrs* from Simodal) the traveller will see 
before him the entire volume of the 

Skyklufoi, with a sheer fall of 820 ft. The 
quantity of water is scanty in summer. It is 
biteresting, but not quite free of danger, to 
see it from its foot, which can be reached 
from Tveit in 1 hr. There is a magnificent 
view of the fjord from the gorge. In another 
hour of climbing up the wild valley, and after 
passing over some level rock, the traveller 
gets to the 

RemhUdaltfot, a greater mass of tumbling 
water issuing from a lake of the same name, 
and of which the upper end is filled with the 
glacial terminations of the Hardangerjbkel 
snow-field ( 6640 ft. ) It takes 2} hrs. to reach 
the lake, T^ch can be rowed over, through 
the fioating ice. The BembUdalt-soeter ia on 
the other side of it. 

The above excursion will occupy 16 or 
16 hrs. The hardy pedestrian may as well 


Route 24. — Bergen to Vosisevangen. 

include it in a ronnd-tonr (taking about the 
same time) from Yik, to Maabo and Fosseli, 
whence the innkeeper (see above) will act as 
guide to H'dl and Tveito. 

3. The melmadal is a third excursion worth 
making by robust walkers. The V^oi^ and 
many other fine waterfalls, render the valley 
interesting. The Hardanger vidda can be 
reached from it, as well as Telemarken (in 2 
to 3 days). This imposing valley can be 
entered from Hbl (see above) or S8eb45. 

StORT. — There is good trottt-fishing in all 
the mtn.-lakes in this part of the country, 
and sportsmen will find reindeer^ wild-fowl^ 
<fec. ; but great hardship must be endured in 
such pursuits.] 

(For return from Vik and other 
places in the Hardanger, consult the 
above Route in a reverse direction.) 

ROUTE 24. 


(By rail.) 

[Distance, 108 kil. ; time, 4 hrs. ; fare, 2nd 
cl., 7.70 kr. This line, which passes through 
a beautiful and interesting part of the 
country, greatly facilitates the communica- 
tion of Bergen with the Hardanger on the 
one hand and with the Sogne fjord on the 
other. Nearly one-tenth of it is tunnelled 
through hard rock, and the whole of it is a 
triumph of engineering skill.] 

On leaving the stat. opposite the 
LUle Lungegaardsvand in Bergen, 
the train skirts the larger lake of the 
same name, which is in reality an 
inner branch of the fjord. After 
passing through a tunnel nearly 460 
ft. long it crosses the stream that 
runs out of the lake and in 5 min. 

SoUieimsyikeii (2 kil.), a place 
dotted with pretty sunmier resi- 
dences. The country increases in 
beauty, and the Aalrehen mtns. will 

be seen on the 1. and the Lbvstakken 
to the rt. The FjHsangervand (rt.) 
is next reached, and on its shore 

Fjosanger stat. (5 kil.) Here 
travellers alight for Fantoft^ where 
the old Slav ch, of Fortun is an 
object of curiosity (see Rte. 22 : 
*' Bergen '*). Leaving a fjord to the rt. 
and passing through several cuttings, 
the train ascends to 

Hop (8 kil.), and thence again 
through several cuttings and a 
country embellished by small lakes 
and green woods, to 

Nestun (9 kil.), with a Ch,y and 
Qttarries of a kind of marble, close 
by ; also small lakes, many villas, 
and a view of Aalreken. The Lyse^ 
kloster (see " Bergen ") caji be reached 
hence on foot in 3^ hrs., and Os, in 
the ScNnnanger fjord (20 kil.), in 
4 hrs. (see "Hardainger'*). 

[A branch line will shortly be opened from 
Nestun to Os.] 

Turning abruptly almost due N., 
the line passes twice over the Nestun 
river, skirts the Qrimevand^ where it 
intersects the posting-road to Bergen, 
and after going through 2 tunnels 
issues on the Soilevcmd (rt.), sur- 
rounded by bare mtns. Three more 
tunnels are entered before the train 
pulls up at 

Haukeland (18 kil.), at the N. end 
of a lake of the same name. This is 
the highest point attained on the 
line (269 ft.) Hence a short stretch 
of rocks covered only with moss, and 
a flat marshy level, until Ame ch. is 
passed, and a descent made to the 
pretty Amevaagy a narrow arm of a 
^iSGrfford " that branches out of the 
Osterfford. The stat. here is 

Arne (25 kil.) The line runs 
along the shore of the Amevaag, and 
then, making a loop to the E., comes 
out to the Sorfjord at 

OamsBB (29 kil. ; Buff,), where the 
interesting part of this route begins. 
The lamps are here lit in the car- 
riages. Haus ch, will be seen on the 
opposite side of the fjord, to the S. 
shore of which the train descends. 





pailroad* .«■ 



Stations or 
Steamer caUing' 
phues wtcUrhoied 

ikuf Joru jgji 

TheHaghts of IT 

F^'Fjo,^ V.Vi 


^Vidk Steazoih^ Steudons. 


*- '   

S to 

i ^ ;  / 1^ »  « iV , ' < • ja 


Its — 




Route 24. — Trengereid J Vossevcmgen. 


passing through 11 tunnels (the 4 
longest 985 to 1265 ft., the rest short), 
before reaching the next stat., 

Trengereid^ (89 kil.), on the 
Sorfjord. Splendid view, especially 
on looking back. The OtUfjM 
(3230 ft.), from which is an extensive 
panorama, can be ascended hence in 
about 4 hrs., there and back, with a 
guide. A road runs hence to Aad- 
land and the fjord of that name, a 
continuation of the Samnanger (see 
" Hardanger"). 

The line increases hence in interest, 
and the gigantic labour expended in 
its construction excites admiration. 
Ten more tunnels (combined length 
of more than a mile) have now 
to be entered. The long (nearly 
f kil.) tunnel at Hane was pierced 
through a rock so precipitous that 
adits had to be driven into it 
from the waterside at 8 different 
places; and yet, when the several 
borings were joined, the maximum 
difference in level was only 10-20 
centimetres. Bunning along the 
shore of the fjord the line presents 
views of great beauty. The mtns. of 
Ostero and the Ch. of Brudmk will 
be seen on the opposite side of the 
fjord, which widens considerably 
when the line deflects to the E. 
After emerging from a long tunnel a 
northerly direction is suddenly taken, 
more tunnels passed, and, lastly, a 
smaU river crossed, before pulling up 

Vaksdal (51 kil.) Buff, A pretty 
view here of the fjord, and a large 
Flowr-mUl on the shore below. There 
are 5 tunnels on the next stage, 
the fourth piercing the HcRtta mtn. 
The fifth is passed a short distance 

Stanghelle (59 kil.) Here the 
Dalevaag is crossed, and the shore 
of that creek (bordered by steep mtn.- 
sides) followed, partly through tun- 
nels. Descending a valley, the train 
next stops at 

Dale (66 kil.) Some large Factories 
here. A short tunnel carries the line 
to the bottom of a valley and then to 
the BoUtad fjord. A long tunnel is 

entered at Bergsenden, and then 
another long one piercing the Trold- 
konebar. Beyond are tunnels through 
the KWftefjeldy the Hyving, and the 
Torbjdmstodna, and, at the head of 
the fjord, the stat. of 

Bolstad (78 kil.), at the mouth of 
the Vosse-eh), Strs. here several 
times weekly from and to Bergen. 
The train ascends a pretty valley, 
along the 1. bank of the river, in 
which are several rapids, and later 
skirts the Evanger-vand, There are 
8 tunnels on this section. The bare 
Mykletveitre (3755 ft.) is seen rising 
to the rt. It can be ascended from 
the next stat. in about 3 hrs. At the 
outfall of the Vosse river is 

Evanger^ (88 kil.), at the head of 
the lake of that name. The parish 
Ck, and an Inn are opposite the stat. 
Hence a slight ascent to a bridge 
which carries the train over to the rt. 
side of the river. Soon after, the last 
(fifty-second) tunnel is passed, and the 
pretty Vangsva/nd skirted, the mtns. 
in the S. being of considerable height, 
and including the long ridge of the 
Graaside (4250 ft.) On the Vangs- 
vand is 

Bulken (99 Ml.), a small stat. The 
view is charming, looking E., the 
valley widening in that direction, and 
in ^ hr. the train reaches its present 
terminus at 

VossEVANGEir (Voss),» (108 kil.) 
In a charming situation on the Yangs- 
vand, this place is much frequented, 
being well adapted for a prolonged 
stay as a centre from which some of 
the most pleasant trips in Norway 
can be made. The mtn. to the S. 
is the Oraaside, already viewed at 
Evanger. Close to the principal 
hotels is a stone Ch, attributed to the 
13th cent. Its altar-piece is ancient, 
and on the walls are several memorial 
tablets of the 17th and 18th cents. 
It possesses a Bible of 1589. Bergen 
is largely supplied by Voss with 
vegetables, and the well-tilled farms 
around are among the largest in 
Norway. At about 1 kil. S.W. frpm 
the ch., above the posting-road to 
Bergen, is a bam, an interesting 


Route 25. — Vossevangen to Gudvcmgen, 

remnant of the old Fitme log-ch. 
Norman oarving is extant on the 
capitals of the massive oak pillars of 
the door and on the arch over it. 
Bemains of old buildings exist also 
at Lddve, about 3 kil. W. of Vangen^ 
the parish Ch, of which is the largest 
in the Bergen diocese. Anglican ch, 
service is held every Sunday, in 
summer, in a schoolroom. 

For pretty Vi&wa travellers should 
ascend to the higher farms on either 
side of the lake. Among easy ascents 
of mtns. may be mentioned the Ltyne- 
horg (4560 ft.) to the N., and the 
hom-snaped Hondalsnut (about 5000 
ft.) E. of the ch. and near the Kmte- 
nosii the highest mtn. (4780 ft.) in 
the vicinity. Both these can be 
ascended in about 6 hrs., mostly on 
horseback, if desired. 

A track leads E. from Yobs to the 
FlaamsdcUy in Sogn, and another S. 
to Botneni in the Fiksesund (Har- 

(The communication by road with 
Eide is described in the foregoing 
Boute. For that with Chudvcmgent 
see next Boute.) 

BOUTE 26. 


(By road.) 

[Distance, 48 kil. Posting in about 6 hrs. 
Carriole, 8.26 kr. ; stolkjaerre, 12.26 kr. ; car- 
riage, 25 kr. to 35 kr. for 2, 3, and 4 persons. 
Betnm same day half charge. A dil. runs 
in 7^ hrs., including 2 hrs. at Stalheim. Fare 
7 kr. 

As the overland route between the Har- 
danger and the Sogne fjords, it is much fre- 
quented. The stream of tourists is consider- 
ably increased by the natural desire to visit, 
in any case, StaUieim. Tolerably good trout- 
lUhinff all the way.] 

On leaving Vossevangen, the road, 
which is laid in the valley of the 
Vosse-eh) (the volume of which is 
increased by tributaries higher up), 
becomes at once picturesque, and it 
soon reaches the E. shore of the 
Lundarvandf and then the Melsvandy 
in a fertile and well- wooded district. 
Beyond is the Liinevand, where the 
bare peaks of the LGnehorg (see pre- 
vious Boute) will be seen to the 1., and 
the Hondalsnut to the rt. There is 
a posting-stat. at 

Tvinde ^ (10 kil.) Close to it (1.) is 
the pretty Tvindefos^ formed by a 
stream that falls into the main 
valley, the river in which is followed 
along its rt. bank and crossed by a 
bridge over the Aasbrekke fos. It is 
necessary to be careful in descending 
to view this waterfall. The valley 
contracts farther on, and is pretty 
as well as wild, the Lonehorg being 
again visible to the 1. A river flow- 
ing down from the Miyrkedal will 
then be passed. A track, partly car- 
riageable, leads up the Morkedal to 
Vik (Hardanger) in about 12 hrs. 
Another posting-stat. is reached (and 
horses sometimes baited) at 

Vinje^ (10 kil.), with a ch., and 
in a smiling landscape closed in by 
high light-grey mtns. Hence is an 
ascent along the bank of a small 
stream, and up a narrow valley to 
FramnsDS, « at the W. end of the 
Ophmnsvand (1007 ft.), where Vosse- 
strand parish Ch, and 3fanse, and a 
couple of good hotels, « are situated. 
There is good fishing (large trout) in 
this lake. To the E. rises the Kolda- 
fjeld (3945 ft.), and to the S. the 
Malmagrdnsnaa/ve (about 3600 ft.) 

The road continues along the shore 
of the lake, and then, after running 
through a pine-wood, crosses the 
watershed between the Bolstad and 
the Sogne fjords, and follows the 
bank of the Ncerddals-elv, Soon 
after, the admiration of the traveller 
is directed to the grandeur of the 
Stalheimsberg, a mamelon on which 
is perched the splendid 

STALHEIM Hotel ^ (36 kil. from 
Voss, and 12 from Gudvangen). 

Route 26. — B&rgen to the Sogne Fjord. 


From the verandah of the hotel is 
an impressive view of the dark NcbtH- 
dalf surrounded by high mtns. The 
blunted cone of the Jordalsnut (3600 
ft.) is seen on the one side and the 
Koldafjeld on the other. Several glens 
open out on all sides, and the pano- 
rama is in reality one of the grandest 
in Norway. The best elevation for a 
view is the BreUkemppa (3 hrs. up 
and down with a guide), as the Fdlge- 
fomfi and the JostedalsbrcB are visible 
from it. The Naalene are worth 
yisiting, but only the hardy will 
attempt it. 

From Stalheim, the road winds 
down the Stalheims-klev in 16 zig- 
zags, past the Stalheims-fos (rt.) and 
the Sivle-fos (1.), and then over the 
Stalheims-eh), Splendid views all 
the way, the Jordalsnut being on the 
1. and a precipitous mtn.-wall to the 
rt. Hylland and Skjerpe farms will 
be seen on the rt. side of the magnifi- 
cent NcBreims (Ncerlklal) valley before 
descending to 

OUDVAKOEir « (26 kil. ; 12 kil. 
from Stalheim), on the Ncero arm of 
the Sogne fjord. In the reverse 
direction the drive to Stalheim can 
be done in 4 hrs. (Carriole, 2.50 kr. ; 
stolkjflBrre, 3.50 kr. ; carriage, 9-14 kr.) 

This hamlet is so encompassed by 
mtns. that the sun's rays never reach 
it in winter. The reverberation of guns 
occasionally fired from tourist strs. 
has the sound of heavy artillery. The 
Skjerpenut stands out on the E. and 
the SolbjOrgenut on the W. To the 
N. of the latter, opposite the posting- 
stat., is the KiUfoSy a waterfall of 
1850 ft., the first perpendicular part 
of it being 500 ft., and the rest a 
cataract, but of no great volume. To 
the rt. of it is the HestncBsfos^ and 
to the 1. the Nautefos^ which, after 
uniting with the Eilefos, falls down 

(For Communications with Bergen, 
&c., see next Route.) 

BOUTB 26. 


(By str.) 

[The So(ine ia the largest and most ramifled 

of the fjords oa the W. coast ol Norway, its 

length to the head of the Lyster-fjord 

being abont 180 kil. Of its numerous 

branches, the most extensive and the most 

striking for beauty and grandeur of scenery 

are the F^ceriatu^fjord^ Sogndalrfjordy Lytter- 

fjord (all running up N.), Aarda^fjord (E.), 

and the AurUindtfjordy with the Ncereimrfjord 

or Ncwlifjord (S.) The district surrounding 

these eztensive waters has an area of 3475 

sq. m., with a pop. of 38,000 On the whole, 

the scenery is wilder, and in part more 

Errand, in the Sogne than in the Hardaoger. 

This will be recognised more especially in 

the larger branches. Although there are 

several great waterfalls in the Sogne, they 

are not as imposing as those of the Har- 

danger, for they seldom carry any large 

volume of water. The highest waterl^ll is 

the Vetti^fos (870 ft.) The glaeien of the 

Sogne send down nearly all their streams 

through long valleys that decline gently 

towazds the sea-level. On the other hand, 

the JottedaMfrcg is the largest Korw^an 

glacier, and there are many glaciers, large 

and amail, between the A.ardal8 fjord and the 

Lyster fjord, carried by the mighty mtn.- 

chain of the Horungstindeme. These deserve 

more attention than they have hitherto 

attracted. The Sogne pop. is remarkable for 

its vivacity and endurance, especially in the 

upper parte of the fjord, where the best 

mountaineers in Norway will be found. Hie 

Sogning is very independent in character, and 

has but little respect for authority. The 

houses are being improved so generally and 

rapidly that very few old buildings are 


CtoMMUNiCATiONB.— Excellent, well-provi- 
sioned mail »tr». leave Berg^en (also Stavanger) 
several times a week for the Sog^efjord, but 
they do not usually touch on the same vo^ge 
at all the stopping-places below described. 
Their principal course is from Bergen to 
LoBrdaitBrmy a point from which communi- 
cations with branch fjords are maintained by 
local strs. (Consult local time-tables and 


Route 26. — Bergen to the Sogne Fjord. 

advertisements for days and hours of sailing.) 
Posting-boats can also be used between points 
at no great distance from each other. This 
route is therefore divided into : (1) The Main 
Route, and (2) Subsidiary Routes.] 


[Distance, 230 kil. ; fare, 12.40 kr. (2nd 
cl. half-price) : return tickets (1 month) 
by the larger strs. ; time, generally about 
20 hrs.] 

After leaving the harbour of Ber- 
gen, the Btr. passes through the chan- 
nel between Askd and the mainland. 
The island is a favourite summer 
resort o|f the Bergen citizens, the 
neighbourhood of Ask and Hop being 
beautifully wooded. Continuing a 
northward course along the monoto- 
nous coast of Nordhordland, between 
rocks and small islands, the str. passes 
Eidsvaag and Bystenen (1.), and then 
Salhus (where there is a spinning- 
mill), before stopping at 

Alverstronunen (22 kil. ; 1 hr.), on 
the island of Bado. A road runs 
along this island to SsBbo, Manger, 
and Bo. On the mainland a road 
runs N. from Isdal to Seim, NsBSse 
Lindaas, and Fanebust in the Fens- 
fjord, At Seim is the grave of 
Haakon Adelstein. Leaving Bado- 
Bund, the str. enters the Lygrefjord^ 
and passes a multitude of low barren 
isolated rooks or "holms," between 
which the navigation demands con- 
siderable skill. A stoppage is some- 
times made at 

Lygren (IJ hr.) Other strs. pro- 
ceed direct through the Kjeilstrdmy a 
long narrow channel, through which 
runs a current, sometimes so rapid as 
to render the navigation very difficult. 
Issuing from this, the str. enters the 
wide opening of the Fensfjordt a con- 
siderable estuary that branches out 
to form the Ostfjord and Masfjord^ 
which are kept to the rt., the str. pro- 
ceeding N. to 

Skseijehavn (67 kil.; 3 hrs. from 
Alverstrommen), at the N. point of 
Sands. The str. next stops at 

Evenvik (74 kil.), on the Qulen- 
fjord (1 hr.) In its neighbourhood 
was held, in the middle ages, the 
Qula-Ung^ originally a popular as- 

sembly for all the districts between 
Sondmdre and Bygjarbit, which in- 
clude the modern eccles. provs. of 
Bergen and Christiansand, as well as 
HaUingdal and Yalders. A tall stone 
cross close to the Gh. is visible. 
Leaving this stat., the str. proceeds 
through the Folefot Sund, between 
Hiso and the mainland, and, passing 
in open water BingensBS and Sygne- 
fest (where the Sognefjord^ begins), 
stops at 

Lervik (104 kil.), in the BOfjord, on 
the N. side of the Sogne. To the 1. 
a view of the Lihest (2034 ft.) A 
road (without posting-stats.) runs 
from Lervik N. to Dale in the Dais- 
fjord ( Sdndfjord) . Sometimes the str. , 
instead of stopping here, makes for 
BrsBkke on the S. shore of the Sogne. 
With a stoppage (occasionally) at 
VsBrholmen, it steers for 

Lavik (119 kil.), also on the N. 
side of the fjord, and, after passing 
Trsedal, Torven, and Bjbrdal, makes 
a stoppage at 

Vadheim ^ (2 hrs. from Lavik), 
at the head of the Vadheimsfjordy a 
narrow branch penetrating N. (For 
posting hence to the SSndfjord and 
Nordfjordj see next Boute.) 

The str. next stops at 

Kirkebd, on the N. shore (1 hr.), 

Maaren (148 kil.), a pretty place 
on the same side of the fjord. Hence 
it crosses over to 

Ortnevik. High precipitous mtns. 
on each side. Hence across the mouth 
of the small Finnefjord to Gjeithns 
and sometimes to the head of the 
narrow Amefjord (171 kil.) A mtn.- 
path hence (as well as from Ortnevik) 
to Modalen. Touching on some voy- 
ages at the small Kramso, the strs. 
proceed to 

Vik # (178 kil.) (not to be con- 
founded with Vik in the Hardanger 
and in the S'6ndfjord), The stat. is at 
the mouth of a wide and fertile val- 
ley of considerable beauty, the upper 
part of which is enclosed by finely 
wooded mtn.-slopes. The Chs. at 
Hove and Hoprekstad are interest- 

Route 26. —Balhohn ; Lunden. 


[Three roads branch up valleys from Vik 
and Yiksbren (each about 11 kil.) SsQter- 
paths continue from these, one to StcUheim 
(8 hrs.), where It joins the road to Opheim 
and Viiye (Rte. 25), another direct to Viiye 
(8-9 hrs.) This also forks westward to OtU- 
hraa in EksingedcUen,'] 

On leaving Vik, the str. proceeds 
N. to 

BaUiolm^ (186 kil.) This is one of 
the prettiest places on the main fjord. 
Beautiful views (from the verandah 
and tower of the Hotel) of the ^se- 
fjords a beautiful inlet running W. 
and surrounded by the grand Munkeg, 
the Qjeiterygy Quldcehle, Furempa, 
and the Toten. 

[ExcniiSiOMS.— Numerous, to the branches 
of the fjord that run W. and N., such as 
the jEiefjord^ Svoerefjord (whence a mtn.- 
path to the SGndfjord), Vetlefjord (with the 
S. branch of the Jostedalt glacier). The mtn.- 
path from the head of the latter fjord to 
HaukedcUen is a very difficult one, and takes a 
long day's march. 

The fayourite tnp is to the 

Fjcerlandtfjordy at the upper end of which 
is Mundal (26 kil. from Balhohn). A str. runs 
up several times a week and waits long enough 
to enable passengers to view the glaciers. 
Mtns. (3935 to 5740 ft.) rise around this grand 
fjord. The finest glacier is the Boior-brce. A 
" stolkjaerre *' can be used within 3 kil. of 
it, the remainder of the way being along a 
fairly good footpath. A walk to this glacier 
and back oocupira 4 his. The S Supphelle 
glaciers can be reached almost the whole way 
(about 9 kil.) in a cart. If a conveyance be 
used to the Boiorbrce and not much time 
spent in viewing it, the other glaciers oan be 
visited at the same time and the str. caught on 
her return voyage. 

If, as is sometimes the case, the str. does 
not wait, good accommodation oan be had at 
the Mundal ffotel, and the return journey 
made by the str. next day. 

Mountaineers can obtain good guides at 
Mundal for crossing over the fjeld to JSlster 
(Skei or Aardal) in about 12 hrs. ; or Aamoi 
{stardcd) in about 16 hrs. Bopes necessary 
on latter journey.] 

On steaming E. from Balhohn, 
Tjugum ch. will be seen prettily situ- 
ated on a projecting cape. Themouth 
of the FjcBrlandsfjordiiiM be crossed, 
Vangsncbs promontory passed (to the 
rt.), and a stoppage made (by some 
strs.) at 

FejoB. The high Kvinnafos (gene- 
rally with little water) visible. From 
Fejos the main fjord is crossed to 
the beautiful Systra/ndy dotted with 

orchards. This is supposed to have 
been the scene of the Fridthjofs- 
Saga. Usually the str. proceeds 
direct from Balholm in 1 hr. to 

Lekanger ^ (193 kil.) Here the 
grand part of the Sognefjord is fairly 

The Ch. and Mansey and the resi- 
dences of the Prefect and District 
Judge enliven the scene. Some of 
the strs. go by and stop (3 kil. be- 
yond) at 

HermansvsBrk. « To the rt. 
FresTik and the Aurlands fjord will 
be seen. Many pretty trips can be 
made hence. An excursion is recom- 
mended to the Shrike mtn., from the 
summit of which (4093 ft.) a fine 
view of the Jotunneim is obtained. 
Good trout-fishhig available in the 
river and neighbouring lakes. From 
either of these stats., the str. turns 
into the Sogndalsfjord (or Norefjord)y 
passing the farm of SUnde (inhabited 
in the 13th and 14th cent.) to 

Lunden, beyond which is (1.) the 
farm of Fimreite, famous in Norwe- 
gian history in connection with the 
exploits of King Sverre and King 
Magnus. In the Sogndalsfjord was 
fought the great sea-battle in which 
Magnus was killed, 1184. 

Bound the NorencBs headland, with 
an ancient upright stone upon it, 
Ol/mei/m ch, will be seen, ajid a stop- 
page made at Fardaly a pretty place. 

Proceeding up the fjord (which 
here widens) the old wooden ch. of 
Stedje will be passed. Near it are 
some beautiful specimens of the weep- 
ing birch, for which this part of Nor- 
way is famous; also many large 
orchards. The ch. is on the site of 
a more ancient edifice, in which King 
Sverre is said to have worshipped on 
the day of the battle of Fimreite. A 
Runic stone close by records that 
" King Olaf was shot between these 
stones.*' There are also 2 large Bar- 
rows, The ch. may be visited from 
the next landing-place, 

Sogndal ^ (215 kil.) With its ch., 


Route 26. — Bergen to the Sogne Fjord. 

it stands on an old moraine, through 
which a river has forced a passage. 
Fine views obtainable from the lofty 
mtns. around, which are more or less 
easily ascended — Storhaugen (3857 
ft.), SkHJcm (4093 ft.), and Njuken 
(3190 ft.) The ascent and descent 
of the latter occupies 6 hrs. Great 
havoc was inflicted here by the " Birch 
legs "in the 12th cent, when, tra- 
dition says, they burned 100 farm- 
houses. The present gaa/rds are both 
large and numerous. The terraced 
valley of the Sogndal extends up- 
wards, in a N.E. direction, to the 
Sogndals vand, 

[KxcuRfliONS. — 1. A fine ezoursion may be 
made by the oarriole-road that runs up to the 
S. end of the Sogndals vand (II kll.), which 
is crossed in a boat (6 Ml.) to Selteng, the 
highest farm in the valley. The scenery on 
the lake (1550 ft.) is very grand. There is a 
small Sanatorium in the Ounvordal^ above the 
lake, which is dominated by noble mtns., of 
which the most remarkable, Torttadknakken^ 
is 6018 ft., and can be ascended from Torstad 
farm^ midway on the latter. At its upper end 
are the Togga (5030 ft.) and the Fruhestent 
about 16 kil. from the fjord. 

From Selseng the path leads (about 7 kil.) 
to ToftahaugstSlen in the Langedal. After 
ascending the heights here, the track is to 
the rt., over snow, into the Bergdal^ which 
runs down to the Fjasrlandsfjord (6 IdL from 

The FrudaitifyrcB^ one of the glacier outlets 
of the Jostedals ice-fjeld, will be seen on this 

2. Opposite Sogndal, where the fjord nar- 
rows considerably, is Loftemass farm, from 
which a carriole-road skirts the E. side of the 
fjord to EjorncBS, and then follows the Eid- 
Qord to Eidet, and over the hills to Katqfan- 
ger and Amble (about 7 kil.) 

3. Another carriole-road through splendid 
scenery proceeds N. from SogndfJ along a 
level track on the shore of the Sogndals fjord 
to NagWreriy at its head. The road here passes 
under an arch of rock. From Nagloren the 
road accompanies the torrent that Hows from 
the Hctfilo and Veitestrand lakes. Then the 
road ascends the Oilderflkreia by a series of 
remarkable zigzags, with the JSelvede^oi and 
Futetpranget below on the 1. To the 1. of one 
of the bends under a rock grotto is Olafs- 
kUden (Olafs Well), where pious travellers 
usually deposit a coin. The views from the 
upper parts of this road are very fine, includ- 
ing the Hafslo lake, the cultivated district of 
Hafslo, the fjord, and the Fresvikfjeld. 

Beyond Hafslo is the Veitestrands vand, a 
long narrow lake (636 ft.) stretching N. to a 
distance of 17 kil. From its N. end is a mtn.- 
road to the head of the Fjeerlands Qord. 
Those who desire to make this excursion may 
obtain accommodation at Hafslo, and must 

take a boat on the wild, rock-waUed lake of 

The carriole-road above-mentioned has 2 
branches, one (rt.) to Solvom on the Lyster 
fjord (19 kil. from Sogndal) ; the other, to 
the 1., and N., over a series of hills to Hille- 
stadt (19 kiL from Sogndal), thence, 8 kiL 
(pay for 14), to Marifjceren, on the Lyster 

Leaving Sogndal, the str. returns 
down the fjord, and crosses the Sogne 
fjord S. (in 2 hrs.) to 

ErMTik, or Frdningen (208 kil.), 
enclosed by high mti^. on the S. A 
small glaeier seen in the inner part 
of tiie fjord. The str. now proceeds 
across the mouth of the Ati/rlands- 
fjordf and stops at 

Froningen (215 kil.), on the S. 
shore of the Sogne, under the great 
BUia mtn. (6560 ft.), which is, how- 
ever, only seen later from the water. 
Grossing the fjord again, the str. 
enters a small bay in which lies 

Amble (221 kil.) Contiguous is 
Kaupanger, with a restored Sixbv ch, 
and pretty environs. It was a smaJl 
town in the middle ages. 

[The Storhaug mtn. may be easily ascended. 
It commands fine views of the Horunger 
mtns. on the N.E. A rosA leads over a hill 
to SogndalaQffiren. (See above, "SogndaL")] 

From Amble the str. ascends the 
LcBrdalsfjord to 

LfBDALSdBSN (L8Brdal)« (230 
kil.) Pop. 800. The scenery of the 
fjord is not interesting, and the ham- 
let now reached is rendered sombre 
in aspect by the high mtns. that 
encompass it. No sun shines on it 
from Sept. to April. It is spread 
over a small plain, at the mouth of a 

The inhabitants are of a quick ancT 
lively disposition, and display a spirit 
of independence for which their an- 
cestors suffered severely in 1799. 

[The L8Brdalers refused to supply the 
Danish king with soldiers, having previously 
been exempt from conscription in considera- 
tion of their maintaining a posting-service 
over the Fillefjeld and keeping the road in 
repair. A detachment of 500 men was sent 
from Christiania, and the necessary number 
of conscripts was obtained, after the leaders 
had been removed under sentences of hard 

Route 26.— The AardaU Fjord ; The Lyater Fjord, 129 

labour, and one of them decapitated at Ber- 
gen. The LsBrdal coutingent was distin- 
guished for its bravery in the wars of 1807- 

As stated at the head of this Boute, 
Lserdalsdren is an important point 
for communication with the finest 
portions of the Sogne fjord, viz. its 
branches, and also as the terminus 
(and vice versd) of the high road that 
runs to Ghristiania over the Fille- 
fjeld. (Described in Bte. 8.) The 
tourist traffic is frequently congested 
at this point, and the use of the tele- 
graph is recommended, especially in 
the case of large parties. 


[Under this head will be described fjords 
that are not usually entered by stra. on the 
main route or described on it — viz. the 
Aardal, Lyster^ Aurland, and Naerd fjord*. 
Time-tables and advertisemetUt muit he eon- 
suited at Bergen, LaerdalsSren, and other 
principal points on the Sogne. The develop- 
ment of the tourist traffic is bo rapid that it 
is impossible, at the present stage of it, to 
convey information in respect of the sailings 
and stopping {daces of strs. with an accuracy 
that would be available for more than one 

Taking LcerdalsSren as the starting-point, 
these routes will begin with the Aardal^ the 
N.E. terminal branch of the Sogne, from 
which the other fjords not yet described will 
be visited on the way back to Bergen.] 

1. The Aardals Fjobd. 

[This fjord is visited by strs. that ascend on 
the same tour the Lyster fjord, the trip to 
both fjords and back to LsBrdalsbren occupying 
about 13 hrs. Distance to Aardalttangen 30 
kil. Fare 1.60 kr. A rowing-boat wlU take 
about 6 hrs.] 

Steaming out of the Laardalsf jord, 
Vikedal (Nadviken), in the Aardals 
fjord, is reached in 1 hr. On the N. 
shore will have been seen the Bod- 
lenakken (3075 ft.) and the Brcend- 
hovdy the wooded Yire and Indre 
Offredal lying between them. Next, 
the large, lateral Seimsdal opens out, 
and then a grand amphitheatre of 
mtns. around 

Aabdalstanoen « (Aardal), where 
the Aarddla falls into the fjord. The 
hamlet lies on an old beach, now 
considerably elevated. The snow- 

[Norway—yi, 92.] 

clad Slettefjeld (4440 ft.) rises oppo- 

IBxcxjRBioss.— (1) The Aardiasvand and 
Vetti-fos (see Bte. 11). 

(2) From the YettUtoa^SJ^IdenKadFortun 
on the Lyster fjord may be reached by sleeping 
at ^ergedal sceter (5 hrs.), crossing the Hur- 
tmgeme chain to Bergen (7 hrs.), thence to 
atyolden (3 hrs.) 

(3) From the N. end of the Aardals vand, 
near J/oen, a farm crowning the farow of a 
sandhill, is a rough path leading (in 10-13 
hrs. from Aardal) down to Nystwen. on the 
Flllo-fjeld (Bte. 8). 

(4) The StdUnostind (6690 ft), among the 
Horungeme^ between Fleskedal and Morka- 
Koldedalj can be ascended (in about 7 hrs.) 
either from Veltis-morJty or the Fleskedal 
sceter. The top is very steep. 

(5) The old Aardal Copper-itorks can be 
reached from Fartues by sleeping at HolseU 
&rm, whence a walk of 3 or 4 hrs. there and 

(For details of these and other mtn. excur- 
sions from Aardal, consult Frol Nielsen's 

2. The Lysteb Fjobd. 

[Communication from LsBrdalsOren by strs. 
that enter also the Aardals fjord. Time there 
and back, for both fjords, about 13 hrs. Cds- 
tanoe to Skjolden, 53 kiL: fare, 3.80 kr.; 
and from Bergen, 267 kil. : fare, 14.30 kr.] 

After reaching the main fjord the 
str. crosses over into the magnificent 
Lysterfjord, which combines the 
grandeur due to the height of mtns. 
on both sides, and the beauty of 
fertile shores, with alluvial bays and 
strands, on which are rich and 
picturesque homesteads, surrounded 
by orchards. The water acquires a 
milky appearajice from the numerous 
glacier streams that fall into the 
fjord, and is fresh on the surface, 
while salt below. The first stoppage 
in this fjord is at 

Solvom^ (Yollakeb). The tour- 
ist who intends visiting the Jostedal 
may either land here and proceed by 
cai^iole-road to Ma/lifjcBren, or con- 
tinue on board. 

Opposite Solvorn is Umczs and its 
Stav ch. (of the 11th cent.) with re- 
markable carvings. It is weU worth 
seeing, being one of the most ancient 
in Norway. Near it are 2 large 
barrows* This is the scene of the 
story of Hagbard and Signe. Signe*» 


Route 26. — Bergen to the Sogne Fjord, 

bcfwer, and the rock where Hagbard 
rested, are still shown. Urnses can 
be reached by boat frdkn MaHfjcBren 
(see below) in IJ hr. The pretty 
Feigefos is visible. 

[There is a intn.-road hence to SupheUe teeter 
and the Fjaerlanda fjord, vid UUlettad and 
Haftlo, This is a fatiguing day's work, with 
a guide. (See " Balholm " on main Sogne 

On the E. shore of the fjord is 
Krokm, farm, anciently a mansion, 
and long held by the family of the 
late Gerhard MvmXhA^ a celebrated 
historian. CSlose to it, but not seen 
from the water, is the pretty Him- 

After passing a large wood of elms, 
and many fine farms, the str. swings 
round the base of the McXlen (3665 
ft.) into the Oaupnefjord^ N. of which 
rises the snow-clad Hesten, 

[The MoUen is best ascended (on horse- 
back) from Solvorn, for it is much steeper 
on the Marifjceren side. The view from the 
summit is magnificent, commanding the 
Homnger peaks and the snow-fjelds of the 
Jostedal, with the fjord almost perpendicu- 
larly below. A day should be allowed for 
ascent and return.] 

The next stopping-place is Mari- 
Qseren « (1 hr. from Solvom), plea- 
santly situated on the Qcmpnefjord, 
and the nearest stat. for visiting the 
magnificent Jostedal glaciers (in 1^ 
to 2 days). At the upper end of the 
Gaupnefjord is Bonnes (Bonneid), 
3 kil. beyond this stat. It can also 
be reached by boat in A an hr. 

Before exploring the glaciers a 
walk should be taken to the old 
Joranger ch.^ on a hill N.W., whence 
a fine view of the fjord and the 
Feigefos mentioned above. From 
Hundshammer farm (S.), part of the 
JostedaU-brcB is visible to the N. 

[Excursions and Journbys. 
The Jostedalt-brxB has a length of about 
96 kil., an area of 602 sq. m., and carries 
a larger amount of perpetual snow than any 
other glacier either in Norway or in any 
other part of Europe. The highest snow is 
found at an altitude of 6850 ft., while 
its lowest limit is mostly 3940 to 4590 ft. 
Extensive snow -fields also surround the 

Jostedal, at an elevation of 5575 ft., and. 
taken together, their area must be as great 
as that of the Jostedal itself, which sends out 
24 glaciers of the first rank, in the Sogne, 
the Nordfjord, and the Sbndf jord. 

To the artist, the Jostedal region affords 
numerous subjects of the grandest descrip- 
tion of Alpine scenery. The dwellings are 
few and of the poorest character. 

(1) The Jostedal. A new road now runs 
from Mar![fjfl9ren to Bonnei (Oanpne ch. to 
L), where the Jostedal, watered by a river 
of the same name, begins. It follows chiefly 
the bank of the stream, partly through woods. 
At Leirmo, the Leira^ produced by the great 
Turubergdali-brce (14 kiL long), is passed, 
after which a fiat bit of road to 

Alamo (14 kil.) The valley contracts, the 
road still running along the river, which ia 
left somewhat after passing a farm to the 
1. The stage ends at 

Bperle (13 kil., pay for 16). Grood quarters. 
A wooded height is now ascended, the spurs 
of the Vangaen (5710 ft.) and then a descent 
made to Jo^edal ch. and manse. Hence again 
an ascent past a pretty waterfall (L), and then 
down to the river, the bank of which is thus 
more or less kept. The Myrhom peaky with 
a beautiful /o« on its N. side, is visible. 

At Fagerdal a bridge spans the stream 
that rises from the Krondal glaciers. Tra- 
velers wishing to see the 3 Krondal glaciers 
(or Bersetbroer) must climb up the heights 
to the 1. From Kronen farm, in this vaUey, 
the glaciers can be crossed in 12 hrs. to Loeti 

This passage was first effected by Nor- 
wegian soldiers in 18 1 5, and was not a ttempted 
again until 1880, when Mr. Trotter, an Alpine 
climber, repeated the feat successfully. 

Some way beyond, the Nigarsdal opens to 
the L In it the Nigars-brce exhibits its en- 
tire length. Its course, formerly computed 
at 6| kil., has considerably lengthened during 
the present cent. Its breadth has been es- 
timated at about 1000 yds. 

Hence, without going round the Nigar or 
the iOWoeer, the Jostedal river is crossed to its 
1. bank by a bridge, the glacier being kept in 
sight. Ascending a steep road, the valley 
will be seen to open out, the Fcegerdal, wl^th 
a pretty waterfall, being viewed to the rt. 
The end of the stage is at 

Faaberg {Nedre Faaberg) (19 kil. ; 2\ hrs. 
from Jostedal ch.), where quarters, and a 
guide for further journeys, are obtainabla 

(2) Bkiaker (between Gudbrandsdal and 
the Geiranger fjord) can be reached in 
16 hrs. from Faciberg (see above), where a 
mtn.-way leads to Oleaseter in Stordalen 
(11 kil.) Thenoe a tolerably good path runs 
to Handapprie (15 kiL), down to JCysebyt 
sseter (10 kiL), and to a carriageable road (17 
kil. distant)by which ITdrk in Braaten (8 kiL) 
is reached. The'^Ornesteg glacier is passed on 
this journey, and the Lodals-brce^ one of the 
largest in Scandinavia, seen in the Stordal. 

(3) Other great glaciers between the Joste- 
dal and the Nord and SSnd fjords, more accessi- 
ble from the latter, will be mentioned in a 
subsequent route. 

(4) A favourite and pleasant trip is from 

Route 26.—Skjolden J The Aurlandsfjord. 131 

Maxifjseren to Sog^dal (or vice versd\ pick- 
ing up- the str. at either end. The drive 
across occupies 5 hrs., horses being changed 
halfway at Hillestad, where there is good 
trout- fishing. '\ 

From MarmsBren the str. crosses 
the mouth of the Oaupnefjord to 
KsBB ch. On the opposite side of 
the fjord is the Feigefos already men- 
tioned. After rounding Fagernaes, 
and passing farms with large or- 
chards, a stoppage is made at 

Bosen (8 kil. from Marifjaeren), 
from which also is a good road (12 kil.) 
The Ch, here {Dale), although a poor- 
looking edifice, is the parish ch. of 
the Lyster fjord. Its W. door is 

[A narrow valley, shut in by a steep wall 
of rock, runs inland from Dbsen. A track 
through it leads over the Storhaug (2600 ft.) 
and to the JostedcU^ at Myklemyr farm, near 
Sperle (posting-stat, ; see above); distant 
about 28 kil. from Dbsen.] 

Passing on the rt. Skv/rvenosi and 
the small MordalsfoSy the str. reaches 
the N. end of the fjord (7 kil. from 
D5sen) at 

Skjolden, at the mouth of the 
Fortun river. The posting-stat. is 
close to the pier (at Eide), where 
good quarters are provided by T, 
Suhlemif an excellent guide, being in 
fact one of the best mountaineers in 
Norway. He made with Mr. Slingsby 
the first ascent of the SkagesWlstind 
and other great peaks of the Jotun 
mtns. Below the stat. there is ex- 
cellent sea-trout fishing (in river 
and lake), the fish running up to 
15 lbs. 

[The narrow Aforkereidal ascends to the 1., 
sheltering many farms. A mtn.-path leads 
up to the Skiaker mtns. in Gudbrandsdalen 
and to the western part of the valleys of the 

The Fortundal is very grand. A road (8 
kil.) runs to Fortun ch. and, beyond, to 
Fortun. A track hence to the FortungcUder. 
Near Turtegro (sleeping accommodation), 
reached by road from Fortun (10 kil.), mag- 
nificent views are obtainable from several 
heights, and the great Skagestdlstind peak 
(7721 ft.) may be easily ascended thence. 
The grandest view of the Horungerne is from 
the Dyrhaugstind (6362 ft.), which lies in 

the centre of that mtn.-group. It can be 
climbed from Fortun. Ascent difficult, but 
not dangerous (Bte. 11). 

Berdals 88Bter(with a tourist hut), between 
Fortun and Aardal (see (1) the "Aardalsf jord"), 
is also a good centre for an exploration of the 

From Eide {Skjolden) it is a day's walk 
over the Reiser pass to Skogadalsbden, a tour- 
ist hut in Utladalen, Western Jotunheim (see 
Rte. 11). 

Rdiseim in Lorn (Gudbrandsdalen), a dis- 
tance of 66 kiL, can be reached from Fortun 
in 2 days (horse 20 kr.), sleeping at Bceverthun 
sceteTf at the W. end of thje lake of the same 
name. Plain and limited accommodation 
(see Bte. 11).] 

From Skjolden the str. takes either 
a direct course back to LsBrdalsoren, 
or first ascends the Aardalsfjord, 
already described. 

3. The Aurlandsfjord and 


[Prom LaBrdalsbren (and vice versd) almost 
daily communication by str. with Oudvangen 
in the Naerbf jord, in 4 hrs. ; fare, 3 kr, 
Bergen to Gudvangen, 237 kil.; fare, 
12.80 kr.] 

As far as Fronningen, the course of 
the str. from Lssrdalsoren is the same 
as that of the main route (which 
consult). A little beyond, it turns 
into the Aurlandsfjord, broad and 
monotonous at its mouth. .The mtns. 
soon, however, begin to rise to a 
great height on either hand, with 
sides so precipitous as to admit of no 
human habitation. Below BreisncBs 
the fjord bifurcates and forms on the 
W. the NcerU (Ncereims) fjord. Bor- 
dered by stupendous, partly perpen- 
dicular cliffs that rise to 3300-5600 
ft., it is the grandest branch of the 
Sogne, if not the finest of all Nor- 
wegian fjords. The Steganosi, on 
the E. side (which separate the 2 
arms, and are the highest and steep- 
est), rise to 5660 ft. The colossal 
dimensions of the physical features 
of this fjord impress the traveller as 
much as they baffle adequate descrip- 
tion within the limits of a handbook. 
The waterfalls, seen here and there, 
are dwarfed into insignificance by the 
mtns. they descend. At the upper 
part of the fjord is Dyrdal (rt.), at 



Route 27. — Vddheim to the Sondfjord. 

the mouth of whioh a high mtn.-top 
comes in sight, with a small hole, 
through which daylight appears for 
a couple of minutes when viewed 
from the deck of the str. Passing 
what remains (after a landsUp) of 
Styve farm, Bakke ch. will be reached 
on the rt. With a magnificent view 
of the mtns. in front, the traveller is ^ 
soon landed at 

OndyaBgen. « (For communioa- 
tions overland, consult Bte. 25 in a 
reverse direction.) Even if not pro- 
ceeding to Vossevangen, Bergen, or 
the Hardanger, travellers must not 
fail to drive to Stalheim (12 kil.) and 

In order to reach Aurlandsvangen 
in the upper part of Aurlandsfjord, 
the str. descends (in 1^ hr.) the 
Nserofjord, and, rounding the Beiteln 
promontory, enters the twin fjord. 
On the E. side will be seen farms 
perched on places apparently inac- 
cessible, while on the W. shore is 
Stegadn farm, from which it is ex- 
tremely difficult to carry the bodies 
of the dead. While somewhat broader 
at its head, the Aurland has many of 
the grand features of the Nserdfjord. 
Crossing the mouth of the pretty 
UnderM, the str. soon stops at 

Aurlandsvangen {good quarters) ^ at 
the mouth of the Aurland river j which 
runs down from the Hallingdal mtns. 
Sea-trout fishing good. 

[There is a mtn.-track henoe to ffol in 
Hallingdal (about 2i days' tramp). It oom- 
mends itself to the admirers of grand mtn. 
scenery. A shorter, but also interesting, tour 
is from Aurland ch. to ToT^m eh. in the Leer- 
dal (li day), passing under the Modnenipa to 
Hodnedai sceter. A fine view of the Horunge 
peaks is obtained on this excursion. 

TTlvik in the Hardanger fjord can be 
reached hence in 2 days (sleeping at a aceter), 
although in 1882 Prof. Nielsen crossed over 
in less than 1 day. It is hard work, but 
highly Interesting. A boat is first taken to 
Fretteim at the mouth of the Fkumudaly 
the Ch. of that name being reached thence in 
about I hr.,andin about 3 hrs. Melhiu, in a very 
narrow vaQey, with little sunshine towards 
the end of Aug. (Here a guide to Ote or 
Uloik can be engaged.) The next place, in 
I hr., is Kaardal (a large waterfaU), whence 
Ose (in the Hardanger) can be reached in 

hrs., and, from 0»e, a boat will take the 

traveller in 1^ hr. to Ulvik. The tele^lrapli- 
poles are generally followed. In 2^ hia. more 
the pedestrian reaches Gravehalten^ wliejre 
there is a small hut (for the telegraph ser- 
vants) and a lake, genendly covered with 
ice. Passing 2 stone heaps that mark the 
track, a walk of another hour ends at Opaet- 
■tolene, whence Vossevangen is acoessible by 
a track about 45 kil. in length. If the pedes- 
trian proceeds direct to Ulvik, his stages 
will be : Slondalscetre (about 2 hrs.) ; JPcuhSi- 
den (4000 ft.) ; SoUivand (2^ hrs.) ; andthence 
}n 1^ hr. to TJlvik.] 

ROUTE 27. 


(By road.) 

[This is one of the most interesting inland 
trips in Norway, leading to Molde^ and afford- 
ing many opportunities of viewing glaoiera 
and the most beautiful soeneiy. 

For means of reaching the SogneQord, 
consult the 2 previous Boutes. Str8.froni 
Bergen stop at v adhelm several limes weekly. 
Time, 8J to 10 hrs. ; fare, 7.60 kr. Although 
some of the posting-stats, are not "fai^** 
yet there is seldom difficulty in inroonring 
horses. It is advisable to secure one of Ben- 
nett's conveyances at a small extra charge.] 

Vadheim. « (See previous Boute.) 
The posting-road runs along the 1. 
bank of the river ; the first part of it 
being subjected to the rolling down 
of stones, has therefore to be passed 
quickly. It improves as the valley 
widens, and after crossing to the rt. 
bank returns to the 1., passing 2 
small lakes. From N. the road now 
turns westward through a pine-wood, 
and reaches a small height from 
which HcHmedal ch, is seen in a 
lateral valley, in which the GauXa is 
crossed, ^e stage ends at Sanda 


Route 27. — Langeland ; Hafstad ; Egge. 133 

(15 kil.) Excellent quarters. Good 
laJce> Urout-fishmg free of charge^ 

[A road runs henoe to Osm and Sveen (14 
kil.) Another leads B. to the Viknand 
(7 Ml.) and the Svaereskoi.'] 

A hilly drive, in beautiful scenery, 
now ends in a steep ascent to 

Langeland (11 kil., pay for 14). 
Poor quarters. Thence by very steep 
road, through grand scenery, over a 
watershed (1150 ft.) to 

Hafstad i Forde (11 kil., pay for 14 
southwards). First-rate quarters at 
the head of the F&rde fjord (Sond- 
fjobd), where a fine stream, affording 
excellent fishing^ debouches. (Str. 
hence to Bergen.) 

From Hafstad the new road turns 
E. up a beautiful valley, along the 
river, without crossing it. Steep in 
this direction, it runs past pretty 
white homesteads that have a well- 
to-do appearance. After about 6 kil. 
the Movand is skirted, and then 
crossed at its narrowest part. At its 
N.E. end is Mo fa/rmy near which is 
the small but perpendicular Huldre- 
fo9k Beyond, the drive is through a 
forest to the S.W. end of the large 
mtn.-girt Jblstervandt on the shore 
of which is 

Nedre Vassenden i Jolster ^ (19 
kiL) Small sirs, run several times a 
da^ to 

Skei ^ (dvre Vassenden), at the 
N.E. end of the lake, in 2 hrs. Close 
to the inn is & very good trovi stream, 

[A track runs from the vicinity of Mo farm 
to the ffauMandvand, from which are several 
interestittg pedestrian tours.] 

From Hedre 'Vassenden a good road 
runs along the Jolster lake, past 
c7oZ«^e9^and Hglgeim chs. To the 1. 
of the latter is seen the great Limde^ 
brcs, an oflshoofe of the Jostedals- 
brw, which can be crossed hence^ 
The most intevesting part of the road 
begins before reaching the stat. of 

Aardal (16 kiL) Good quarters. 

[A mtn.-path rnns hence (from the other 
side of Xdlster lake) to Haukedalen, Tolerable 
quarters at Reinaa farm on the TS. shore of 
the Haukedalsmnd. There is a zigsag carriole 
road from the lower end of the lake to Sanda 
(20 kil.), round Viksvcmd lake. It is shorter 
to cross the latter (15 kil.), and the distance is 
only 6 kiL from the S. end of the Vikwand 
to SandBh along a river with many pretty 

From Aardal the road runs to 
dvre Vassenden » or Skeiy the old 
stat. at the N.E. end of the Jolster- 
vand, to which the strs. run (see 
above). A low watershed is next 
passed, and a small lake, which dis- 
charges its waters into the Skrede- 
vand rN.) Boad more hilly. To the 
rt. will be seen opening out the 

[At about 10 kil. from Aardal, a carriole 
road (14 Ml.) runs up the Stardal to Olden^ at 
the head of the Nordfjordy past Aamot^ whence 
in 4^ hrs. on foot a height is reached from 
which a splendid view of the mtna. is ob- 
tained. The tracks divide here, the one to 
the rt. being the most easily descended, but 
not so favourable for views as the other, 
which crosses the river. A guide is absolutely 
necessary for the descent to MGkleboUy whence 
3 kil. to Eustden, at the upper end of the 
Olden vand. 

The old posting-road, on which the scenery 
is fine, runs oft to the ]., along the river that 
flows out of the Skredevandy past F&rde (16 
kil.), and Re (12 kil.) A road is in construc- 
tion from Re to Voitenden (6 kiL), and to 
Sandene (6 kiL) on the Olopp^jard.] 

The new posting-road turns off 

Elageg stat. (13 kil.) into 'the 
Vaatedal, passing Strand. Scenery 
grand. The beautiful Eggembha f jeld 
right in front. The stage ends 

Bggre^* (9 kil.) The river is now 
crossed, and Moldestad (whence there 
is a beautiful road of 5 kil. to Re) 
passed. The road ascends to the 
ridge between Breimi and Utviken, 
opening fine views of the Eggembha 
and the Vaatedal. On reaching an 
altitude of 2230 ft. the road runs 
over a bare and wild fjeld. Soon 
will be seen below the fjord, sur- 
rounded by mtns. of grand aspect, 
although not many exceed 2300 ft. 


Route 28. — Faldde to Hettesylt^ 

The descent is at first steep, but a 
new road is soon reaohed which, 
with many windings, and offering 
charming views of the beautiful 
fjord, brings the traveller with more 
ease to 

VJEBLO in Utvlken (26 kil.), beau- 
tifully situated on the S. shore of the 
Indvikfjordj a prolongation of the 
Nordfjord and the Utfjord, 

[For communication with Bergen by str. 
see Rte. 29. The next Boute describes the 
section of the journey to Molde.] 

ROUTE 28. 


(By road.) 

[For communication by str. with Bergen, 
see next Boute and foregoing Boute for road 
between the Sogne and Nord fjords. 

If no str. be available, a boat takes the 
traveller across the Indviifjord to Faleide in 
1^2 hrs. Charge for a boat with 2 rowers 
2.26 kr., 3 rowers 3.41 kr., 4 rowers 4.51 kr., 
and a gratuity of 30 o. to each boatman.] 

Faleide ^ (Faleidet), 11 kil. from 
Vflerlo, and on the opposite (N.) shore 
of the Indvikfjord, This is deser- 
vedly a much-frequented place, for 
its position is very beautiful, and it 
offers facilities for excursions to neigh- 
bouring hiaacheB oiiheJostedals-brcB, 
To the E. a splendid mtn. perspec- 

[Excursions.— (1) The Skantenfjeld (5473 
ft.) can be ascended hence by way of Algjel in 
about 8 hrs. 

(2) The Aareim0eldf in Strpn, vi&Bakey in 
7 hrs. 

(3) The Olittereggen, on the Horningsdal 
vand — (a) by driving to JSJ&s (12 kil.) and 
rowing to Holmo (6 kil.) ; and (&) by way 
of Rddbergy BlaJcsceter, and Bceversceternakien ; 

(4) The Strpn (Opstryn\ Loettj and Olden 
lakes are, severally 1 day's excursion. If the 
weather should be unfavourable for returning 
across the fjord, good hotels will be found at 
VitnceSy Loen^ and Olden. A small str. xxms 
occasionally between Faleide^ Visnces, Loen, 
Olden, and Vcerlo {Utvik). 

(6) The Strynsvand to Grjotll This is 
one of the finest mtn.-tourB in Norway. It has 
hitherto taken about 10 hrs. (on foot, by 
water, and by horse) ; but a good road all the 
way win soon be ready, when a new and fuller 
description of the tour will be necessary. 

The Strymtand (Opstryn) is a splen^didlake, 
16 kil. long, on which a str. plies to Hjelle, at 
its S.E. end, whence a road, partly constructed, 
runs N.B. in the direction of Grjotli, on the 
posting-road between Gudbrandsdal and the 
Oeiranger fjordy described in Btes. 12 and 31. 

At Hjelle, where the grand snow-clad mtns. 
of the OreidungsdcU will be seen, a carriole 
can be engaged (1.25 kr.) for the drive to 
Skaare (9 kiL), through the splendid Hjelledal, 
from the rt. of which branches off the 
Sundal valley. Hence, the deep ravine of the 
SkjceringdaU-elv will be crossed and the foot 
of the Aaspelifjeld ascended by curves, in 
magnificent scenery. The stage (about 12 
kil.) ends at Via Sceter. The road then runs 
along the Videdal river, which rushes down, 
partly in fine falls, to the Strynsvand, which, 
on looking back, is seen from here in all its 
grandeur. The river is crossed twice again 
before reaching a lake, on the Tystig heights 
above which snow often lies in Aug. 
After passing another lake a narrow valley 
is descended to a level part of the road, with 
2 smaD lakes to the rt. The Vasvendal is now 
entered, Raueggen peak being on the rt. and 
Vawendaleggen on the L To the rt. opens out 
the Maaraadal with glaciers in the back- 
ground. The Heilstuguvand is next skirted 
for a considerable distance, the Skridulaup 
towering over it. Descending the L bank of 
the Maaraa elv and crossing a bridge over 
the Ottay the road (already maide to this point) 
leads (3 kil.) to Grjotli.1 

The road now to be travelled runs 
S., steeply at first, through a pine- 
forest (with a view of the fjord) to- 
wards a fjeldy of which the highest 
point is 840 ft., and then descends 
towards, and crosses, a river. To the 
1. a bad road branches off to Oiene 
farm, from which VisncBS can be 
reached in about 3^ hrs. The main 
road soon descends to Kjdsbundeny a 
small branch of the Hommdals 
vandj and continues along it to 

Ejos (12 kil., pay for 17). A boat 
can be taken here to the next stat. 
The scenery on the road continues to 
be very wUd, and of great beauty and 
grandeur, during this and the 4 sub- 
sequent stages, the first of which is 

Route 28. — Ghrodaas ; KjelstadU; HdlesyU, 135 

OrodaaB^ (6 kil., pay for 8). 
Beautiful view of the mtn.-girt Horn- 
indal lake, which is 26 kil. long, 
1590 ft. deep, and 22 Eng. sq. m. in 

[A small str. runs on it to Nor (in 3| hrs. ; 
fare, 1.50 kr.), whence there is a road (9 kil.) 
to Nordfjordeidet, There are mtn.-paths from 

1. Stryn^ yi& Grdthauglietiy the Smaaskar, 
and the Togning taeter (3 hrs.) 

2. SdndmSre, yi& Kviven (about 5 hrs.) 

3. BjOrke, on the BjSrendfjordy over the 
FtusentU (6^ hrs.), a trip of great beauty 
and grandeur, affording easy ascents of many 

The road hence keeps close to the 
Homindal river, passing the Ch. 
and Ma/nse of that name. Grossing 
the river and ascending steadily, 
partly through woods, its next stage 
is at 

Indre Haugen (11 kil., pay for 9 
kil. in reverse direction). The stat. 
lies under the shadow of Homindals- 
rokken (5300 ft.), crowning one of 
the finest precipices in Norway, but 
better seen on the next stage. It 
was ascended in 1866, with a guide, 
by Mr. J. B. Campbell, in 10 hrs. 
there and back. 

IStryn can be reached hence by a mtn.- 
path in about 4 hr&] 

Hence, the aspect of the country 
becomes wilder : the predpioe above 
mentioned is seen to the 1. at the 
head of a valley, the river from which 
is crossed. Beyond, the BiH'htis- 
mhha, another remarkable mtn., is 
sighted to the rt. Grossing the boun- 
dary of the prefect, of Bomsdalen 
and entering the SUndmtire district, 
the steep ascent ends at 

^eUtadU (6 kil.) The Homina' 
dalsrok can be ascended hence in 6 
hrs. up and down. The road now 
runs down the 1. bank of a tributary 
of the Surme elv^ Biirhiisddlen heiag 
kepi to the rt., while the wild Kjel- 
staddal will be on the 1. after crossing 
the stream. Tronstad, formerly a 
posting-stat., and a small river, will 
be passed before the rt. bank of the 
main stream is again attained. The 

traveller is now in the Langedal^ and 
ascends a hill from which the Nibbe- 
dai is seen to the 1. and later entered. 
From this point a cross-foad leads to 
Aalesund, vid the Norangsdal and 
die and Scebift through a picturesque 
paxt of the country ; the mtn. scenery 
repaying the trouble of its explora- 

The road, running once more along 
the 1. bank of the river, sinks gradu- 
ally from Langeland farm, beyond 
which is the Sveabro, The fjord 
opens out more and more, and to tht 
1. is the river that issues from the 
MoldskreddcU. After passing a narrow 
ravine, the road descends in many 
long windings and over a fine Waterfall 
by which the river discharges itself 
into the Geiranger fjord. Winding 
at last past a C^., it terminates 

HELLESYLT^ (13 kil.), situated 
in the neighbourhood of magnificent 
scenery, at the head of the StmelvB- 
fjordj an arm of the Storfjord^ which 
is one of the grandest in Norway. 
This is a pleasant place to stop at 
for 2 or 3 days, or longer, as it is 
surrounded on all sides by singu- 
larly wild scenery, affording abundant 
ground for the mountaineer. 

Beyond the hamlet is a wild valley , 
and immediately in front is the fjord, 
with the Ljbfjeld to the rt. and the 
entrance to the Oevranger fjord to 

[There is almost daily str. communication 
with Aalesund and Moltie (see next Boute), 
and also with Maraak {MenA) in the Q«ir- 
anger fjord (see below).] 

[BxcuBSiONS.— Amongst the finest are : 

1. To Karaak.* When the Aalesund str. 
is not available for this trip of 21 kil. (time 
li hr. ; fare 1.10 kr.), and if travellers do not 
get the small str. which may be hired for the 
purpose, a boat should be engaged. The 
charge is 13 kr. there and back with 3 
rowers, who will take about 31 hrs. to reach 
Maraak. The grand scenery of the Qeiranger 
is better viewed from a boat than from the 
str. (For description of the fjord, see Bte. 

3. DHve (24 kil.) or walk (6 hrs.) to Oie In 
the Norangtfjord. Ascending by a poor road 
the Nibbedal,Fivelsiadhaugen* (or Nibbedals- 

136 Bouie 29. — Bergen to the Sondfjord and Nordfjord. 

haagen) (10 kil.) is reached on an old moraine. 
Beyond, to the 1., is a small glacier on the 
top of KvUeggen (6625 ft.) Crossing the 
watershed (1216 ft.), the road runs down into 
the Noreatgidai, by the side, first, of 2 small 
lakes. SsBters will be seen built between 
rocks for protection against the stones that 
frequently roll down the valley sides, some- 
times killing cows and sheep. The glen 
contracts more and more, and its character 
becomes gloomily wild, Masses of snow that 
never thaw lie in it, the sun being unable to 
reach them. VoUowing the rirer, and meet- 
ing with a waterfall to the rt., the traveller 
comes to a broader and less wild part of the 
valley. The mtns. increase in height {Skru- 
ten rising to 6380 ft.) Farms reappear, and, 
crossing a bridge and an old moraine, the 
traveller reaches 

Oie,* grandly situated on the Norangs- 
fjord* The StandaUkorn stands out promi- 
nently aigtong the mtns. 

Prom Oie travellers can reach Orstenviken 
on the Orsten flord and Volden on the fjord 
of that name. A boat is taken to the HjSrend- 
fjordj across to Mj6fendfjord eh. at SoebOvikeny 
in a small bav on the W. side of the fjord, 
where the boat will be left at Rue (10 kil. from 
Oie). Good quarters in the house of the 
Lensmand. Here opens to the W. the broad 
and pretty BoruM, up which is an easy day's 
walk to Volden or Orsten. The Kolaastind 
will be seen on the way, before reaching a 
height surrounded by bogs. To the .1. is a 
tarn, to the rt. a valley, leading to Orsten- 
viken. To the rt. a road runs a short distance 
up the Bjbrdal. Splendid view of peaks. 
This point can be reached on foot from Rise 
in 2^ hrs. The road sinks again until it ap- 
proaches Vatne (20 kil., when driving pay for 
25 kil.) Hence the road runs along the E. 
side of the Vatneoand, at the N.E. end of 
which ^t bifurcates, the one on the L being 
new. Orstenviken is 10 kil. hence, over the 
KlGvdalseid. The Kolaastind and other peaks 
stand out pronainently on this lM<anch xoad^ 
which is prettier than the one through the 
Bondal. The, end of the journey is reached 
at Rosset i Volden* (13 kil.; about 9 hrs. walk 
tTom Rise. The distance from Bosset to 
brstensviken by road is 11 kil.) 

3. The D5ne fas and FrSjsefos, on the road 
to the Strynsvand, can be visited, there and 
back, in 3 hrs., bv driving. The former of 
these has a sheer xall of 150 ft. By crossing a 
bridge the best view of it is obtained. 

4. KvUteggen mtn. (mentioned under 2) can 
be ascended from Hellesylt in 7 hrs., there 
and back. 

5. A row to the Lysurdals elv (6 hrs. there 
and back) gives a full view of the magnificent 
Geiranger ^ord, up to Maraak (see 1).] 

ROUTE 29. 


(By str.) 

[Consult time-tables for strs. from Bergen, 
and local str. from Florb and SeBtrenaes. 

Prom Bergen : To Fdrde {SQndfjord) 186 
kiL ; 22 hrs. ; fare, 10 kr. To Bryggen (Nbrd- 
Jjord) 308 kil. ; 24 hrs. ; 11.20 kr. To Faleide 
iNordfjmrd) 275 kil.; 34 hrs.; 14.80 kr. To 
Oldifren (.Olden) 289 kil. ; 35 hrs. ; 15.60 kr. 

The principal general stopping-places are 
mentioned in this Route, but other points are 
frequently touched at.] 

Steering from Bergen the same 
course as when bound for the Sogne- 
fjord (Bte. 26), with variations as to 
stopping-places, the strs. on this 
Bonte touch at 

SkjsBijehAvn (67 Ml.) The mouth 
of the Sognef jord is next crossed, and 
a stoppage made at 

Indre Steinsond, dose to which is 
Bvlen oh. Betuming along the N. 
coast of the Sognestjdt a stat. is 
reached at 

Naara, at the southernmost point 
of Yire StUen, 

From this point the steamship 
routes for the Sondfjord and the 
Nordfjord must be given separately. 

A. The SoNDFJOBD. — Strs. on the 
SlSndfjord line proceed S. of Sulen to 
Kraakhellesvnd, between Indre Sulen 
and Losneden, while those bound for 
the Ntjrdfford steer from Naara and 
Indre Steinsund, between islands, up 
to the Laagdfford {where the sea can 
be rough), and to Boskden, on the S. 
side of the 8filen islands. Some of 

Route 29. — Dale ; Kalvaag ; SceirencBt. 


the sirs, stop at SSrbdvaag or VcerG. 
In the vicinity will be seen Alden 
island, with mtns. (Norshe HesteUy or 
"Horse") 1655 ft. high, rising per- 
pendicularly out of the water. Gene- 
rally the strs. steer from Buskoen 
out into the open Bvfjord (Aspo- 
fjord) to 

FrsBBtden (119 kil.), in the 8aue- 
swndy between the mainland and 
AtlQefij where Askevold ch. will be 

Strs. proceeding only to the Sdnd- 
fjord ascend the DaUfjord to 

StrdTrmcBSi whence the Flekke- 
fjord runs up to the long Ovddal. 
{Trout-fishing in its many lakes.) 
Their next stopping-place is 

Bale, on the S. side of the fjord, 
ajbong which are mtns. up to about 
4600 ft. The isolated Dalshest peak 
(2330 ft.), right opposite, will attract 
the attention of the traveller, as will 
also the Krmglen peak (about 100 ft. 
more). Higher up will be seen the 
Laukelandshestf with a waterfall of 
the same name (about 300 ft. high), 
and the Kvamhest (4395 ft.) Hence 
the course is to 

Sveen (148 kil.) Here the str. stops, 
and travellers can disembark and 
drive vid Langeland to Fdrde and 
there join Bte. 27. Osen and the 
beautiful Osfos are only 1 kil. distant 
from Sveen, from which a road runs 
also to Sanda and the Viksvand (see 
Bte. 27). 

Returning to FrsBBtoen and the 
Sauesund, the str. makes a stoppage 
at Ynnestad^ after which her course 
is directed to an island with the 
small port of 

FL0B5« (156 kil.) (700 inhabi- 
tants). After proceeding thence to 
SvanS, the str. turns into the F&rdey 
a fjord parallel with the Dalsfjord, 
but wilder in character. The stats, 
in it are: Svartevikholm, Tingnsss, 
Eryik, and Nanstdal, whence the 
Hyenfjord (40 kil.) can be reached. 
Ascending to the head of the fjord, 
the str. stops at 

Fdrde ^ (185^ kil.) (See Bte. 27.) 

B. The NoRDPJOBD. — On this voy- 

age, when made specially to the Nord- 
f jord, the strs. generally proceed from 
Pr»st6en to Flor6, without stopping at 
the places mentioned under A. From 
Floro their course is inside large and 
high islands and across the open 
Frdi fjord ix) 

Sftlvaag, on the S. side of Breman- 
gerlandet island. The coast becomes 
wild and grand, and the mtns. increase 
in height. Islands and rocks, form- 
ing a natural breakwater, enable the 
traveller to admire it without any 
nautical discomfort. Occasionally a 
glimpse is caught of the Qjegnalunds- 
&r<s, a large glacier that will be no- 
ticed farther on. Among the out- 
lying islands, that of Kmn, with its 
old Ch, under the mtn.-side (pierced 
by holes mentioned in the Sun- 
nival legend), is the most remark- 
able. On its northward course the 
str. doubles the steep sides of Homelen 
(3000 ft.) and, entering ther/Sfeates^rd^, 
reaches, after passing several islands, 

SaetrensBB (200 kil.), which is a 
little out of the main course and is 
situatedonFo^grsfi (2300 ft.) Moldden 
lies between this stat. and the main- 
land. Hence the course of the str. is 
retraced for a short distance and, 
becoming easterly, leads to Bugsund, 
on an island at the mouth of the 
great estuary commonly called the 
Nordfjordf on the N. side of which a 
stoppage is made at 

Bryggen (208 kil.), whence a road 
(20 kil») runs over the Mcmrstadeid 
(2300 ft.) to Aaheim, on the Vami' 
elvsfjord in Sondmdre. 

[An interesting excursion can be made 
across the mtns. between Mold&en and Bryg- 

The fjord is next orossed to 

Daviken. Bounding the small Svar- 
tekaH mtn., the str. proceeds to 

DombeBten, on the S. shore, and 
thence over to 

Staareim, in a pleasant-looking and 
well-cultivated neighbourhood. Fol- 
lowing the coast, the str. next stops 

NauBtdal, on a branch of the fjord 
that runs up to Nordf jordeidet, where 


Route 30. — Bergen to Molde. 

a road from Volden over BjGrkedals- 
eidet comes down and runs on to 

NordQordeidet. There are 2 an- 
cient upright stones at Staareim. The 
head and central point of the Nord- 
fjord (here locally called the Eids- 
fjord) is reached at 

NordQordeidet^ (237 kil. from 
Bergen). A road runs hence to the 
Homindals lake (see Rte. 28), the 
river issuing from which falls here 
into the fjord. Returning from this 
stat. the str. proceeds round Havnnces, 
and, passing the mouth of the Aalfoten 
fjords stops at 

Alsvik, where a beautiful view is 
obtained. To the S. is the wild and 
grand Skeishestt part of the great 
Qjegnalund f jeld, which carries on its 
summit (5660 ft.) the huge 

OjegnalundsbrsB, a glacier that has 
so far been little explored. From it 
rushes down to the fjord, in perpen- 
dicular leaps, the 6ksendals-elv. On 
a summer night the scenery is quite 
weird : many waterfalls, although not 
rich in volume, give a special interest 
to it. The str. next stops at 

HestexuBsdren, where the wild and 
narrow Hyenfjord runs in to the S. 
between mtns. which rise, in some 
places almost perpendicularly, to 
4430 ft. The Skjcerdah a wild glen, 
can be visited from this stat. Bound- 
ing KvitencRSi the interesting Qloppe- 
fjord is next entered. Among the 
mtns. that border it on the W., to a 
height in some cases of 4835 ft., are 
the Skeishestt the Bysvasshomt and 
the Eikenehest. At its head is 

Sandene (260 kil.), whence a road 
runs to Breum (Breaheim) and Be 
(see Bte. 27), in connection with a 
road to the next stat., 

Bysfjaeren. Hence the mtns. be- 
come lower (a maximum of 3600 
ft.), and the scenery and its colour- 
ing more pleasant. Coasting along 
the wooded N. side of the fjord, 
past farms perched on considerable 
heights, the str. crosses to 

Utviken * ( Vcarlo) (267 kil.) (see 
Bte. 27). Thence it proceeds to 

Indyiken, where a valley leads up 
to the CecUiekrone (5820 ft.) The 

shores of the fjord are here exceed- 
ingly pretty, the hanging birches, es- 
pecially numerous, adding greatly to 
the beauty of the scenery. The str. 
next crosses to 

Faleide^ (275 kil.) (see Bte. 28), 
and then, rounding the HestGra, to 

Visnaes 1 Stryn« (280 kil.) (see 
Bte. 28 for Excursions and Comntu- 
fdcations). The Kirkenibba can be 
ascended hence (7 hrs.), and the Gad- 
brandsdal and the Jostedal reached 
over the mtns. Olden and Loen are 
sometimes touched at before proceed- 
ing to VisnsBs. Steering up the fjord, 
which is decked with the hanging 
birch, the str. stops at 

Oldoren (289 kil.), and then Lobren. 
At the head of the fjord are the 3 
interesting glacier-valleys of Stryn, 
Loen, and Olden, ^ all within reach 
of the uppermost stat. (see Bte. 
27). The enterprising explorer is re- 
commended to consult Prof. Nielsen's 
Beisehaandbog for details. 

EOUTB 30. 


(By Str.) 

[TMb iB a section of the great ooasting- 
ronte between Bergen and Ttondhjem, and 
the communications on it are ahnost daily 
from Bergen by large mail strs. or smaller 
vessels, of wliich some are for local service. 
The distances are : To AcUesund 312 klL (time 
24 hrs. ; fare 16.80 kr.) ; from Aalesund to 
Moldey 89 kil. (time 6 hrs. ; fare 3.60 kr.) Be- 
tween Bergen and Trondhjem the distance is 
594 kil. (time 48 hrs. ; fare 32 kr.) Retnm 
tickets are issued on the mail strs., and -re- 
ductions made in the case of families. (Con- 
sult local time-tables and advertisements.)] 

The first part of the voyage coin- 
cides with the course taken by the 

Route 30. — 8<jetren<B8 ; Aalemnd. 


sirs, that proceed to the Sogne^ SOndy 
and Nord fjords, described in the 
routes immediately preceding. The 
larger strs., however, when bound 
for Trondhjem, do not ascend the 
inner fjords, and altogether the stop- 
ping stats, are liable to much varia- 
tion. After passing Floro and the 
Stahhene lighthouse, the main and 
the local fjord routes diverge at 

SsBtrenaes (Moldobn) (200 kil. ; 
about 9 hrs. from Bergen) (see Bte. 
26). Hence the course is northwards, 
between the great VacigsG island and 
the mainland, and then over the open 
Ulsvaagt to the rt. of which will be 
seen the high coast of Statland. The 
8tr. puts in sometimes at Statt on the 
long promontory of Statland^ which 
juts out into the Atlantic, and at the 
extreme points of which are Kjcbt- 
ringen (1647 ft. high) and Staalet 
Thence the VanneJ/vs estuary (Vann- 
elvsgabet, in which are the islands 
of Kvamsd and RUW) is crossed, 
and one of two courses taken — either 
past Scmda and Flaavcer lighthouse, 
along the coast of OurskG and the 
Hareidland, and inside Rundd (from 
which a mole runs out to Hogsten 
light) ; or, inside the islands that lie 
off the coast of the mainland. In 
the latter casis stoppages ,, are made 
at LarsnsBB, Volden, and Orstenvik, 
before joining the common course in 
the Bredsund to 

AaleBund^ (312 kil.) This very 
picturesquely situated town (pop. 
8415) is the centre of the fish trade 
of the Sondmore district, and has a 
considerable trade with the Mediter- 
ranean, chiefly in dried cod-fish. It 
is built up and down small hills and 
around inlets. The views from it of 
the distant Langfjeld range on the 
S.E. are exceedingly grand. The 
- harbour is admirably sheltered, par- 
ticularly the inner one, which is 
quite secure in all weathers. A 
charming view is obtained by ascend- 
ing from Kipperviken (in the E. part 
of the town) a path that leads to the 
Aalesundsaksla. If the Aksla ridge 
be followed, another fine view will be 
enjoyed from a spot marked by a 

vane. On the N. side of it is a path, 
partly cut in steps, that leads to the 
new churchyard. There is a Pa/rk 
at the foot of the Aksla. 

The neighbouring country abounds 
in historical associations connected 
with the ancient history of Norway 
and her Vikings, and the legends are 
numerous and interesting. 

A little to the S. of Aalesund was 
the Borg, or castle, of Oangr Hrolf, 
or Bollo the Walker, a name he ac- 
quired because he was so tall and 
robust that no Norwegian horse could 
carry him. He was the conqueror 
and founder of the Duchy of Nor- 
mandy, and ancestor of our William 
the Conqueror. 

[Excursions.— 1. To Borgund oh. on the 
road to Sbholt. There was a town here in the 
middle ages. 

2. To GiBko, a small island 8 kil. W. of 
Aalesund, anciently the property of one of 
the most poweifol families in Norway, now 
extinct. The Ch. is of a species of marble, 
whitewashed. ** Yalborg and Aksel's grave '* 
is shown, and the view henoc of theSbndmbre 
mtns. is very fine. The island can be reached 
by boat in \\ hr. 

3. To VaUerS, in 1 hr., by boat. Tho 
^ongtheller cave is visited here. 

4. Another oave,B.3n8tadhalen, is on LepsS 
island, a little way N., the fishermen of which 
saved in 1886 a Scotchwoman who came 
across the Atlantic to this neighbourhood in 
a fishing-smack which had been driven for- 
ward by a sudden breeze while the master 
and crew were out in the boat.] 

[CtomcuNiCATiONB. — Local strs. mn hence 
to Molde in 6 hrs. For visits to the Indre 
Sdndmifret and the Oeiranger and IQdrend 
fjtn'ds, see next Boutes.] 

From Aalesund the course is to- 
wards the Haram group of islands, 
Valderhaug and the Lepsd islands 
being on the 1. Splendid views of 
mtns. on the mainland. Drdnen and 
Mien islands will be passed, and the 
Bekdalhest seen. The Moldefjord 
will next be entered, the heights of 
Otterben remaining to the 1. ; while 
to the rt. open the Tcmvrefjord^ with 
its fine peaks, the Tresfjord, and, 
farther in, iAxQRomsdal and Eikisdal 
mtns., the Troldtindemej the Boms- 
dahhomt the Venget4/ndemef the 
Ojurat Aagottindf and Skjorta 
(Evitna). The seaward approach to 


Route 80. — Bergen to Molde. 

Molde is of striking beaaty, afford- 
ing as it does a perspective, to the S., 
of the whole of the Sdndmore-Bems- 
dal mtn.-chain. 

MOLDE » (378 kil., by the direct 
route, from Bergen). Brit. Vice' 
Consul, Built upon a promontory 
on the N. side of the Molde Qovd, 
the town (pop. 1630), now the centre 
of the tourist traffic in this part of 
Norway (with a trade in fish), con- 
sists of one long straggling street 
along the shores of the fjord, with 
several handsome villas in the neigh- 

Its situation is almost finer than 
that of any other Norwegian town. 
It is the panorama of the grand min.- 
chain with its high pe£&s, already 
mentioned, that imparts so special a 
beauty to the position of Molde, par- 
ticularly in the first part of summer, 
before all the snow has melted on the 
mtn. sides and tops. The eastern- 
most mtn.-summit has an elevation 
of about 6560 ft., while the western- 
most is only half that height. Thus, 
sheltered from the N. and protected 
also from the approach of the raw 
air of the Atlantic, Molde has a 
richness of vegetation, in the matter 
of trees, flowers, and fruit, that sur- 
prises the traveller wheh he gets so 

A fine view is obtained from the 
large wooden Lejper Hospitalt a con- 
spicuous building to the W.; also 
from the Ch, which stands on an 
elevation. To the W. of the latter 
is the Dahl Villa, surrounded by a 
beautiful garden {Dahls Have), from 
which visitors can aiscend in | 
hr. to the Vane {Varden^ on title 
sununit of the Vardehei (1343 ft.) 
There is a magnificent view hence 
of fjord and fjeld. If time should 
not admit of this walk (about 2 hrs. 
there and back), the Raknashaug, 
close to Dahls Have, should be 
visited (in about f hr, there and 
back from the main street) . Beautiful 
view thence. The Vardehei (Varden) 
can be ascended from the back ck 
it. The top of Tmtm (about 2950 ft.) 
can be climbed from the E. part of 

the town in 3 hrs. Very attractive 
is the walk along the Fannestrand, a 
beautiful avenue running about 5 kil. 
along the edge of the fjord, past many 
pretty villas (including the Buen 
Betiro, with a well laid-out park). 

[Dritks.— A pleasant drive can be taken 
along the Fannestrand to Strande (9 kiL>, 
Eide (13 kiL), where there is an Inn^ and to 
Furset (9 kH.), where there is also an Inn for 
thoee who would like to Jlsh in the neigrh- 
booring lakes, dMJ. A fine view is obtained at 
Funet sater^ ascended from Eide. Another, 
THuten top (3250 ft) can be easily climbed from 
Furset, 4 kil. beyond which is Bmtte^fjordS' 
Sren, whence stra. run sefreral times a week. 
(in 2 hrs.) to Ghristiansund. Many other 
drives can be taken. They will be indicated 
at the hotels, where oarrlages and carrioles 
are procurable. 

The SBA.-FISHING — $ei (pollock), c<m2, and had- 
dock — is very good among the islands opposite 
the town. Native tackle must be procured, 
especially for catohixig m< in 30 tms. of 
water, with a hook baited with a piece of fish- 
skin. These fish run up to 8 and 10 lbs., 
and the labour of hauling them is somewhat 
trying, especially to hands unuaed to ziKigh 
work. GkxMl baskets of smaller fish can alwaya- 
be made with comfort in shallower water. 
A pUk line can then be used with gresif 
effect. The bait of this consiista of a piect 
of bright zinc shaped like a fish, with 2 
barbed projecting hooks that give the " pilk ** 
an anchor-like form. The fiffffering of this 
instnuBeDt imparts a fish-like motion to the 
" pUk," which the voracious ood, haddock^ and 
iei take for their prey. Travellers makmg a 
long coasting voyage should, if fond of sea- 
fishing, supply tlMmflelves with native ** pilk- 
ing" lines (.to be found in any Norwegian 
seaport) for use at the stopping-places of the 
strs. The regular Norwegian tourist strs., 
especially those that run to the K. Gape, in 
the mxdnight-suB season^ aae always provided 
with such lines, but they are too heavy and 
rough to be used in the smaller depths of 

CoMMUiriCJiTiONS.— Molde is the starting- 
point for the grand overland route through 
Biomsdal and Gudbrandsdal to Chrlstiania. 
(See Bte. 32 for an ezeursion to the Bomsdal 
and for the reminder of the journey to 
Christiania, Bte. 13.— Consult time-taUea and 
local notices respecting strs. up and down the 
coast and to the neighbouring' fjords.)^ 

(See the concluding Routes in this seotiioa 
for journal* and voyages from Molde).] 

Route 31. — Aalesimd to the Irmer Sondmore Fjords, 141 

BOUTE 81. 

(mebok), and HXLLESYLT. 

[Oonsalt time-tables and local notices for 
Bauings of strs. (almost daily). The strs. of 
yachting companies, and spe^al tourist strs., 
frequently visit the Oeiranger Qord. Distance 
to HelletyU 82 kU. ; 12^ hrs. ; 4.80 kr. ' Pro- 
visioM should be taken when trareUing by 
Imid in the S5ndm8re district, except when 
proceeding to a place where a hotel is men- 
tioned in the Index."] 

The Storfford is entered between 
? HareidUmdet and Siden islands. To 
the S. is a fine view of high mtns., 
among whieh is seen the McuddlgkleVt 
a peonliar rook-fissure. Steering E. 
from Sulen, the splendid Ejdrend- 
fjord opens out with a direction al- 
most S. To the rt. of the high mtns. 
is the JGnshom (4716 ft.), in the 
centre tiie Hommdalsrok, and to the 
1. the Jagta (5220 ft.) with a flat 

[There is special str. communication several 
times a week, in 6^^ hrs., between Aalesnnd 
and Bjerke^ at the head of the mdrendfjordy 
one of the finest and most interesting fjords 
on theW. coast, now much visited. The mtns. 
rise with mnoh grandeur in it. The E. shore 
is girt by precipitous mtu.-sides, crowned by 
ragged peaks. The str. puts in at Oie^ in the 
imposing Norangfjfyrd (Kte. 28), and, return- 
ing, thence goes round the Storhergnau and 
ascends the main Qord, stopping first at Vid- 
dal and lastly at Bjerkk.* Here a splendid 
view is obtained of the Bjerkehorn (4446 ft.) 
and the Tuuenut (4200 ft.)] 

From the mouth of the V^gsvfnd 
the str. steers in to 

Aure « (2J hrs.), at the mouth of 
the Sokelvfjord. View up the Vel- 
Uddly with its high mtns. and gla- 

ciers. The solitary Strihnshom (3245 
ft.) rises in it. Betuming to the 
Storfjord, the course is towards its 
N. wooded shore, and, entering the 
SolnGrvik, the s^. makes a stoppage 
off the flat, but wooded 

Langskibso, where passes the road 
(38 kil.) from Aalesund to Sdholt. 
Skodje ch. and its pretty sur- 
r9undings are a little inland to the 1. 
Orskog ch, is then right ahead, the 
Eawataddal and SOvikdal on the S. 
side of the fjord, and in ^ hr. 
from Langskibso the str. runs in, by 
a charming approach up a small bay, 

ftOEOLT. 39e This is a central point 
for the tourist traffic in .Sondmdre, 
and also a very attractive and beauti- 
fully situated place. Above the Ch. 
that stands on a wooded cape rises 
the Laupao' (4800 ft.) The view W. 
of the fjord is also beautiful, the best 
panorama, however, being obtained 
from a height that can be climbed in 
1^ hr. The views from Haukaas^ 
Steenholt, LUt and Nyh&e are all 
within an easy distance. A walk of 
4 or 5 kil. along the charming road 
that leads to Aalesund should be 

Wishing. — There is good trout-fLsh- 
ing in the neighbouring lakes of 
Brusdal (6^ kil.) and Storsater (16 

Shooting,— Byper are abundant on 
the Orskog fjeid, 

[Land CoMBfUNicATiONS.— 1. A road runs 
to Aalemnd through highly enjoyable scenery. 
The stats, are Flaate(W kil.) ; Rdtet (13 kil.) ; 
Aalesund (12 Ml.) Between the 2 latter is 
Borgund (see previous Route). 

2. The road to Ve$tnce» (Molde fjord) is 
muoh used in connection with the steamship 
routes, being an important link of the over- 
land routes bKBtween Bergen and the Norden- 
fjeldske disbdct. 

The stats, are : Ellingigaard (15 kil.), and 
then along the pretty Treifjord to Vestnoe^ 
(11 kil.), a beautifully situated hamlet near 
the Moldefjord^ with almost daily strs. to 
Molde and Vc^lungmcB*. Extra trips fre- 
quently made on Sun. by a steam-launch of 
the Hotel at Molde. If no str. be available, 
Molde can be reached by boat in about 3 
hrs. (12 kil.)] 

From Sdholt the str. proceeds 
S., stopping either at Aamdam or 

142 Route 31. — AaUswnd to the Inner Sondmore Fjords, 

VagBvik, close by. A road runs to 
both places from Soholt. Hence the 
course is up the Skotsfjordy which 
runs S. out of the Storf jord. To the 
rt. will be seen the SkotshalSi with 
Skotet farm perched on the top of it. 
After rounding a cape, the str. stops 
(in about 5 hrs. from Aalesund) at 

Stordalen. Opposite Rove (Stor- 
dalen) is a noteworthy cavern {** Li- 
mur*s cave ") that has not been pene- 
trated by any traveller beyond the 
100 paces made in it by the famous 
Bishop Pontopiddan, in the 18th 
cent. The natives have a prejudice 
against going into it. The salmon 
and irout fishing in the StordcU river 
is very good. Quarters good at Hove, 
whence there is a good carriage-road 
to Overaa (16 kil.) From the latter 
place Sylte is 9 kil., RelUngen 9 kil., 
and Ytterdal 7 kil., by boat. 

The str. next passes a group of 
farms to the 1. called Djupdalent of 
which the sceter will be seen still 
higher up. Beyond is a cliff, of 
which a large piece fell, 1731, into 
the fjord and destroyed the oh. at 
Stranden, replaced since by the Ch, 
and Manse that will be seen plea- 
santly surrounded. A mtn.-path 
runs hence over the Ljdfjeld. After 
crossing the Sunnelvsfjord, the Nor- 
dalsfjord is entered* Several farms 
will be seen at a great elevation. On 
the S. side of this branch will be 
passed Ytredal and BelUngen. Be- 
hind the former the Qevranger mtns. 
open out. Steering next along the 
N. shore of the fjord, with the mouth 
of the Tafjord to the rt., the mtn. 
called Syltendkken will be sighted. 
On its face is a geological freak, to 
which the name of SU Olafs Orm 
(" serpent ") has been given, from the 
serpent-like form of a vein of light 
quaxtz that runs through the dark 
mass of the rock. It must be seen at 
a certain distance or the illusion will 
be imperfect. The Valdai now opens 
out more and more, and after going 
round a promontory, on which are 
several farms, Sylte chapel will be 
seen in the distance, with Kross- 
brceken mtn. in the background. In 

about 7^ hrs. from Aalesund the str. 
stops in the Nordalsfjord at 

STLTE. ^ This is a place of grow- 
ing resort, especially as a starting- 
point for a journey through Valdalen 
to Romsdalen, There are also mtn.- 
tracks which are much frequented. 
The Tafjord, hitherto but little ex- 
plored, is well worthy of attention 
for its wild grandeur, which is per- 
haps superior even to that of the 
Geiranger fjord. 

[Excursions.— 1. The MuldaJfo$. A boat 
must betaken to (12 klL) KolcUu, as the str. 
does not ascend the Tafjord (a branch of the 
Nordalsfjord), and fairly good quarters are 
obtainable there. The fjord itself, wild and 
mag^floent, is alone worth seeing, one of its 
mtns. (the Storfjeld) haying a height of 
6900 ft. Theh&aeoi the Afulda^foSy reached 
from Muldal by a road constructed by the 
local tourist association, is the largest water- 
fall in SSndmffre (490 ft.), and one of the most 
interesting in Norway. The excursion win 
occupy about 6 hrs. 

Stueflaaten, in Oudbrandsdal, can easily be 
reached from Muldal by a mtn.-path in about 
9 hrs. 

2. Prom the hamlet of TaQprd (12 kiL by 
water) a bridle-path runs to 09erste-RSddal^ 
where there are several waterfalls, while the 
mtns. in some cases reach a height of about 
6500 ft. 

8. A bridle-path (15 kil.) leads from the 
same hamlet to KalunuBter, whence in 6 hrs. 
it is easy to reach Ghrjotli, on the road between 
Gudbrandsdal and the Geiranger fjord. 

There is good trttut-fUhing in the neigh- 
bourhood of the Tafjord, good quarters for 
the purpose being obtainable, more especially 
at a farm about 12 kiL above Tafjord. 

4. The RofMdca vift Valdalen. There is a 
good carriage-road from Sylte up the Valdai 
and Langdai to Fremre-Ordnning (about 21 
kil.), where the stat. is well kept. A guide 
is required for a tramp over the mtns. to Nees 
or Veblungsnces. The talmon and trout flth- 
ing is good in Yaldalen.] 

From Sylte the str. crosses the 
Dalsfjord to Bellingen, above which 
is a mtn.-top locally called 8t Olafs 
Sniishom ("snuff -horn"). The parish 
ch. will be seen here at the head of 
the Norddal. Swinging round a 
cape, of which the rocks exhibit re- 
markable cleavages, the str. stops at 

Ytredal (about 8 hrs. from Aale- 

[There is a mtn.-path hence to Orande and 
Maraak (about 6 hrs.) (see Maraak).] 

The Nordalsfjord is left after going 

Route SI. — Geircmger Fjord ; Maraak. 


round Skrednahken promontory and 
the Sunnelvsfjord entered. Several 
farms on either shore. Soon the 
head of the Geiranger fjord comes in 
view, and in an hour the str. on some 
voyages stops (on the 1.) at 

Lnndenses, at the mouth of the Oei- 
ranger fjord. This is the most in- 
teresting of the Sdndmdre fjords, and 
although the grandeur of its mtn.- 
masses is not equal to that of the 
Ncerd/jordt yet the forms of its preci- 
pices are bolder. In many places 
these make a sheer perpendicular 
plunge down to the dark surface of 
the water, from a height of about 
6580 ft. The traveller cannot fail to 
be deeply impressed by the majestic 
might displayed in this fjord by 
nature. Numerous waterfalls, seem- 
ing in cloudy weather to fall from the 
skies, and which in sunshine lave 
the rock-walls with gauzy spray, re- 
lieve the awe-inspiring sternness of 
the scene. 

The first small farm (1.) is Matvik, 
opposite which is one of the worst 
places for the dangerous and destruc- 
tive avalanches of snow to which 
this fjord is much subjected in winter. 
Many farms will be seen perched up 
on apparently inaccessible ledges, 
sometimes at a height of 2000 ft. 
above the water, and communicating 
with the outer world by a goat-track 
leading to the boat-house usually 
seen below. Children and cattle 
are frequently kept tethered on such 
farms, the principal resource of 
which is the bree<fing of sheep for 
export, chiefly to Great Britain. One 
of the first mtn.-tops seen in the 
fjord is (1.) the Nokkmibba (4370 ft.) 
with the Stabnrsfonfti or snow-fields. 

Beyond, on the same side, is the 
sharp-pointed Lysv/mibba, while op- 
posite rises majestically the Lang- 
flaafjeld, which in winter sends snow- 
avalanches down into the middle of the 
fjord. On the summit of the Hdrve- 
dragsfjeld a rock will be pointed out 
as St. Olafs KjodlaaVj or the ham 
of dried mutton with which he was 
so dissatisfied that he cast it away to 
the spot where it subsequently be- 

came petrified. St. Olaf reigns su- 
preme over all the traditions in 
Sondmore. To the 1. will next be 
passed the Knivaflcuafossene, water- 
falls that vary much in volume, and 
to which a modern traveller, who saw 
only 7 of them, has given the 
name of the " Seven Sisters." Occa- 
sionally, their number increases to 
9, whUe, if the Knivselvt out of 
which they rise, is not in much 
volume, only 4 silvery streams will 
be seen falling down the perpen- 
dicular cliff. Above them, the 
Qjeitfjeldtind rises to a height of 
5150 ft., the Qjeitlandegg, beyond, 
being only about 350 ft. lower. Skage- 
flaaen farm will then be seen perched 
on a seemingly inaccessible site, 1600 
ft. above the level of the fjord. The 
Skageflaafos (or Qjeitfos) is near the 
farm, which can be reached by a 
very steep and dizzy path. The 
splendid Prcekestol (pulpit) mtn. is 
seen before the head of the fjord, 
with the stupendous HoUmbba^ 
comes in view. The str. now stops 

MABAAK^ (Mbbok). (Compare 
Bte. 28.) 

\_Orjotliy on the way to Gudbrandadal, can 
be reached hence by a road (40| kil.) in con- 
struction (1892). A posting-stat. will be 
established at Langevand.'] 

[ExoimsiONS. — 1. Numerous conveyances 
await the str. to take passengers up the new 
road to FlydaZsdjupet^ a splendid gorge, or as 
far as OplcenikedaifS^iBxm.m very picturesque 

2. At about 16 kil. from Maraak, on the 
Juvandy is a Tourist-htU (Juvashytten, where 
excursionists can dine or sleep (2 beds for 4 
persons). It is a stiff walk of 5 'hrs. up, and 
3i to 4 hrs. down. Oladers surround it. 

3. The Stonoeterfos (2067 ft.) can be reached 
in about IJ hr. with a guide (about 2 kr.) 
Prom it is a splendid view of the mtns. around 
the fjord, particularly of the SacUhorn (6890 
ft.) There is also a pretty view from the 
StorSiray 6 min. walk above Maraak. 

4. The mtn.-path to Ytredal (see above) 
runs along the fjord from Maraak for 3 kil. 
to Grande (a steep ascent of 40 min.), whence 
there is a charming view of the fjord. From 
Grande a good horse-track leads to Indre Eide, 
on a mtn.-lake, with the interesting peaks 
of the Eidshom on the 1., and the Skaaren to 
the rt. Lower down, towards the fjord, is 
the great Monshorn (Grjofa). A carriole can 
be used from Indre Eide to Ytredal. 


BotUe 32. — Molds to Veblungsnces, 

6. When no str. is available, HeUetylt can 
be reached by boat in about 4 hrs., passing 
magnificent scenery.] 

The strs. regularly, on this route, 
return from Maraak down the Gei- 
ranger fjord, and in about 1^ hr. 
deposit passengers at the end of the 
Sunnelvsf jord, viz. at 

HELLSSYLT. « (See Bte. 28.) 

ROUTE 82. 

MOLDS TO YEBLnNosNJss (by str.) 
AMD UP BOMSDAiiEN (by road). 

[Strs. in 2| to 5 hrs., according to direct- 
ness of route. Fare2kr. (Ck)usult local time- 
tables and notices.)] 


(By str.) 

Grossing the Molde fjord, the str. 
reaches in 1 hr. VestxisBS, whence an 
£. direction is taken. To the N. is 
the high Scekken island, where King 
Haakon fell in 1162. The stopping- 
places axe variable, but those whi^ 
axe more or less general will be men- 

In the Tresfjord, QjermnmdncBS is 
touched at, and sometimes Sylte 
(Bte. 31) at the head of that 
fjord, and Vofige in the Borisdal 
fjord. From Norvikt the next stat., 
a road runs to Eid parish ch. and 
the Bddvenfjard, On the rt., a stop- 
page is made at Void, where a pretty 
valley opens out. A road runs hence 
to Vik in the Indfjord^ which is 
entered next. In it will be seen to 
the N. the Isterdalen mtns., whence, 
through a gorge, the Valdai can be 
reached by a path. 

Beyond, the Skottehammer, easily 
recognised by its peculiar form, 'will 
be passed to the 1., while to the rt. 
will be the Runebergt on the precipi- 
tous side of which is a Bunic inscrip- 
tion. The Skottehamimer or Skat- 
kleven (" the Scot's clifE ") is supposed 
to have obtained that name from tlie 
disembarkation, in the immediate 
vicinity, of the Scottish expedition 
(so-called Sinclair's Expedition) in 
1612. A monument to the peasant, 
to whom popular legends attribute 
the destruction of the Scots by lead- 
ing them into an ambush, will be 
seen from the str. on approaching 
Veblungsnaes. The Norwegian legen- 
dary account of this expedition, essen- 
tially untrue, will be found reduced 
to historical prose in Bte. 12. 

Some of the strs. proceed to Ncbs^ •)( 
and then return (when not steering 
direct for Sten^ at the head of the 
Isfjord) to 

VEBLTJN6SNJES. i( The Rauma 
river falls here into the JRomsdals- 
fjordy close to the hamlet. 

[Fiihing (salmon) in the Raunui, in the 
fjord (sea-trout), and in the neighbouring 
mtn.-lakes (trout ), good. Apply at the hoteL] 

This is a lovely spot in full view 
of the Bomsdalshomy and excellent 
headquarters for fishing^ duck-shootr 
ing^ mtn.-climbing, sketching, &c., 
and for excursions up the splendid 
Bomsdal and other valleys. 

K8B8 ^ (Aandalsn^s) is situated 
in splendid scenery, opposite Veb- 
ltmgsncB8t N. of the embouchure of 
the Bauma. The road to YeblungsnsBs 
turns to the rt., over a bridge spanning 
the Bauma, and is indicated by a 
sign-post. For a lengthened stay, 
this place is preferable to Yeblungs- 
nsBS, as it lies out of the bustle and 
traffic of the latter, and away from 
its noisy camp of military exercise. 

Anglican ch. service is held here 
during the tourist season. 

[ExcuBfiiOKS.— 1. A charming trip can be 
made hence to Kavlisceter (about 11 kil. there 
and back), and another to Lereimskleven^ in 
half a day. On the latter excursion a boat is 

Route S2. — Rorgjem; Flatmavk; Ormrnn. 146 

taken to ^hopvtt,.whexui9 a ooayegFanee oaa^ 
be used to Ijereimskleven and back. The 
splendid Waterfcdl at the upper end of the 
Itdal sboold not be n^lected. It can be 
approached in a carriole within about fi kil., 
and it is best seen from the rt. bank of the 

FUhing.—QrOodi ^rouZ-fishing obtainable in 
a lake about 8 kil. distant. 

Shooting.— l^loA whole of the neighbouring 
country lUffords good ptarmigan-shooting and 
reindeer - stalking. Apply locally. Good 
huntsmen available.] 


[Distance from Vehlungsnoes to Stu^aaten 
48 kiL ; thence to Dombaas in Gudbrandsdal 
(on the high-road between Christiania and 
Trondhjem) 62 ML The stats, are all « fast," 
and the posting-rate 15 o. per kil. Bennett's 
carriages and carrioles, at a small extra 
cliarge, recommended. A dil, runs between 
Veblungsnaes and Lillehammer (Rte. 12).] 

At about 3 Ml. from Veblungsnffis, 
at a bridge, the road from Nses (2 kil.) 
joins the great posting-route through 
the Bomsdal and Gudbrandsdal 
valleys. Driving thence along the 
rt. bank of the Bauma in pleasant 
wooded scenery, henmied in by lofty 
hills, the beautiful site of the old 
Aak hotel (now the property and 
summer residence of an English gen- 
tleman, who also owns the salmon- 
fishing at this part) will be passed to 
the 1. The Isterdal, with the mtn.- 
tops of ('W.)Bispen {"the bishop") 
and (E.) Kongen and Dronningen 
("the king" and "the queen "), (6606 
ft.), opens to the rt. At Fiva farm, 
which stands in a birch-plantation 
(4 kil. from the next stat.), the valley 
is decked with green fields, in lively 
contrast with the dark mtns. The 
Vengetind&r, picturesque but scarcely 
visible here, rise on the E. to a 
height of 6935 ft., and next to them, 
in grand dominion, is the huge Boms- 

DALSHOBN (6104 ft.) 

[Its ascent, first made in 1827, has been 
accomplished 3 or 4 times in recent years, 
and once (in 1888) by an intrepid English 
lady. With field-glasses, 3 cairns are dis- 
cernible on the summit. With a good guide 
the ascent (more dangerous than that of the 
Matterhom, and impossible after a snowfall) 
can be accomplish^ from the W. ^de in 1 
day. Experienced Alpine climbers can more 

[Norway — ^vi. 92.] 

easily reach the summits of the Vengetinder 
and Mj^nir. The latter is one of the steepest 
mtns. in Europe, according to Mr. Slingsby, 
who performed the feat of climbing it from 
Indre Dale^ a drive of 3 hrs. from iVie*.] 

The Troldtindeme ("troll peaks") 
rise to 6010 ft. on the W. side of the 
valley. The highest of them can be 
climbed by way of the small glacier 
seen before reaching Aak. Pieces of 
rock, large and small, are apt to faJl 
from the Bomsdalshorn into the 
valley, in which patches of snow are 
frequently seen in summer. The nar- 
rowest part of the gorge is entered 
before reaching the next stat. It 
seems to afford room enough only 
for the turbulent river. Travellers 
will be impressed by the shadows 
cast over the glen by the higher 
peaks of the Troldtindeme on 

Horgj em (15 kil. from Veblungsnaes) . 
Beyond this stat., in the vicinity 
of the high Mongejura (4230 ft.), 
close to Monge farm, is (1.) the pictur- 
esque MongefoSi which descends from 
that mtn. A number of small rivers 
and rivulets pour their waters, in 
beautiful cascades and rapids, into the 
Bauma, confined here between rocky 
walls 2000 to 3000 ft. high. Huge 
blocks of rock (some of which rolled 
down in 1885) will be passed, and 
with the Kors (Cross) c^., of which 
the steeple is visible to the 1., the end 
of the stage is reached, amidst grand 
surroundings, at 

Flatmark (12 kil.) A good stat. 
in a smiUng part of the valley, with a 
mtn. 3760 ft. high facing it. Except 
in dry seasons, water will be seen run- 
ning down the mtn.-aides in several 
places. The Styggefonnfos will be 
noticed on the 1., and beyond it the 
Oravefos and the Skogafos ; while to 
the rt. is the high (and in early sum- 
mer beautiful) Wntefos, On a steep 
ascent, the picturesque Vcermefos 
(about 1000 ft. high) will be passed 
on the rt. before reaching 

Ormeim (10 kil., pay for 11). Good 
quarters. The last-mentioned water- 
fall will be seen from a balcony at 
this stat. 


Route 32. — Molde to Vehlungmws. 

ri. With a guide, an ascent can be made 
here, even by ladies (in about 8 hra. there 
and back), of Storhatten (5937 ft.), and a fine 
view obtained. Nearly | of this is on horse- 
back. After crossing the Rauma, a track 
leads to the U, by the side of the Vwrmefos. 

2. A. mtn.-path leads to Sylte in Valdalen 
(about 12 hrs.) , ^ ^ 

3. Pedestrians can also take a track across 
the mtns. (in 6-8 hrs.) to Utigaard and 
Reiten* on the Eiki$dql vand, on which a small 
str. plies (2 hrs.) to Overaas, at the N. end of 
the lake (tolerable quarters). Thence a road 
leads to Mste on the Eritfjord (8 kil.), from 
which strs. run to Molde in 6 hrs.] 

Although most tourists return to 
Nffis or VeblungsnaBS from this end of 
the Romsdal, another stage is highly 
recommended to those who have suffi- 
cient time at their disposal. The 
valley remains grand in character on 
ascending it. At about 2 kil. from 
Ormeim a finger-post indicates the 
way, only a few paces to the rt., to 
the pretty Slettafos, which travellers 
should see. Beyond, on the splendid 
road along the bank of the Bauma, is 
the Haukaaen waterfall (l.)» while 
farther on is another, near Brudehu- 
len. Hence the valley becomes more 
narrow and wild up to the point where 
the UlvacL bifurcates and falls as a fos 
into the Rauma. By numerous wind- 
ings blasted out of the rock the grand 
Bjdmeklev ("bear's ravine"), form- 
ing the boundary between Bomsdalen 
and Gudbrandsdalen, is ascended to 
Stueflaaten (10 kil., pay for 11), 
the first Stat, in Gudbrandsdalen 
(2050 ft.) Good quarters. 

Fishing.— There is good trotU-tLshing in the 
OlvcM river, which falls into the Rauma not 
far from the stat. (about i hr. walk) through 
a picturesque valley, and forming several 
cascades. The fish run large. 

View.—Mne from Toppen (2 hrs.) 

From Stueflaaten, the road descends 
gradually from about 1000 ft. After 
crossing a heath (3 kil.), the BaanaaS' 
hoi will be seen to the rt. Behind it the 
Ulvaadal opens out in grand scenery. 
At a place called EinabUj St. Olaf is 
said by sagas to have rested on his 
flight from Valdalen. A MonoUth 
close to the road is the remnant of an 
ancient stone cross. With the Rauma 
always to the rt., some farms wiU be 

passed at Bad and an ascent made 


Molmen (13 kil.) Good stat., but 
not pretty ; alt. 1675 ft. LesjoksTcogens 
ch> close by. 

lFi$hing,~The best trout- fishing in Gud- 
brandsdalen available at this stat. for about 
an Eng. mile down the river, and in ttie Z^s- 
jaskogens vand. The same sport can be liad 
in Lake AursjG (6-7 hrs. walk). Boats can 
be hired there and fair accommodation pro- 
cured at the Alfsceter. Shooting good. Xliis 
can be obtained from the keeper of the stat. 

Excursions.— 1. The GrSt\fos, a small but 
beautiful waterfall, is within i an hr. walk:. 

2. The Storhb (about 6230 ft.), N. of the 
stat., can be reached in a few hours. An 
ascent of about 1000 ft. above the forest zone 
affords views of many peaks, all more than 
6000 ft. high. 

3. A mtn.-path through the Grtjnaelv valley 
leads to Skiaker {Aanstad stat.) in about 14 
hrs, (The track from Holsei stat. over Lor- 
dalen is, however, prefecable.) The journey is 
generally broken at Nysoeter (Storsaater) (7 
hrs.), and Skiaker (Rte. 12) reached the next 
day. The top of the Digervarden (ascended in . 
1 hr.) affords a splendid view of the Jotunheim 
(Rte. 11) and Rondane mtns.] 

Soon after leaving Molmen the 
source of the Bauma in the Lesja- 
skogens vand is reached, the road 
running along the shore of that 
lake, from the E. end of which the 
Laagen river issues, and where a 
halt will be made at the stat. of 

Lesjavserk (12 kil.), which is more 
pleasantly situated (a little to the 
rt. of the new road) than the one 
just left. Very good roomy quarters, 
the hangings in the sitting-room 
being of the period when the house 
was built (1736). An iron-mine was 
worked here from 1650 to 1812. The 
Lesjaskogens vand is remarkable as 
the source of 2 rivers — the Bauma, 
flowing to the N.W., and the Laagen 
(pron. L6gan) to the S.E. 

Fishing. — Both trout and grayling can be 
caught in the lake from a boat, and the 
trout-fishing is also good in adjacent mtn.- 

Shooting, — Good headquarters for reindeer- 
stalking. Experienced hunters, with dogs, 

Driving first through a wood, and 
then, on a sandy road, over a heath, 

Rouie SB.^-^Molde to ^ondhjeiAi 


the Lardal will open to the rt., and 
after passmg a few farms and wooden 
hoar£ngs to arrest snow-drifts, a 
Valley will be descended to 

HoLset (12 kil.) Very good and 
cheap quarters. 

[A mtn.-road runs off to Bkiaker (meDr 
tioned above under Mblmen), It is gradu- 
ally being made to Nyiceter. 

Shooting good ; huntsman and reindeer- 
dog procurable at the stat.] 

The road continues of little inter- 
est. It enters a flat valley, once 
occupied by the Lesjavand (now 
drained), and passes Lesja eh., beyond 
which 2 peaks of the Bondane mtns. 
are seen to the E. At Hattrem 
strikes off the branch road that leads 
from the next stat. to Vaage, through 
Slaadalen. A zigzag descent brings 
the traveller to 

Holaker (15 kil.) Very superior 
and comfortable stat. 

ITrotU-flahing and reindeer-shooting avail- 

A hranch road runs to Vaage (about 35 kil.) 
A carriole can, if necessary, be used on it. 
Pedestrians will take about 10 hrs. 

Another branch road runs to the valleys 
of the Jora, On Aur^6 are the Alficetre^ 
with a special house for travellers, whence 
8andvasladgen sceter can be reached in about 
8 hrs. From the Aursjo a road leads vid 
the Torbuvand (2900 ft.), where there are 
fishermen's huts, to Oksendalen. It is neces- 
sary to have a horse for fording streams. 
Ilafsaas in Orifvedalen can be reached from 
the Jora in 1 day. There is a carriageable 
road from Ojffra in Sundalen.] 

With the Laagen to the rt., a 
rapid descent brings the traveller to 
JoramOy where a stone bridge spans 
the Joray which rises in the vicinity 
of SnehsBtta (Bte. 13). Long zigzags 
through a forest terminate the 
stage at 

Dombaas (12 kil.) (See Bte. 13 for 
description and roads to Trondhjem 
and Christiania.) 

EOUTE 83. 

N0BDM5rE and the OBKBDAIi. 

(By road.) 

[Interrupted by several beautiful fjordSi 
this road affords the means of visiting the 
inner parts of the interesting Nordmdre dis- 
trict (hitherto not much explored by tourists), 
the fine Surendal and Orkedcd valleys, and 
many pretty places between Molde and 
Trondhjem. It also enables travellers sub- 
ject to sea-sickness to reach both Christian^ 
tund and Trondhjem without physical incon- 
venience, although the stats, on this route 
are generallpr very indifferent, and many of 
them not " rast." The route can also be used 
in sections in connection with strs. that run 
up the NordmSre waters from Christiansund. 
Total distance to Trondhjem, 228 kU. ; and 
cost of posting, with 1 horse, about 35 kr.] 

From Molde the posting-road runs 
along the pretty Fannestrand (see 
" Molde," Bte. 30). The old Avernie 
extends for about 5 kil., beyond 
which trees have been more recently 
planted on either side of the chatiss^e 

Strands (9 kil.) Bolsd island is 
right opposite. Continuing along 
the shore of the Fannefjord^ numer- 
ous farms will be passed in pleasant 
scenery as far as 

Eide (13 kil.), prettily situated on 
the edge of the fjord, on the opposite 
side of which rises the Skcuila mtn. 

[A road of importance to the tourist traffic 
branches off here to BatnfjordtSren (16 klL), 
Furtety an intermediate stat., being 9 Ml. from 
Eide. The total distance from Molde to 
Batnfjordsbren is 38 kil. (3 hrs.), and the 
stats, are all "fast." Fare, 3 to 5 kr. Christian- 
sund can be reached hence by str. (2 hrs.) 
several times a week. If a str. be not avail- 
able, drive to Oimnces (11 kil., or 16 from 



Route 33. — Molds to Trondhjem, 

Farset). The distanoe thence by boat to 
Christiansimd is 19 kil., but by rowing only 
(8 kil.) to Fladscet, and posting across (9 kil.) 
Fredd island, there will be only a further 
short row of 3 IdL to Ohristiamnind.] 

The stats, beyond Bide are 

Istad (9 kil.), whenoe a road runs 
S. to Eidsvaag. 

Heggeim (11 kil.) 

AngYik (11 kil.) The 3 last and 
the 2 next are not " fast '* stats, (pay 
10 6. per kil.) The Sundalsfjord str. 
touches here. A boat must now be 
taken across that fjord (also called 
Tingvoldfjord). Boating-rate 6 6. 
per kil. for each rower, and a gratuity 
for the passage to 

Koksvik (6 kil.), where the Sundal 
str. also puts in. Again a drive to 

Bolset (8 kil.), whence by boat 
across the Stangvikfjord to 

Stangyik (7 kil.) Good quarters. 
Str. stat. Hence a hilly road skirt- 
ing at a short distance the fjord, past 
KvandCy where a valley to the 1. will 
be entered. In it is 

Aasen (15 kil., 8 kil. from Sv/ren- 
<2aZsi>ren), which is sometimes reached 
direct from Stangvik. The road now 
runs up the pretty Sv/rendalj and at 
5 kil. is joined by the road from 
Surendalsoren. It is flat, but ascends 
occasionally from the Suma river. 
Ranees ch, will be passed, under the 
Honsiadknykf which is frequently 
seen on the next stage. Thence along 
a level, past Sogge, to 

Honstad (Haanstad) (10 kil.) A 
mtn.-path runs hence to the Trold- 
heim (Oaren) ssBter in Foldalen (22 
kil.) ; thence to Storsaeteren (15 kil.), 
where there is a tourist-hut. The 
salmon and trout fishing here is 
generally leased. The road runs 
principally along the bank of the 
river, its tributary, the VindQlay 
with the Kvceme, or SagfoSy to 
the rt., will be crossed, and about 
midway on this stage, on the rt. bank 
of the river, will be seen Mo ch. 
After rising considerably, the road 
sinks again towards the mouth of the 
Folia, flowing from the charming 
Foldal valley, which extends towards 
Opdaly forming one of the principal 

approaches to the Troldheim, THe 
stage ends at 

Kvammea (15 kil.) A mtn.-patli 
hence to Qaren, and the tourist-lmt 
mentioned above. Beyond, the JBtdJu 
river will be crossed, and the rt. bank 
of the Suma gained by a new road. 
A view is obtained of Bindalerv ch.., 
on an eminence. To the rt. of it, 
amidst pretty scenery, the Rinna flo^w^s 
down. The Qjdaa, another tributary, 
will be passed before ascending to 

FoBSeid (10 kil.) Tolerable stat., 
prettily situated. The new road runs 
past Ldfald and over the Suma. 
With the Tiaa to the rt., the low 
heights of the Surendalskog will be 
seen in the background, at the 
upper part of the valley. In this 
vicinity is the boundary between the 
prefects, of Bomsdal and S. Trond- 
hjem. Descending towards the valley 
of the Orklay the stage ends at 

Garberg (14 kil.) At a short dis- 
tance from this stat. the road bifur- 
cates : on the rt. it runs to Kalstad, 
and thence S.E. to Bjerkaker (Bte. 13), 
affording a viewto the S. of the Meldaly 
with the Orkla (good, fishing) flowing 
through it. Farms will be seen on 
the rt. bank of that river, under the 
shadow of the Meldalskog, The last 
part of the stage is made up and 
down hlUs of sand deposited by the 
Orkla. Horses are changed at 

AarUvold (in the Orkedal) (19 kil.) 
Very good quarters. Hence the road 
runs along the 1. bank of the Orkla, 
Mo ch. will be seen to the 1., prettily 
situated. Beyond, the Vomuiy Tonga, 
and Hauka rivers will be crossed. 
Landscape somewhat monotonous. 
After passing over the Siku-elv, which 
falls out of Lake Siken (rich in fi^h), 
a halt is made at 

Bak (12 kil.) Good quarters. A 
flat road hence along the Orkla, 
spanned at a short distance from the 
stat. by the Forve BrOy a bridge of 
9 spans. Orkedalen Ch. and Manse to 
the rt. 

[At Kirkesoeteroren, 20 kil. from Bak^ and 
accessible from Trondhjem by str., good 
salmon and trout flaking can be obtained, 

Route 34. — Molde to Christianstmd. 


especially in the SOa rirer and the Rovand i 
lake; also good shooting in fine mtn. 

[It is only 8 Idl. from Bak to Obkedai/- 
85iiBN* on the Orkedal^ord^ whenoe a str. 
can be taken to Trondhjem.] 

Travellers not yet tired of postixig 
will drive from.Bs^ to 

Eli (19 kil.) by a very hilly stage. 
EU farm is very prettily situated. A 
steep descent leads to the shore of 
the fjord, along whieh 4b a new level 
road to 

SaltnsnmandeH (10 Ml.) ^Rie stat. 
(tolerably good) lies a little way up a 
hill, off the road. Travellers can post 
hence to Heimdal (8 kil.), a stat. 
on the Christiania-Trondhjem rly. 
(Bte. 14), or drive direct by a new 
and level road, in 2^ hrs.,to 

ZSOKBHJSK. :(See Seotion m.) 




[I>iitanc«, U yXLi tinw, 7^ \m,i iare^ 
2.80 kr.] 

IPbe ^DOfine in HaeBi Wv, then N., 
when the JvUttnd is ^ntioiMd. Soon 
the large OUerO and the low Qossen 
islands ars piaased ^m ^Stub 1. and a 
stoppage 2na4e wt BinAy >on >the low* 
lying foielimd of thatnsme. Hence 
a VBtreiieh of opMi 4ea {frequently 
roujgli) hm to lie passed (a^ut 1^ ht.) 
This is the renowned and i«doiibt- 
el4e rodt-strew^i Mustadviken, Hhe 
Btemhest (S2301t.-) promontory, mark- 
ing the boundary between Bomsdal 

tmd Nordmdre, wiH be rounded, with 
KvWiolmen HgJU a little beyond. 
Witii ^ramgncn to the rt. the Bur- 
sMnd, is eortered, tm^ the <enfd of this 
route reached jCfc 

Consul, ^ThiB town (pop. 10,386) is 
built upon 4 ialaflsids — Kirkelandet, 
Nordkmdetylndkmdett and Skorpen — 
between which steam-launches main- 
tain communication. There is a 
pretty park on the first-named island. 

From seaward this irregularly built 
town is not seen until the narrow 
passage between the islands is passed. 
Its trade is important, for it exports 
about two-thirds of the entire Nor- 
wegian produce of dried cod, for 
which Bpain and Italy are the prin- 
cipal customers. 

There is nothing to be seen in the 
town itself, except the Waterworks 
and Reservoir (a pretty stroll), but 
from the highest point of it (Va/rden) 
a splendid, memorable view will be 
obtained of a sunset or sunrise over 
the op«i sea. 

About } kil. distant is the Brems- 
ncBsJmlt a remarkable cavern ex- 
tending 280 It. into the Bremsnads- 
hatten mtn. 

The 3 grand, and too little fre- 
quented, NordnUire fjords open out 
in the vicinity of Ghristiansund. 
They are the Simdal^ the Surendah 
and the Vmje (Hefone) fjords, with 
numerous branches penetrating far 

Although the immediate neigh- 
bourhood of the town has a naked 
and uninviting appearance, a trip of 
only a few miles in any one of the 
fjords above-named reveaJs scenery 
of which Hhe wildness or the beauty 
can weU be ranked among the finest 
in Norway. Some of the noteworthy 
points on those fjords have been 
noticed in the preceding overland 
route to Trondhjem. From Ghris- 
tiansund the following excursions by 
comfortable strs. running frequently 
are highly recommended. Steam- 
launches can be specially hired at 
moderate charges. 

150 Route S5. ■^Christiansu'nd to 'tromdhjem. 

[ExcuBSiONS.— The SunddUi/Scrd (aljout 
68 kU.. loDg) affords the most picturesque 
mtiL views. From OpdX^y where the str. calls, 
Nerdal can be reached by carriole in about 
t hrs., and it is onlv 1| hr. walk thence to 
IndercUa,* a mtn.-TaUev surrounded by grand 
glaciers and peaks. The neighbouring lakes, 
of much beauty, abound in trout. The Inder- 
dal, says Frof . Yngrar Nielsen, can be com- 
pared with the cdebrated Zermatt in Switzer- 
land, especially as 2 of its mtns. are yery 
much like those that tower over Zermatt. 
There are mtns. and glaciers that remind the 
traveller of Monte Bo^a, while the Jkdetaamj 
which rises in the middle of the valley, is a 
good faesimUe of the upper part of the 

The Inn atlnderdal is also a starting-point 
for further explorations. The Troldheim 
("Home of the Wizards'*) is quite a new 
tourist-land destined to supplement the 
Jotunheim, but as yet only accessible to 
pedestrians. A walk of 7-8 nrs. brings the 
tourist to Storli (good accommodation at the 
house of a guide of that name). Thence it is 
an easy day's walk to Fitkesceteren* past 
StorboekM (about 5000 ft.), from the summit 
of which is a splendid view of the Dovre 
plateau, while to the N. the open sea is 
visible, and to the S. the grandest peaks of the 
Jotunheim. The ascent is easy, even for 
ladies. It is a short day's walk from Fiske- 
sflBteren to Kvammen (see preceding Boute) 
and a day's march to EenneJm. The road 
to Trondhjem (Bte. 33) is reached at either 
of those places. 

It is a walk of only 6 hrs. (eas^ also for 
ladies) respectively to ffoaas and St&rfale 
(both in SundaleiO and to ToddUn^ at the end 
of the SurendcUsJyord. 

From Sunddtsdren^ at the head of the Sun- 
dais fjord^ a fine road runs through the wild 
and narrow SundtU valley to Trondhjem (see 
last Route), and over the Dovre f jeld to Chris- 
tianla and to Bomsdal. About 11 kil. from 
it is a magnificent rwiut iLilledalen) shut in 
by rocky sides (up to 4000 ft.) and with ragged 
edges towering perpendicularly above the 
bottom of the valley. Gk>od footpaths lead 
thence to Otsedaleny Eikitdalent Le^a^ and 
Dotre, past Aursj<5, a lake celebrated for its 
profusion of trout. The Lilledal is quite 
as grand as any part of the Jotunheim. 

The Surendals fjwrd is of a milder cha- 
racter. At its head is the picturesque 
TodcH^ a mtn.- valley, from the upper part of 
which the wild and steep ITeaastigen path 
leads through Neaadalen to the Troldheimy 
where the Fiskesceter (see above) can be 
reached in 1 day. 

From the Surendalstfren steamship-stat. on 
this fjord a good road leads through the 
charming Surendal and Bindeil to Trond- 
hj^n and Ohristiania CRte. 33). 

A good road runs from VinjeGren, at the 
head of the Vinjejjord through Hetme and 
Oktedalent to Trondhjem.] 

ROUTE 85. 


(By Str.) 

[Distance, 164 Ml. ; time, about 9 hrs. ; 
fare, 8.30 kr. ; by direct mail strs. Excellent 
local strs. run daily in about 11 hrs. to 
Trondhj^n, mostly avoiding the open sea, 
and touching at more places than are men- 
tioned on the course described below.] 

With the great Grip lighthouse 
some way to the N.W., the str. enters 
the Talg^G and crosses the open sea 
in less than 1 hr., keeping in view 
the high snow-fields inland. Passing 
next inside the low and bare island 
of Smdlen, a stoppage is made at 

Edd, witii Tyrha/ug Ught at its N. 
extremity. From this point there is 
a view, over Stabben and Ttcsteren 
islands (on which are some high 
mtns.), of Shjorta and other remark- 
able peaks on the distant mainland. 
After crossing another short stretch 
of unsheltered water, the str. runs 
inside the great Hitteren island (207 
sq. m.), on which, as well as on other 
islands on this part of the coast, red 
deer are found (see IntrodiicHon : 
" Sport ' ') . The shooting is generally 
leased. The broad channel now 
entered is the Hittersund or Trond- 
hjemsleden, A short stoppage is 
made at 

Havn, on Hitteren island. Another 
more or less open sheet of water 
(from which FrOien island is visible 
to the W.) is passed before going 
inside the LeTcsa islands and the 
island of Fosen. After passing the 
small Garten island, the str. stops at 

Beian, at the N. point of the flat 
Orland promontory^ along whiQh a 

Route 3b. — Ostraat; S/iisen; Trondhjem. 151 

road runs N. in the direction of the 
Aafjord (see Section III.) The 
Trondhjem fjord is then entered, the 
Ch* on Drland being on the 1. and, 
beyond it, dstraat, one of the ancient 
residences most frequently mentioned 
in Norwegian history. In the 16th 
and 17th cents, it belonged to the 
Bjelke family, a member of which 
was the well-known Danish chan- 
cellor. The present stately buildings 
(1655) are of an exceptional charac- 
ter in Norway, and are well preserved 
by their present proprietor, Mr. J. 
Heftye. A high, massive tower will be 
seen backed by a dark, bare mtn.-side. 
The SkjGren fjord runs up here to the 
E. from Agdenaes Light (rt.) The 
firth is locally called the Agdences- 
fjord. The course then is towards a 
pretty bay which runs up to Bitsen, 
where the large wooden Beinshloster 
buildings stand on a height sur- 
rounded by a park. Here are the 
ruins of the Bein cofwent, founded 
in 1230 by Skule Jarl, the only male 
representative of the powerful Bein 

race, descending from Tostig, brother 
of the last Anglo-Saxon king. It 
was suppressed at the Beformation. 
On the S. side of the fjord is a suc- 
cession of pretty, well-cultivated viJ- 
leys, separated by partly wooded 
mtns., while the opposite shore is 
more bare of vegetation. Some of 
the strs. put in at Bauberg, on a 
pretty little point, above which will 
be seen the large cluster of farms, 
(fee, called the Stadsbygd. Trond- 
hjem, sheltered by Oraakallen mtn. 
(1840 ft.), and the Sigdrdal, now 
come in sight. More to the rt. are 
the Vasffeld and the Hfjeld; and, 
crossing the mouth of the OrkedaU- 
fjord, at tiie head of which, above Or- 
kedaly rises a high mtn. called the 
Ovnjjeld, as well as a cluster of mtn.- 
tops belonging to the Foldal fjelds, 
ByncBset is rounded, Munkolnwi 
island passed close inside, the river 
Nid entered, and the str. brought up 
at the quay of 

TBONBEJEK^ (See Section III.) 




Heights -av Metres 
EngEeKM let. 

O S to %0 30 40 so 


A to $0 90 *0 to 







Section III 




[The names of places are printed in italics only in those Bontes where 

the places are described,] 

Boute Page 

36. Great Britain to Trend- 

hjenif by sea . . . 165 

87. Trondhjem to Stockholm, 

by rail .... 160 

38. Trondhjem to Namsos, vid 

Levanger and Stenkjcsr, 

by str. and road . . 162 

39. Trondhjem to Namsos, by 

str. . • • • f 165 

Route Page 

40. Namsos to Mosjdm ( Vefsen) , 

by str 167 

41. Mosj6en(Vef sen)to BocfcJ, by 

str 169 

42. The Lofoten islands . . 173 

43. Bodo to TnymsQ, by str. . 175 

44. Troms5 to Hammerfest . 178 

45. Hammerfest to Vd/rc^ and 

Vadsl) (Varanger fjord), 

vid the N. Caj?e . • 181 

BOUTE 86. 


(By sea.) 

[Thb North of Norway.— The tourisfc 
gtream to Norway is extending more and 
more to the N., attracted principally 
by the glories of the Midnight Sun. 
Other interesting objects for a visit to this 
remote and unique i)art of Europe are, how- 
ever, gradually being opened out by the de- 
velopment of stefim navigation, the ex- 
tension of roa^, and the improvement of 
hotel accommodation. With the exception 
of a few great salmon rivers, such as the 
Alten^ the Tana^ and the Pcuvik^ which have 
been known to British sportsmen for half a 
century, the flshable waters of Nordland and 
Finmarken are still but little utilised. Equally 
worthy of exploration are the mtns. (for rein- 
deer-shooting) and the lakes and rivers (for 
fishing') that border on Sweden, or that lie 
between the Norwe^an frontier and the Gulf 
of Bothnia. The discomfort of meeting with 
mosquitoes must be provided against in the 
manner suggested in the chapter on Sport 

Those who visit Northern Norway will be 
struck with the mtn. forms of the Lo/oten 
islands^ the peaks and aiguilles being inde- 
scribably grand. The scenery on the main- 
land coast is also stupendously fine, although 
bare and bleak. In clear weather, the great 
Fondalen snow-flelds are visible, and many 
superb glaciers will be seen branching dowo 
seawards. In the neighbourhood of Hammer- 

fest the soeneiy declines in grandeur, but it 
revives in another form at the N. Oai)e, 
which is but one of a series of dark headlands 
standing out as perx)endicular cliffs 800 to 
1000 ft. high, some of them being tenanted 
by countless flocks of every variety of sea- 
bird. The V03rage and travel inland give 
opportunities of visiting encampments of 
Laplanders, and of meeting many '* fisher 
Lapps,'* as distingniished from those who 
pursue nomadic occupations. 

But the real magnificence of Norwegian 
scenery cannot be explored merely by a 
voyage along the rock-girt coast of the 
country. It is to be found rather in the minor 
fjords that branch ofl! from or terminate the 
larger, monotonous estuaries. 

It is a remarkable feature that, even in the 
Varanger fjord, so desolate in appearance, 
there are branches that lead to lovely, wooded 
districts only a few miles inland.] 

[Voyage to Trondhjkm.— (Consult /n- 
troduction, local time-tables, and advertise- 
ments as to sailings and fares, which 
vary every season and each year.) The 
most stable line is that of Messrs. T. Wilson, 
Sons & do., of Hull, who run strs. weekly to 
Trondhjem. Special tourist yachts, Norwe- 
gian and British, also sail frequently from 
British ports to Trondhjem. The course is 
usually to StavangeTf whence the strs. ooast 
and have the advantage of the fine scenery 
described in Section IL] 

The distance from the Hnmber to 
the ooast of Korway in this direotioi) 

166 Route 36. — Great Britain to Trondhjem. 

is 756 Eng. nant. m., and the time 
ooonpied, inoluding a stoppage at 
Stayanger, is 70^72 hrs. The coast 
is made in the vioinity of Bre- 
tnanger and Stailcmd (see Bte. 30), 
ofif the entrance of the Nordfjord, 
about 130 Eng. m. N. of Bergen. 
With a rough sea, or in onftetfled 
weal^er, the regular strs. invariably 
isJui the inner Jead, JH. lof Bexgeo, j 
and coast along in smooth water. 
The scenery varies consideraiily, 3ird, 
while always interesting, is in several 
places magnificent. (See Sectien IL) 
Pas&ing under the walls of Munk- 
holmen, Sxe «tr. xeaohes Its m'oK^rings 

TBOin)HJkM.« iiat. ^<>35' 9r. 

l^op. 25,090. BrH. VUe^SonMl and 
Amen, C(m», Af&nU 

HiBTOBC'^'niig «lty^aitw the woond oapi- 
ial of tlie WngfJAm, was ^iuid«d on its pre- 
Bent site, near the ancient royal manor of 
Lade, in 99«, by King Olaf TrnvefisSa, under 
the name of Nidaroi (" mouth of the Nid "). 
It held an important plaoedn ^ady IToziwegiAU 
liistoty, and (3uu)ged its JDome towards tihe 
end <S. mm lAUx oent. te Trondbiem^ which 
ori^^n^Qy Implied a district vi^ted To^ a 
varieiy of Biisf artones that aneated all uk>- 
.gress. The modem interpretation of that 
pt^Twp . as ** the home of the throne " is there- 
tore as incorrect as the appcUation of "Bron- 
theim ''^ven to it In the days of the Hanseatio 
League, and still persistently reproduced in 
many publications. Falling into decay after 
the death of its fooader, it was re-established 
in 1016 by St. Olaf , who was originally buried 
on a spot whEore a wooden oh. was later 
ereoted And eveiftuaUy r^laoed.l»y an edifice 
of stone. TChis became, iJber many additions 
and alterations, the cath. and jaaetiopoUtan oh. 
of Norway. 

The importance of the city, as the rc^ul 
residence until the latter part of the middle 
ages and as the capital of Korway down to 
the time of the union with Denmark (14th 
cent.), decayed more especially after the Be- 
f ormtttion. In ISSS it was entirely destroyed 
by fire, while in 1564 ft was occupied by the 
Swedes, In 156K{ tislted by the plague, amd in 
1699 again almost laid in ashes. Another 
visitation of the plague occurred in 1600. 
The « Lehn" (fief) Of Tronffliiem having been 
«eded to Sweden in 1068, the Citjr was be- 
sieged and bombarded, with great damage to 
its Windings, by a Norwegiam army of 8,500 
men, to wWeh it snzrendered. Several other 
fires in the 18th cent., and conflagrations 
more especially in 1^841 and 1842, were disas- 
trous to the citizens and gave to the city the 
told, !modttni,'and TUiinterestlng aspect which 
the traveller will recognise in its topograpl^. 
7Va<fe.— In 1890 the principal Imports at 

Trondhjem amounted to nearly 25,000 tons 
in quantity, and to 64,000;. in value— one of 
the chief items being coal from Great Britain ; 
whUe the principal exports (dried and salted 
cod, dec., fish-oil, dto.) were nearly 7,000 tons 
in quantity and 78,0002. in value. 

TopoGBAPHT. — The city (see Plan) 
tyomipies a small peninsula formed by 
ihe ^winding Nid river, which bounds 
it on the S.E. and W., while its N. 
irottl Iteieft ^^16 i^ore of the l^cmd- 
iijem i^'ovd* It consists of wide, 
straight streets flanked by brick or 
«toine houses, mostly 2-storeyed, 
althoogih there aore several public 
teflldings of a more pretentious cha- 
racter. In the outlying quartecs 
wooden houses still abound. 

The ^eat market-plaoe (Torvet) 
occupies the centre of the city, 
tlurough which the Munke st. runs 
nearly N. and S., from the fjord to 
the cath. Tha/t ^eet is intersected 
ttt the market-place,' almost Bt right 
angles, by the Kortgrns st, which 
again runs parallel with the Dron- 
mngens at, ^and the Otrcmd st. The 
best shops are in the latter street. 

Sights. — The first step taken by 
the traveller is to visit the 

1. Cathedral (Domkirkey 

BefevMiee has been made above (under 
BUtorf) to the foundation of this grand 
•edifice, between 1016 and 1090, by St. Olaf, on 
the spot now occupied by one of the chapels. 
Hagnus the Good (1086-1047) raised a small 
wooden chapel over the grave of St. Olat and, 
soon after, Harald Haardraade built a stone 
clx,, dedicated to Ot\r Lady, to the W. of it. 
In 1160 Archbishop Oiestehi commenced the 
construction of a great transept W. of that 
ch., and probably completed it about 1183. 
<*St. Clement's" chapel was no doubt finished 
at the same period. During the next 
60 or 70 years the whole of the E. part of the 
present cath. was rebuilt, the chapter house 
being joined to the apse of the Lady church. 
In 1848 Archbishop Sigurd commenced 
the nave a&d W. end. As a cath. the edificie 
was completed in its full glory about the year 
1300. The effects of a fire in 1338 probably 
soon disappeared, but after the n^ct confla- 
gration, in 143S, the work of restoration was 
not equally w^ carried out, the country 

* Stotioe Is given In the local journals of 
1^ hottiB when the cath. is open to vlsi- 
tors. S>uring the summer they are conducted 
(bstween 12 uid S) by an authority on the 
various characteristics of the edifice. 

Route 36. — Trondhjem. 


having retrograded in material welfare and 
artistic taste. Another fire in 1531 ravaged 
the edifice still more, and the Beformation 
period was not favourable to the maintenance 
of the eccles. monuments of the middle 
ages. Moreover, pilgrims no longer brought 
their contributions in adoration of the shrine 
of St. Olaf, to whom, in the middle ages, chs. 
were dedicated, not only in Great Britain 
(notably, St. Olave's in London), but also in 
Iff ormandy, Flanders, Gtermany, Sweden, Den- 
mark, and even Constantinople. In fact, the 
shrine of the martyred saint was long one of 
the principal objects of pilgrimages in Europe. 
Further damage was inflicted by fires in 1708 
and 1719. These repeated disasters will fuUy 
account for the state of ruin and neglect with 
which the present eminent director of the 
work of restoration (architect Christie) has 
had to deal. 

Before describing the edifice in its present 
condition, it may be of interest to mention 
that competent authorities consider that the 
architecture of the oldest parts of the cath. 
is in every respect similar to, if not richer 
than, the best Norman architecture in Eng- 
land. The architecture of parts that are next 
in date, in Early English, is equally similar to 
the best originals, with all its characteristics 
of toothed ornament, water moulding at 
base, &c. 

Many of the old Norwegian kings of the 
11th and 12th cents, were buried in the 
ground covered by this cath., and 4 of 
them were crowned in it (1299, 1449, 1460, 
and 1483). Under the present constitution, 
coronation must always take place within its 
walls. The last instances on which such 
ceremonies took place were in 1818 (Carl 
Johan), 1860 (Charles XV.), and 1873 (the 
now reigning monarch, Oscar II.) 

The cath., cruoiform in shape 
and built of a dark slate-coloured 
stone of great hardness, locally quar- 
ried, stands at the S. extremity of 
Munke st., and, not only for its length 
(335 ft.), is certainly the most re- 
markable eccles. building in Scan- 
dinavia. The W. end, completed a.d. 
1300, with its 2 towers and a frontage 
of 125 ft., is still in ruins. Its archi- 
tecture was, like that of the E. end, in 
the pointed-arch style. Two or three 
stone statues of saints, which origi- 
nally adorned its fagade in great 
numbers, have alone survived, but in 
a very mutilated condition. This part 
of the edifice is used as a workshop 
during the restoration, towards which 
the Storthing makes an annual grant, 
supplemented by contributions and 
donations, to which no traveller can 
refuse to add. 

At the E. end, where the foun- 

dations are evidently not quite hori- 
zontal, the work of restoration was 
completed in 1890, and in the foUow- 
ing year it was used for divine ser- 
vice. This part of the oath, is 
now resplendent with its slender 
columns supporting the Triformm, or 
gallery between the vaulting and the 
roof, and the richness of its decora- 
tion cannot fail to impress the visi- 
tor. It consists of 3 naves, the outer 
walls of which, long crooked, have 
been scientifically restored to the 
perpendicular. On the S. side is the 
splendid " King's entrance," one of 
the most beautiful parts of the cath. 

The octangular termination of the 
Chancel (built 1250), now restored 
and exposed to view, had always been 
the most richly decorated part of the 
edifice. Its architectural details are 
remarkable for execution, beauty, and 
purity of style, as is likewise the 
new High altar ^ over which is a fine 
cast of Thorvaldsen's noble statue of 
our Saviour, the gift of the sculptor. 
The altar is surrounded by light 
pillars and open arches extending to 
the roof. In the middle ages the 
silver shrine of St. Olaf, ri(3ily de- 
corated with jewels, stood on the 
high altar, in the centre of the 
chancel. It was plundered at the 
Beformation, and in 1567 the body 
of the saint was re-interred, either 
within the cath. or in its imme- 
diate vicinity. A good view of the 
Octagon is obtained by ascending to 
the triforium by a winding stair- 
case in the small tower at the S. 
side, and a further climb brings the 
visitor to the " balcony," or beauti- 
fully arched openings in the wall that 
separates the octagon from the rest 
of the building. At the bottom of 
the same tower is St. Olafs Well^ 
the water of which is traditionally 
supposed to rise from the spot on 
which the martyr was first interred. 
The rich and graceful elegance of the 
octagon is best seen from the E. end 
of tiie cath., notwithstanding the 
nearness of the object to be admired. 
The exterior of the octagon is also 
very striking. 

158 Route 86. — Oreat Britcdn to Trondhjent, 

The 3 small square chapels pro- 
jecting from the E., W., and S. sides 
of the octangular termination, are 
masterpieces, now restored in the 
later pointed-arch style. Archbishop 
Erik Valkendorf's arms (1510-1522) 
are cut in stone in some places within 
the chapels. The " Archbishop's 
door" is at the S.E. angle of the 

Of high architectural interest is the 
Ghapter-honse {Kapitelet)^ a small 
building on the N. side of the E. end, 
connected by a passage with the oc- 
tagon. This is an unusually fine 
specimen of the transition period be- 
tween the use of rounded and pointed 
arches. In Fergusson's Architec- 
tuTBy it is described as the glory of 
the cath., and as resembling exter- 
nally our Early English in style, 
while in plan and position not unlike 
" Becket's crown *' at Canterbury. 
♦* Internally it is a dome 30 ft. in 
diameter, supported by columns ar- 
ranged octagonally: all the details 
correspond with those of the best 

The N. and S. Transepts^ together 
with the great Tower between them, 
are in process of restoration. The 
northern transept is in a pretty and 
perfect rounded-arch style, with a 
Triforiuvif and is well preserved, al- 
though most of the columns with 
which it was adorned have long been 
replaced by wooden supports. By 
ascending to the triforium, the great 
tower can be mounted for a good 
view. On the E. side is a 2 -storey ed 
chapel. The lower one is entered 
from the body of the cath., through 
a rounded arch richly ornamented 
with zigzags ; the upper one from 
the triforium. 

In exact uniformity, but not equally 
well preserved, is the S. transept, 
called the "Lagthing," because that 
popular assembly used to deliberate 
here in the 18th cent. It was long 
separated from the rest of the edifice 
by a wall, now taken down. Here 
also is an interesting chapel, similar 
to the one in the N. transept. It was 
converted into a mortuary chapel by 

Thomas Angell, a merchant of Trond- 
hjem, who bequeathed a large pro- 
perty to his native city. This part 
of the cath. is entered from the 
N. transept, through a small restored 

The modem Spire at the E. end 
will remain out of proportion with 
the rest of the edifice until the main 
tower is restored. It can be as- 
cended for a fine view over the town 
and harbour. 

Through an avenue of trees in the 
pretty Church/yardf a pleasing view 
will be obtained (from the N. door of 
the transept) of the blue waters of 
the fjord, the Munkholmen islet, and 
the mtns. on the opposite side of the 
bay. Close to the cath. is 

2. The Arsenal, with some remains 
of the ancient royal residence 
(Kongs-gaarden) and of the old 
archiepiscopal palace, which, with 
the adjoining grounds, are now oc- 
cupied for military purposes, the 
naval portion of the arsenal having 
been removed to Horten in the 
Christiania fjord. An interesting 
collection of old Norwegian weapons 
is shown here. 

8. Another large Ch. at Trondhjem 
is that of Our Lady (Vor Frue-kirke), 
of which some of the walls belonged 
to an ancient Boman Catholic edifice. 
It is in the Kongens gade, and is 
worth entering in order to notice the 
singular effect of the opera-box -like 
pews piled one above the other to the 

4. In a small " park '* adjoining 
this ch. stands a Statue (by Bergs- 
lien) of Fader Tordens^old, the 
famous admiral, who was born in 
this city, 1690. 

At the corner of the Munke and 
Dronningens gade is the Stiftsgaard, 
a large 2-storeyed wooden edifice, 
the residence of the royal family 
when here for the coronation or dur- 
ing a visit. As implied by its name, 
it is partly occupied by the governor 
of the eccles. prov. of Trondhjem. 

1. ^arteiv Gordon* 

2. CaAoHoChurclu 

3. A»tfe<toZ/ 0.4. 

4. LBorSalhtmb inttitut» D. 5. 

5. BiOurpsIbiiaoec. — D. B. 

e. CaOt^etrcO,. D. B. 

7. Latm/SohooV. _ _...D. &. 

8. Iheatre'lUhnceit / t \>a in /-...Ti. 5. 

9. iV]lio» Ofne» „.. _ ...C. &. 

13. An'irMr JBanA>- C: B.»JCriJ0n/AZbN>n4aiZI( C.6. 

IB.TEcftmo/.flbCeZ' C.4. 

16. Governor^ Ba>uf0. C.5. 

V7.Britaamia/BotA^ 0.5. 

Vi.BemJot 0.5. 

Vd.BaOtf r-wanrv).. 0.6. 

ZQ.Ptnxabo'BimJo C.6. 

ZL.GranJLHatei C.6. 

iZ.Ha^L ebAngJmtm-r* 0. 5. 

2&.St»etnvJGSftarv 0.5. 

ZA.FHyatB'HotA. 0A6, 

2hMotmLScanainai»» 0.6. 

1%4P^ yoffhap 0.6. 

Zl.RaOiyt^ StecOarv... B.5. 

2^StBam/Se»^hfai. 0.3. 

Z9.Iiatiaru£b School 0.3. 

ZQ.W€rrkhotu» 0.3. 

31 . Capanuruhi Mo^pUaL OJ).4 

BZ.Lunaiu>Aayhirni. D.4. 

SS.Houfgof Correctum/. 0.4 

3A.Ga» Worha D.4. 

dh.GooAlknqatarrLoiiLgmi D.3. 

36. MoTtuar^yChapelZ J).&. 

3 7. AraenaZ'... D.6. 

38. GymnaHiaBiaU D.5. 

39. Syan0j^H>theoary. 0.5. 

40.L^^v». , _ 0.6. 

41.«frfr. : C.5. 

^.(Jrneru , D.6. 

43.0ha«rvatary 0.2. 

44£rittt^no»Consulat». C.5j& 

^l^biiona2/Sch4>ot D.5 

46J20W Church/..... CJXa 

^yjUding SiJvoot D.4. 

4&.ToahmoaL.. . „ D. 5. 


Route 36. — frondhj&m^ 


5. The Boyal Norwegian Scientific 
Society has erected a building to 
hold its Library &nd Collections. The 
former is composed of about 50,000 
vols., accessible to the public. It is 
the richest library in Norway after 
that of the Ohristiania University. 

The Collection of Antiquities (prin- 
cipally from the Nordenf jeldske part 
of the country) is a very comprehen- 
sive supplement to the museums at 
Christiania and Bergen. It is open 
daily in summer, as is also the 
Zoological collection, in which are 
interesting specimens of the birds of 

A Stav-ch. (about 700 years old) 
has been re-erected in the grounds 
of the Scientific Society. 

6. Several charitable Institutions 
in various parts of the town are due 
to the beneficence of Thomas Angell 
(see " Cathedral "). 

The city contains a large engine- 
factory (on the banks of the Nid), 
several breweries, distilleries, paper- 
mills, and shipbuilding yards. 

7. The pride of the citizens is not 
so much in their public buildings 
as in the splendid works along the 
shore of the fjord which protect the 
new Harhowr. The Stats, of the 2 
Railways (to Christiania and to Stock- 
holm) are in the immediate vicinity 
of the harbour quays. 

Beyond the suburb of Baklandet, 
on the rt. bank of the Nld, the city 
is commanded by a chain of hiUs, 
and on one of them, about 20 min. 
walk from the bridge, is the old fort 
or citadel of Christiansten, erected 
1680. The ugly white powder-maga- 
zine within its walls is a conspicuous 
object from all parts of the fjord; 
there is nothing to be seen in it, but 
the ramparts afford a good view of 
the city. The military importance 
of the fort has disappeared. It is 
now used only as a saluting and fire- 
alarm battery. 


(a) Munkholm (20 min. by rowing- 
boat, fare 1^ to 2 kr.) (No permission 
required, but the soldier who acts as 
guide should receive a small fee.) 
This smaU island rock stands oppo- 
site the city, in the centre of the 
fjord. The fortifications date from 
1659. Canute the Great (1028) 
founded a monastery of Benedictines 
here, the first of that order estab- 
lished in Norway. A low round tower 
is all that remains of it. In a small 
gloomy chamber in it the prime 
minister of Christian V. of Denmark, 
Count Peder Griffenfeld (Peter Schu- 
macher), was immured from 1680 to 
1698, dying in Trondhjem shortly 
after his release. A small tablet in an 
embrasure bears the name and date, 
and marks the position of a deep rut 
which he made by pacing up and 
down, but the wall and flooring have 
been repaired. This fortress has been 
dismantled, and there are only a few 
men on it to attend to the lighthouse 
and to the few guns used for salutes. 
Some of the old cannon and gun- 
carriages are exposed. The view on 
all sides over the fjord from the grass- 
grown ramparts is exceedingly pretty. 
It is still the dark solitary rock which 
Victor Hugo has described in his 
"Hans of Iceland." 

(6) Lerfossen (5 kil.) Two beau- 
tiful falls, formed by the Nid, S. of 
the city. The lower fall — Lille Ler- 
fos — is about 105 ft. high. The upper 
fall— Store Lerfos— nearly 1^ kil. 
beyond, is smaller and less grand. 
The local Tourist Association has 
made a road by which these water- 
falls can be closely approached, 
and also built a tourist-hut. The 
salmon-fishing in the pools below the 
lower fall is sometimes good, and 
available on application locally. Fur- 
naces for smelting copper, chrome- 
works, saw-mills, Ac, are driven by 
the water-power of the falls. 

These are the best of the 8 falls 
which the river Nid makes in ita 
course of 24 kil. from Lake SeelbOr 


Bauie 37. — Trandhjem to Stockholm. 

It is a pretty exoursion up this valley 
and across tbe lake from Teigen to 
KvellOt and thenoe by land to Si^or- 
dal, on the Trondhjem fjord, and 
back to the city by land or wateor.* 

(c) To SsBlbo (Selbu) and Tydalen. 
This ezcorsion can be made in a 

couple of days. 

From Heimdal stat., on the Chris- 
tiana rly., Teigen can be reached on 
foot, or by carriole from Esp posting- 
stat. to Brettun (17 kil., pay for 21), 
both places being at tiie W. end of 
the ScelbO'Sjd, about 30 kil. long, on 
which a small str. plies almost daily. 

At the S.E. end of the lake, near 
Sselbo ch., are Marieborg and the 
Sslbo Sanatorium « (Kvello farm), 
much frequented for the salubrity 
and beauty of its situation, and for 
the cheap and good accommodation 
it affords. 

Hence the picturesque and well- 
cultivated Tydal vaJley can be 
reached. In 1718 the greater part 
of a Swedish army, retreating from 
Trondhjem, was frozen to death on 
the Tydal mtns. 

(d) Oraakal, a mtn. 1840 ft. in 
height, about 11 kil. W. of Trond- 
hjem, commands a fine view, and 
can be ascended (without a guide) in 
about 5 hrs. there and back. 

In addition to many others, charm- 
ing excursions may also be made by 
boat up the Trondhjem fjord, and 
also down it to the sea-coast, where 
the wild-fowl shooting is good. 

Travellers who, on going north- 
wards, intend to lartd on the coast for 
fishing or shooting, or for exploring 
the interior, should take with them 
from Trondhjem such store of pre- 
served meats and wine, (&c., as they 
may require. A few candles in the 
latter end of Aug. or the beginning 
of Sept. will be found of use. 

[For eommunieations with the N., and 
for the rly. to Stockholm, see time-tablea and 
the succeeding Routes.] 

^ For details of these and othw excursions 
consult the English edition of A Guide to 
Trondhijem and Us Environs^ published by 
the local Tourist Association. 

BOTJTir 87. 


(By raU.) 

[Distance to Stockholm 854 kil. ; fare 47 kr. ; 
time 59 hrs. Frmu the middle of Jane to 
the end of Sept. a through train runs in 
31^ hrs. The Norwegian section of this line 
ends at Storlien^ 108 kil. Fare 5.30 kr. and 
5i84kr.; time 4| hrs.] 

From the central stat., oLoae to the 
steamship quays, the line ccosses, by 
a swinging bridge, the Nid^ and soon 
passes Lade Gh. (1.) W. of it is a 
site of the: same name anciently 
occupied by the residence of the 
Earls of Lade, bat on it only a. large 
wooden buildiiog is now to be seen. 
Being only 3 kiL from the city. Lade 
is frequently the object of a walk, 
principally for the sake of a fine 
view of the fjord. The first stat. is 

Leangen (3 kil.), beyond which 
Rotvold lunatic asylum is passed. 
The hne winds along the bays of 
the fjord, on the opposite (1.) side of 
which pretty hamlets will be seen. 
A stoppage is made at 

Banheim (7 kil.) A cellulose wood- 
pulp-mill, a flour* mill, and other 
factories are established here. A 
short way beyond, the Frosten and 
Auran fjords open out, and after 
passing through a long cutting the 
train again draws up, at 

Malvik (16 kil.) With the Ch. of 
that name to the rt., the shore of the 
fjord is still skirted, with a view of 
the Forborfjeld (1936 ft.) and Stjdr- 
ddlshalsen to the 1. on the other side 
of the fjord. At the head of a bay 
is the stat. of 

Route S7» — Sommelvih; Meraher ; Starlien. 161 

Hommelvik« (23 kil.) There is 
a considerable export here of timber 
from Sweden ; also smelting works. 

[A zigzag road leads hence to Viken (12 
kil.) ; Fuglem (12 kil.) ; and Marienhorg^ 
on Selbu lake (7 kil.) (see last Route).] 

There is a lovely view here of the 
fjord. On the other side of the bay 
rises the QjevingaaSy under which 
the line, blasted out of the rock, 
passes. At the end of a short tannel, 
the broad Stjdrdal valley opens out, 
and the train soon stops at 

Hell (32 kil.) A bridge spans 
here the mouth of the StjGrdaU'elv, 
in which is good salmon-fishing (see 
" Sport," in Introdtiction), At the 
back of the Stjdrdalshals (2 kil.) will 
be seen the Forbordfjeld already men- 

[A posting-road here (N.) to Levanger (see 
next Route), and S. to Selbu (see previous 

VcBmes ch. will next be passed on 
the rt., and Lunke chapel on the 1. 
bank of the river, the 1. side of which 
the line follows, opening out striking 
views of the wide valley, to 

Hegpre (42 kil.), where there is a ch. 
of the same name. The line winds 
up the valley past several large farms. 
Contracting where the Forra falls 
into the Stjdrdals-elVy it widens 
again at 

Floren (57 kil.) Beyond this stat. 
the valley again contracts, forming 
occasionally recesses occupied by 
farms. Bivulets come down the sides 
of the valley, partly in small cascades, 
through deep gullies worn in the 
rock. The Reinaa falls on the 1. 
into the valley, which is very narrow 
up to 

Ondaa (72 kil.), where the river of 
that name is crossed. Beyond, the 
train is carried over the Stjordals-elv 
by a long bridge, and after passing 
through a tunnel it ascends with a 
long curve and, crossing the Lillea^, 
runs on to 

MERAEEB (81 kil.), alt. 720 ft. 
This is a very pretty and thriving- 
looking hamlet, with one